Radiology - Research Publications

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    PEDAL protocol: a prospective single-arm paired comparison of multiparametric MRI and 18F-DCPFyl PSMA PET/CT to diagnose prostate cancer
    Tran, V ; Hong, A ; Sutherland, T ; Taubman, K ; Lee, S-F ; Lenaghan, D ; Sethi, K ; Corcoran, NM ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Woo, H ; Tarlinton, L ; Bolton, D ; Spelman, T ; Thomas, L ; Booth, R ; Hegarty, J ; Perry, E ; Wong, L-M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) has emerged as valuable imaging to assessing metastatic disease in prostate malignancy. However, there has been limited studies exploring the utility PSMA-PET as primary imaging assessing for index lesions prior to biopsy. The primary objective of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18-fluorine PSMA (18F DCFPyL PSMA) PET scans to multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to detect primary prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PEDAL trial is a multicentre, prospective, single-arm, paired comparison, non-randomised phase III trial in subjects considered for diagnostic prostate biopsy. Subjects who are eligible for a diagnostic mpMRI prostate will undergo additional same-day 18 F DCFPyl PSMA PET/CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Software coregistration of the mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT images will be performed. The reporting of the mpMRI prostate, PSMA-PET/CT and PSMA PET/MRI coregistration will be performed blinded. The diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT alone, and in combination with mpMRI, to detect prostate cancer will be assessed. Histopathology at prostate biopsy will be used as the reference standard. Sample size calculations estimate that 240 subjects will need to be recruited to demonstrate 20% superiority of PSMA-PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combination of mpMRI prostate and PSMA PET/CT compared with targeted and systematic prostate biopsy will be evaluated. It is hypothesised that PSMA PET/CT combined with mpMRI prostate will have improved diagnostic accuracy compared with mpMRI prostate alone for detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men, resulting in a significant impact on patient management. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the independent Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals with eligible investigators will significantly contribute. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000261910.
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    Verbal notification of radiology results: are radiologists meeting expectations?
    Preece, E ; Whitchurch, M ; Sutherland, T (Wiley, 2022-08)
    BACKGROUND: Delayed communication of radiographic findings is associated with poor patient outcomes and significant medicolegal risk. Radiologists verbally contact referring practitioners with urgent findings, although practitioner's expectations regarding notification have rarely been examined. AIM: To assess differences in preferred practice between radiologists and referring practitioners in the verbal communication of urgent radiology findings. METHODS: For 33 clinical stems, respondents were asked if they would issue (radiologists) or expect to receive (referring practitioners) verbal notification of results or routine written communication only. Surveys were emailed to radiologists and referring practitioners of varying experience at a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Victoria. RESULTS: A total of 97 survey responses was received. Eighty responses were from referring practitioners and 17 from radiologists. Referring practitioners were seen to slightly prefer verbal notification more often than issued by radiologists overall (61%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 57-66% verbal notification expected vs 58%; 95% CI 52-64% issued). More senior referring practitioners with greater than 10 years' experience expected verbal notification more often (67%; 95% CI 59-75%), and more senior radiologists issued verbal reports less often (54%; 95% CI 39-69%). More junior referring practitioners, for example, registrars or fellows, expected notification less often overall (59%; 95% CI 43-76%). Subgroup analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences in notification preferences for certain clinical scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Overall results show fair correlation between referrer's expectations of verbal notification and the provision of verbal notification by radiologists. However, there were discrepancies in the practice and preferences of more junior and senior practitioners in certain clinical scenarios.
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    Macroscopic fat containing renal cell carcinoma
    Kirkinis, M ; Sutherland, T (WILEY, 2021-03-05)
    Renal masses containing macroscopic fat traditionally are pathognomonic for angiomyolipoma, a benign tumour. We describe two cases contrary to this axiom, the first being initially referred for angioembolisation, but subsequently biopsied when it was angiographically occult, whilst the second case showed a small macroscopic fat component and arterial enhancement prompting biopsy. Neither of these two cases demonstrated calcification which would usually suggest a more sinister lesion requiring further workup. The results demonstrated renal cell carcinoma for both lesions. Our multidisciplinary meeting approach to renal masses with a small amount of macroscopic fat and no calcifications has now changed.
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    Combination of MRI prostate and 18F-DCFPyl PSMA PET/CT detects all clinically significant prostate cancers in treatment-naive patients: An international multicentre retrospective study
    Parathithasan, N ; Perry, E ; Taubman, K ; Hegarty, J ; Talwar, A ; Wong, L-M ; Sutherland, T (WILEY, 2022-02-16)
    INTRODUCTION: Clinical and biochemical assessment and biopsies can miss clinically significant prostate cancers (csPCa) in up to 20% of patients and diagnose clinically insignificant tumours leading to overtreatment. This retrospective study analyses the accuracy of 18 F-DCFPyL PET/CT in detecting csPCa as a primary diagnostic tool and directly compares it with mpMRI prostate in treatment-naive patients. The two modalities are then correlated to determine whether they are better in combination, than either alone. METHODS: This is a retrospective dual-institution study of patients who underwent contemporaneous MRI and PSMA-PET between January 2017 and March 2020 with histologic confirmation. The images were re-reviewed and concordance between modalities assessed. Results were compared with histopathology to determine the ability of MRI and PSMA-PET to detect csPCA. RESULTS: MRI and PSMA-PET detected the same index lesion in 90.8% of cases with a kappa of 0.82. PET detected an additional 6.2% of index lesions which were MRI occult. MRI detected an additional 3.1% which were PET occult. No additional csPCa was identified on pathology which was not seen on imaging. The sensitivity of PSMA-PET in detecting csPCa is 96.7% and that of MRI is 93.4% with no statistically significant difference between the two (P = 0.232). Both modalities detected all four cases of non-csPCa with these being considered false positives. CONCLUSION: Both mpMRI and 18F-DCFPyL-PSMA-PET/CT have high sensitivity for detecting csPCa with high agreement between modalities. There were no synchronous csPCa lesions detected on pathology that were not detected on imaging too.
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    Non-prostate cancer tumours: incidence on 18F-DCFPyL PSMA PET/CT and uptake characteristics in 1445 patients.
    Perry, E ; Talwar, A ; Sharma, S ; O'Connor, D ; Wong, L-M ; Taubman, K ; Sutherland, TR (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-07)
    PURPOSE: With increasing use of PSMA PET/CT in the staging and restaging of prostate cancer (PCa), the identification of non-prostate cancer tumours (NPCaT) has become an increasing clinical dilemma. Atypical presentations of PSMA expression in prostate cancer and expression in NPCaT are not well established. Understanding the normal and abnormal distribution of PSMA expression is essential in preparing clinically relevant reports and in guiding multidisciplinary discussion and decisions. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1445 consecutive 18F-DCFPyL PSMA PET/CT studies by experienced radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Lesions indeterminate for PCa were identified. Correlation was made with patient records, biopsy results, and dedicated imaging. Lesions were then categorized into four groups: 1. Confirmed prostate cancer, metastases, 2. NPCaT 3. Benign, and 4. Indeterminate lesions. RESULTS: 68/1445 patients had lesions atypical for prostate cancer metastases. These comprised 8/68 (11.8%) atypical prostate cancer metastases, 17/68 (25.0%) NPCaT, 29/68 (42.6%) indeterminate, and 14/68 (20.6%) benign. In the context of the entire cohort, these are adjusted to 8/1445 (0.6%), 17/1445 (1.2%), 29/1445 (2.0%), and 14/1445 (1.0%) respectively. With the exception of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), NPCaT demonstrated no or low PSMA expression. A similar trend was also observed for indeterminate and benign lesions. Conversely, most atypical PCa metastases demonstrated intermediate or high PSMA expression. CONCLUSION: 18F-DCFPyL PSMA PET/CT detection of NPCaT is low. Lesions demonstrating intermediate to high PSMA expression were exclusively prostate cancer metastases, aside from RCC, and lesions detected in organs with high background expression.
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    Superior mesenteric vein tumour thrombus in a patient with caecal adenocarcinoma: a rare and important finding.
    Trivedi, J ; Bouwer, H ; Sutherland, T (British Institute of Radiology, 2021-04-01)
    Venous tumour thrombosis refers to the invasion of tumour into the venous system. Extramural venous invasion is routinely searched for and reported in rectal carcinoma due to its prognostic significance and influence on staging, prognosis and treatment approach. We describe a case of extramural venous invasion occurring as superior mesenteric vein tumour thrombus in the setting of a caecal carcinoma.
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    The inferior vena cava: anatomical variants and acquired pathologies
    Li, SJ ; Lee, J ; Hall, J ; Sutherland, TR (SPRINGER, 2021-08-30)
    The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the body, draining blood from the abdomen, pelvis and lower extremities. This pictorial review summarises normal anatomy and embryological development of the IVC. In addition, we highlight a wide range of anatomical variants, acquired pathologies and a common pitfall in imaging of the IVC. This information is essential for clinical decision making and to reduce misdiagnosis.
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    Complications of renal interventions: a pictorial review of CT findings.
    Lee, JSZ ; Hall, J ; Sutherland, T (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-18)
    A number of potential vascular and non-vascular complications can arise from surgical, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, radiotherapy and radiological renal interventions, including percutaneous image-guided biopsy and drainage. Computed tomography scan is usually one of the first and most important diagnostic imaging examinations requested when a potential complication is suspected. There are a wide range of common and uncommon potential complications from renal interventions. An understanding of underlying risk factors is important to reduce potential complications from renal intervention. Radiologists play a crucial role in recognising and diagnosing post-renal intervention complications on computed tomography scans, which could significantly improve the patient's prognosis.
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    Incidental findings in and around the prostate on prostate MRI: a pictorial review.
    Trivedi, J ; Sutherland, T ; Page, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-03-18)
    Prostate MRI has seen rapid growth in use in recent years as an advanced diagnostic modality to detect focal areas of clinically significant prostate cancer, to identify an area for targeted biopsy and to guide management and surveillance. The increase in use has also led to increased diagnosis of incidental lesions arising from structures around the prostate. These incidental findings may be related to the genitourinary system or non- genitourinary system and may have a benign aetiology which needs no additional follow-up, or it may require surveillance and management. The field of view in a multiparametric prostate MRI includes other pelvic organs, neurovascular bundles, bowel, lymph nodes and bones. Being familiar with standard MRI characteristics and a sound knowledge of anatomy of the prostate and surrounding structures can help in distinguishing normal anatomy from pathology. Given that patients undertaking a prostate MRI are usually a cohort with increased anxiety from their known or suspicion of prostate cancer, it is important that radiologists are familiar with these common incidental findings to minimise anxiety to the patient, have a well-informed discussion with the referring clinician and reduce costs associated with unnecessary further testing and follow-up of benign incidental findings. Additionally, being able to diagnose more serious incidental pathologies early can be life-saving and potentially significantly alter patient management.
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    Incidental detection of prostate cancer with computed tomography scans.
    Korevaar, S ; Tennakoon, R ; Page, M ; Brotchie, P ; Thangarajah, J ; Florescu, C ; Sutherland, T ; Kam, NM ; Bab-Hadiashar, A (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-04-12)
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequent type of cancer found in men worldwide, with around one in nine men being diagnosed with PCa within their lifetime. PCa often shows no symptoms in its early stages and its diagnosis techniques are either invasive, resource intensive, or has low efficacy, making widespread early detection onerous. Inspired by the recent success of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) in computer aided detection (CADe), we propose a new CNN based framework for incidental detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in patients who had a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis for other reasons. While CT is generally considered insufficient to diagnose PCa due to its inferior soft tissue characterisation, our evaluations on a relatively large dataset consisting of 139 clinically significant PCa patients and 432 controls show that the proposed deep neural network pipeline can detect csPCa patients at a level that is suitable for incidental detection. The proposed pipeline achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.88 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.86-0.90) at patient level csPCa detection on CT, significantly higher than the AUCs achieved by two radiologists (0.61 and 0.70) on the same task.