Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 2518
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Disease-modifying therapies in managing disability worsening in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal analysis of global and national registries.
    Sharmin, S ; Roos, I ; Malpas, CB ; Iaffaldano, P ; Simone, M ; Filippi, M ; Kubala Havrdova, E ; Ozakbas, S ; Brescia Morra, V ; Alroughani, R ; Zaffaroni, M ; Patti, F ; Eichau, S ; Salemi, G ; Di Sapio, A ; Inglese, M ; Portaccio, E ; Trojano, M ; Amato, MP ; Kalincik, T ; Writing Group, ; Italian Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Register and MSBase Study Group, (Elsevier BV, 2024-05)
    BACKGROUND: High-efficacy disease-modifying therapies have been proven to slow disability accrual in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, their impact on disability worsening in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis, particularly during the early phases, is not well understood. We evaluated how high-efficacy therapies influence transitions across five disability states, ranging from minimal disability to gait impairment and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, in people with paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from the international MSBase registry, containing data from people with multiple sclerosis from 151 centres across 41 countries, and the Italian Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Register, containing data from people with multiple sclerosis from 178 Italian multiple sclerosis centres. People younger than 18 years at the onset of multiple sclerosis symptoms were included, provided they had a confirmed diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and at least four Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores recorded within 12-month intervals. The primary outcome was the time to change in disability state: minimal disability (EDSS scores 0, 1·0, and 1·5), mild disability (EDSS scores 2·0 and 2·5), moderate disability (EDSS scores 3·0 and 3·5), gait impairment (EDSS scores ≥4·0), and clinician diagnosed secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A multi-state model was constructed to simulate the natural course of multiple sclerosis, modelling the probabilities of both disability worsening and improvement simultaneously. The impact of high-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (alemtuzumab, cladribine, daclizumab, fingolimod, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, ocrelizumab, rituximab, or autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and low-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta, or teriflunomide), compared with no treatment, on the course of disability was assessed. Apart from recruitment, individuals with lived experience of multiple sclerosis were not involved in the design and conduct of this study. FINDINGS: A total of 5224 people (3686 [70·6%] female and 1538 [29·4%] male) with mean age at onset of multiple sclerosis 15·24 years (SD 2·52) were included. High-efficacy therapies reduced the hazard of disability worsening across the disability states. The largest reduction (hazard ratio 0·41 [95% CI 0·31-0·53]) was observed in participants who were treated with high-efficacy therapies while in the minimal disability state, compared with those remained untreated. The benefit of high-efficacy therapies declined with increasing disability. Young people with minimal disability who received low-efficacy therapy also experienced a reduced hazard (hazard ratio 0·65 [95% CI 0·54-0·77]) of transitioning to mild disability, in contrast to those who remained untreated. INTERPRETATION: Treatment of paediatric-onset relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with high-efficacy therapy substantially reduces the risk of reaching key disability milestones. This reduction in risk is most pronounced among young people with minimal or mild disability when treatment began. Children with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis should be treated early with high-efficacy therapy, before developing significant neurological impairments, to better preserve their neurological capacity. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; MSBase Foundation Fellowship; MS Australia Postdoctoral Fellowship.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Anthony George Klein 1935–2021
    Finlayson, TR ; Mann, L ; McKellar, BHJ ; Satchell, DG (CSIRO Publishing, 2024)
    Professor Anthony (Tony) George Klein AM, FAA (1935–2021) was an outstanding physicist, university teacher, leader, mentor and science communicator. We recount Tony’s life from his childhood in wartime Romania, his early interest in mathematics, the family’s migration to Australia via Israel in 1953, high school and university education in Melbourne, appointment as a research scientist at the AAEC in Sydney, followed by a distinguished career as an academic, researcher and leader in the School of Physics at the University of Melbourne where he retired as Emeritus Professor. The memoir describes Tony Klein’s personal qualities, the influences and experiences shaping his career, his major research contributions and collaborations in the field of neutron optics and neutron interferometry, his service to scientific and medical organisations and recognition by the university, the Australian Academy of Science and the nation. We evaluate Tony Klein’s contribution to science, knowledge and higher education.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Regulating emotions about secrets.
    Bianchi, V ; Greenaway, KH ; Slepian, ML ; Kalokerinos, EK (American Psychological Association (APA), 2024-03-21)
    Secrecy is common and psychologically costly. Research shows that secrets have high emotional stakes, but no research has directly tested how people regulate their emotions about secrets. To fill this gap, we conducted an experimental study (Study 1), then moved to studying secrecy "in the wild" to capture regulatory processes as they unfold in everyday life (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 1 (N = 498), people reported using different strategies to regulate emotions about secrets compared to matched nonsecrets. In two daily diary studies (NStudy 2 = 174, 1,059 surveys; NStudy 3 = 240, 2,764 surveys), participants reported engaging in acceptance, distraction, and expressive suppression most-and social sharing least-to manage emotions about secrets. Moreover, in testing which kinds of secrets required most regulation, Study 3 suggested that significant, negative, controllable, and socially harmful secrets were associated with greater use of rumination, distraction, and suppression; perceived immorality of keeping secrets was associated with greater use of reappraisal; and secret discoverability did not differentially predict regulation strategies. Our findings indicate that when regulating emotions about their secrets, people appear to prioritize their intention to keep secret information hidden, despite potential well-being costs that may come with enacting this intention. Understanding the regulatory processes involved in secrecy is a foundation on which future research can build to identify ways of alleviating the burden of secrecy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Associations between multidomain modifiable dementia risk factors with AD biomarkers and cognition in middle-aged and older adults.
    Bransby, L ; Yassi, N ; Rosenich, E ; Buckley, R ; Li, Q-X ; Maruff, P ; Pase, M ; Lim, YY (Elsevier BV, 2024-06)
    This study aimed to determine associations between modifiable dementia risk factors (MDRF), across domains mood symptomatology, lifestyle behaviors, cardiovascular conditions, cognitive/social engagement, sleep disorders/symptomatology, with cognition, beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau, and brain volume. Middle-aged/older adults (n=82) enrolled in a sub-study of the Healthy Brain Project completed self-report questionnaires and a neuropsychological battery. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of Aβ 1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) (Roche Elecsys), and MRI markers of hippocampal volume and total brain volume were obtained. Participants were classified as no/single domain risk (≤1 domains) or multidomain risk (≥2 domains). Compared to the no/single domain risk group, the multidomain risk group performed worse on the Preclinical Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (d=0.63, p=.005), and Executive Function (d=0.50, p=.016), and had increased p-tau181 (d=0.47, p=.042) and t-tau (d=0.54, p=.021). In middle-aged/older adults, multidomain MDRFs were related to increases in tau and worse cognition, but not Aβ or brain volume. Findings suggest that increases in AD biomarkers are apparent in midlife, particularly for individuals with greater burden, or variety of MDRFs.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Changing your mind about the data: Updating sampling assumptions in inductive inference
    Hayes, BK ; Pham, J ; Lee, J ; Perfors, A ; Ransom, K ; Desai, SC (ELSEVIER, 2024-04)
    When people use samples of evidence to make inferences, they consider both the sample contents and how the sample was generated ("sampling assumptions"). The current studies examined whether people can update their sampling assumptions - whether they can revise a belief about sample generation that is discovered to be incorrect, and reinterpret old data in light of the new belief. We used a property induction task where learners saw a sample of instances that shared a novel property and then inferred whether it generalized to other items. Assumptions about how the sample was selected were manipulated between conditions: in the property sampling frame condition, items were selected because they shared a property, while in the category sampling frame condition, items were selected because they belonged to a particular category. Experiment 1 found that these frames affected patterns of property generalization regardless of whether they were presented before or after the sample data was observed: in both cases, generalization was narrower under a property than a category frame. In Experiments 2 and 3, an initial category or property frame was presented before the sample, and was later retracted and replaced with the complementary frame. Learners were able to update their beliefs about sample generation, basing their property generalization on the more recent correct frame. These results show that learners can revise incorrect beliefs about data selection and adjust their inductive inferences accordingly.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Understanding cannabis use and mental health difficulties in context with women's experiences of stressful events and social health issues in pregnancy: The Aboriginal Families Study.
    Mensah, FK ; Glover, K ; Leane, C ; Gartland, D ; Nikolof, A ; Clark, Y ; Gee, G ; Brown, SJ (Elsevier BV, 2024-05)
    BACKGROUND: Few population-based data sources fully recognise the intersections between stressful events, social health issues, and cannabis use in pregnancy, and little is known about sequelae for women's mental health. METHODS: We draw on two waves of population-based data for 344 families participating in the Aboriginal Families Study longitudinal cohort. We examine women's mental health in the first year postpartum and when children were aged 5-9 years in context with life experiences and use of cannabis in pregnancy. OUTCOMES: One in five women (19·5%) used cannabis during pregnancy (with or without co-use of tobacco). Within this group of women, 88·3% experienced 3 or more (3+) stressful events or social health issues. Psychological distress (Kessler-5 scale, K-5) in the year postpartum was substantially higher amongst women who had used cannabis or experienced 3+ stressful events or social health issues. High proportions of women met criteria for support and referral for depression and/or anxiety (52·5% of women who had used cannabis compared to 20·9% amongst women who had neither used cannabis nor tobacco; 43·2% of women who had experienced 3+ stressful events or social health issues compared to 15·6% amongst women who had not indicated these experiences). Similar patterns of psychological distress, depressive (9-item adapted Personal Health Questionnaire, aPHQ-9) and anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder score, GAD-7) were evident when the study children were aged 5-9 years. INTERPRETATION: Amongst women who had used cannabis in pregnancy, a high burden of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety is evident in the postpartum period and as their children turn 5-9 years. The overlay of stressful events and social health issues and the high proportion of women meeting criteria for referral for mental health assessment and support indicate an urgent need to offer women opportunities for safe disclosure of cannabis use and opportunities to access sustained holistic services. Reducing the harms of cannabis use on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families must be coupled with culturally safe ways of addressing the social, historical, and structural determinants of mental health distress and harmful use of substances.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Are we really Bayesian? Probabilistic inference shows sub-optimal knowledge transfer
    Lin, C-HS ; Do, TT ; Unsworth, L ; Garrido, MI ; Marinazzo, D (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2024-01)
    Numerous studies have found that the Bayesian framework, which formulates the optimal integration of the knowledge of the world (i.e. prior) and current sensory evidence (i.e. likelihood), captures human behaviours sufficiently well. However, there are debates regarding whether humans use precise but cognitively demanding Bayesian computations for behaviours. Across two studies, we trained participants to estimate hidden locations of a target drawn from priors with different levels of uncertainty. In each trial, scattered dots provided noisy likelihood information about the target location. Participants showed that they learned the priors and combined prior and likelihood information to infer target locations in a Bayes fashion. We then introduced a transfer condition presenting a trained prior and a likelihood that has never been put together during training. How well participants integrate this novel likelihood with their learned prior is an indicator of whether participants perform Bayesian computations. In one study, participants experienced the newly introduced likelihood, which was paired with a different prior, during training. Participants changed likelihood weighting following expected directions although the degrees of change were significantly lower than Bayes-optimal predictions. In another group, the novel likelihoods were never used during training. We found people integrated a new likelihood within (interpolation) better than the one outside (extrapolation) the range of their previous learning experience and they were quantitatively Bayes-suboptimal in both. We replicated the findings of both studies in a validation dataset. Our results showed that Bayesian behaviours may not always be achieved by a full Bayesian computation. Future studies can apply our approach to different tasks to enhance the understanding of decision-making mechanisms.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Dehumanization and mental health
    Haslam, N (Wiley, 2024-06)
    Dehumanization is a fearsome word, calling to mind the gravest atrocities of the past and present. People seen as less than human have suffered and suffer violence, deprivation, exclusion and dispossession, and that suffering has been and is routinely ignored or minimized. However, although dehumanization is usually understood as an extreme phenomenon confined to wars, genocides and conquests, it falls on a spectrum. Two decades of social psychological research have shown that it has significant repercussions in everyday life.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Mice with an autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin-3 show a cautious but accurate response style in touchscreen attention tasks
    Burrows, EL ; May, C ; Hill, T ; Churliov, L ; Johnson, KA ; Hannan, AJ (WILEY, 2022-01)
    One of the earliest identifiable features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is altered attention. Mice expressing the ASD-associated R451C mutation in synaptic adhesion protein neuroligin-3 (NL3) exhibit impaired reciprocal social interactions and repetitive and restrictive behaviours. The role of this mutation in attentional abnormalities has not been established. We assessed attention in male NL3R451C mice using two well-established tasks in touchscreen chambers. In the 5-choice serial reaction task, rodents were trained to attend to light stimuli that appear in any one of five locations. While no differences between NL3R451C and WT mice were seen in accuracy or omissions, slower response times and quicker reward collection latencies were seen across all training and probe trials. In the rodent continuous-performance test, animals were required to discriminate, and identify a visual target pattern over multiple distractor stimuli. NL3R451C mice displayed enhanced ability to attend to stimuli when task-load was low during training and baseline but lost this advantage when difficulty was increased by altering task parameters in probe trials. NL3R451C mice made less responses to the distractor stimuli, exhibiting lower false alarm rates during all training stages and in probe trials. Slower response times and quicker reward latencies were consistently seen in NL3R451C mice in the rCPT. Slower response times are a major cognitive phenotype reported in ASD patients and are indicative of slower processing speed. Enhanced attention has been shown in a subset of ASD patients and we have demonstrated this phenotype also exists in the NL3R451C mouse model.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Mindfulness Teacher Trainees' Experiences (MTTE): An investigation of intense experiences in mindfulness-based interventions.
    Jönhagen, E ; Wood, T ; Niemi, M ; Galante, J ; Petkari, E (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2024)
    With the increasing interest in mindfulness practices within clinical as well as non-clinical settings and the increasing body of research on the positive effects of mindfulness, concerns have been raised that mindfulness might also produce adverse effects including intense experiences and psychosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if intense experiences occur as a natural part of mindfulness practice, and if so to examine the characteristics of such experiences. We conducted a qualitative analysis based on fortnightly meditation reports from 13 mindfulness teacher trainees for 4 months. Intense experiences in meditation were frequently expressed in the reports of most of the practitioners and in some individuals these experiences were similar to psychotic-like experiences. This study presents suggestive evidence that mindfulness practices can produce intense experiences and that for some individuals these intense experiences may resemble psychotic-like experiences.