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    Amygdala enlargement in temporal lobe epilepsy: Histopathology and surgical outcomes
    Shakhatreh, L ; Sinclair, B ; McLean, C ; Lui, E ; Morokoff, AP ; King, JA ; Chen, Z ; Perucca, P ; O'Brien, TJ ; Kwan, P (WILEY, 2024-06)
    OBJECTIVES: Amygdala enlargement is detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in some patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but its clinical significance remains uncertain We aimed to assess if the presence of amygdala enlargement (1) predicted seizure outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL-AH) and (2) was associated with specific histopathological changes. METHODS: This was a case-control study. We included patients with drug-resistant TLE who underwent ATL-AH with and without amygdala enlargement detected on pre-operative MRI. Amygdala volumetry was done using FreeSurfer for patients who had high-resolution T1-weighted images. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare pre-operative clinical characteristics between the two groups. The amygdala volume on the epileptogenic side was compared to the amygdala volume on the contralateral side among cases and controls. Then, we used a two-sample, independent t test to compare the means of amygdala volume differences between cases and controls. The chi-square test was used to assess the correlation of amygdala enlargement with (1) post-surgical seizure outcomes and (2) histopathological changes. RESULTS: Nineteen patients with and 19 patients without amygdala enlargement were studied. Their median age at surgery was 38 years for cases and 39 years for controls, and 52.6% were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in their pre-operative clinical characteristics. There were significant differences in the means of volume difference between cases and controls (Diff = 457.2 mm3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 289.6-624.8; p < .001) and in the means of percentage difference (p < .001). However, there was no significant association between amygdala enlargement and surgical outcome (p = .72) or histopathological changes (p = .63). SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of amygdala enlargement on the pre-operative brain MRI in patients with TLE does not affect the surgical outcome following ATL-AH, and it does not necessarily suggest abnormal histopathology. These findings suggest that amygdala enlargement might reflect a secondary reactive process to seizures in the epileptogenic temporal lobe.
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    Characterising B cell expression and prognostic significance in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer
    Young, RJ ; Angel, C ; Bressel, M ; Pizzolla, A ; Thai, AA ; Porceddu, SV ; Liu, H ; Idrizi, R ; Metta, J ; Lim, AM ; Solomon, BJ ; Rischin, D (ELSEVIER, 2024-03)
    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is increasing, and new biomarkers are required to better define prognostic groups and guide treatment. Infiltrating T cells have been well studied in head and neck cancer, however the presence and role of B cells and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) in the tumor microenvironment has not, even though the interplay between T and B cells is increasingly being recognised. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CD20 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify B cells and TLS in a cohort of 159 HPV + OPC patients, we semi-quantitatively scored abundance and location (intra-tumoral or stromal) and correlated findings with patient survival. RESULTS: 32% (51/157) of patients had high intra-tumoral (IT) abundance of CD20+ B cells (≥5%) and this was prognostic for improved overall survival (OS) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.2 (95 % CI 0.0-0.7, p = 0.014). We validated our results in an independent cohort comprising 171 HPV + OPC where 14% (23/171) were IT CD20+ high, again showing improved survival with an adjusted HR for OS of 0.2 (95 % CI 0.0-1.4, p = 0.003). Neither stromal abundance nor the presence of TLS were prognostic in either cohort. B cells were subtyped by multispectral IHC, identifying CD20+CD27+ cells, consistent with memory B cells, as the predominant subtype. Combined with validated biomarker CD103, a marker of tissue-resident memory T cells, IT CD20+ B cells abundance was able to prognostically stratify patients further. CONCLUSIONS: CD20+ B cell abundance has the potential to be used as a biomarker to identify good and poor prognosis HPV + OPC patients.
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    Examining the structural correlates of amyloid‐beta in people with DLB
    Gajamange, S ; Yassi, N ; Chin, KS ; Desmond, PM ; Villemagne, VL ; Rowe, CC ; Watson, R (Wiley, 2021-12)
    Background Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the deposition of alpha synuclein. Many patients with DLB also have brain compatible with Alzheimer’s disease (namely Amyloid‐β and tau), which can lead to challenges with clinical diagnosis and management. In this study we aim to understand the influence of Aβ on brain atrophy in DLB patients. Method 19 participants with probable DLB underwent 3T MRI T1‐weighted (voxel size=0.8x0.8x0.8mm3, TR=2400ms, TE=2.31ms) and β‐amyloid (Aβ) PET (radiotracer 18F‐NAV4694) imaging. Participants were grouped into Aβ negative (n=10; age=71.6±5.8 years) and Aβ positive (n=9; age=75.1±4.3 years) with a threshold of 50 centiloid units to identify neuropathological change (Amadoru et al. 2020). Brain volume measures (regional subcortical grey matter and global white and grey matter) were segmented from T1‐weighted images with FreeSurfer (Fischl et al. 2002, Fischl 2012). Given previous literature suggesting prominence of thalamic structural changes in DLB, we also specifically analysed changes in the thalamus by segmenting the thalamus into 25 nuclei, which were then grouped into six regions (anterior, lateral, ventral, intralaminar, medial and posterior) (Watson et al. 2017, Iglesias et al. 2018). All brain volumes were expressed as fractions of intracranial volume to account for differences in head size. Group comparison analyses were not controlled for age and sex as both these covariates did not statistically differ between groups. Result Brain volume differed significantly between Aβ‐ and Aβ+ DLB patients in the left thalamus (Aβ‐:4.39±0.37x103, Aβ+:4.07±0.19x103, p=0.03) and right thalamus (Aβ‐:4.17±0.34x103, Aβ+:3.84±0.22 x103, p=0.03). Specifically, the ventral (LEFT; Aβ‐:1.78±0.15, Aβ+:1.63±0.14, p=0.03. RIGHT; Aβ‐:1.83±0.15, Aβ+:1.65±0.12, p=0.01) and posterior (LEFT; Aβ‐:1.30±0.12, Aβ+:1.17±0.10, p=0.04. RIGHT; Aβ‐:1.42±0.14, Aβ+:1.21±0.12, p=0.003) regions were significantly reduced in Aβ+ compared to Aβ‐ DLB patients. Conclusion We demonstrated significant thalamic atrophy in Aβ+ patients compared to Aβ‐ DLB patients. We did not observe significant differences in grey matter and hippocampal volume between patient groups. This study showed that AD‐related processes in DLB patients are associated with thalamic atrophy, specifically in the ventral and posterior regions. Future studies would benefit a larger DLB cohort to further understand the association between AD‐related pathology and the regional thalamic correlates of clinical function.
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    Clinical outcome of patients with mild pre-stroke morbidity following endovascular treatment: a HERMES substudy
    McDonough, R ; Ospel, JM ; Majoie, CBLM ; Saver, JL ; White, P ; Dippel, DWJ ; Brown, SB ; Demchuk, AM ; Jovin, TG ; Mitchell, PJ ; Bracard, S ; Campbell, BC ; Muir, KW ; Hill, MD ; Guillemin, F ; Goyal, M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2023-03)
    BACKGROUND: Analyses of the effect of pre-stroke functional levels on the outcome of endovascular therapy (EVT) have focused on the course of patients with moderate to substantial pre-stroke disability. The effect of complete freedom from pre-existing disability (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0) versus predominantly mild pre-existing disability/symptoms (mRS 1-2) has not been well delineated. METHODS: The HERMES meta-analysis pooled data from seven randomized trials that tested the efficacy of EVT. We tested for a multiplicative interaction effect of pre-stroke mRS on the relationship between treatment and outcomes. Ordinal regression was used to assess the association between EVT and 90-day mRS (primary outcome) in the subgroup of patients with pre-stroke mRS 1-2. Multivariable regression modeling was then used to test the effect of mild pre-stroke disability/symptoms on the primary and secondary outcomes (delta-mRS, mRS 0-2/5-6) compared with patients with pre-stroke mRS 0. RESULTS: We included 1764 patients, of whom 199 (11.3%) had pre-stroke mRS 1-2. No interaction effect of pre-stroke mRS on the relationship between treatment and outcome was observed. Patients with pre-stroke mRS 1-2 had worse outcomes than those with pre-stroke mRS 0 (adjusted common OR (acOR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.70). Nonetheless, a significant benefit of EVT was observed within the mRS 1-2 subgroup (cOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.55). CONCLUSIONS: Patients asymptomatic/without disability prior to onset have better outcomes following EVT than patients with mild disability/symptoms. Patients with pre-stroke mRS 1-2, however, more often achieve good outcomes with EVT compared with conservative management. These findings indicate that mild pre-existing disability/symptoms influence patient prognosis after EVT but do not diminish the EVT treatment effect.
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    Sustaining a New Model of Acute Stroke Care: A Mixed- Method Process Evaluation of the Melbourne Mobile Stroke Unit
    Bagot, KL ; Purvis, T ; Hancock, S ; Zhao, H ; Coote, S ; Easton, D ; Campbell, BC ; Davis, SM ; Donnan, GA ; Foster, S ; Langenberg, F ; Smith, K ; Stephenson, M ; Bernard, S ; McGowan, S ; Yan, B ; Mitchell, P ; Middleton, S ; Cadilhac, DA (KERMAN UNIV MEDICAL SCIENCES, 2023-01)
    BACKGROUND: Internationally, Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU) ambulances have changed pre-hospital acute stroke care delivery. MSU clinical and cost-effectiveness studies are emerging, but little is known about important factors for achieving sustainability of this innovative model of care. METHODS: Mixed-methods study from the Melbourne MSU (operational since November 2017) process evaluation. Participant purposive sampling included clinical, operational and executive/management representatives from Ambulance Victoria (AV) (emergency medical service provider), the MSU clinical team, and receiving hospitals. Sustainability was defined as ongoing MSU operations, including MSU workforce and future model considerations. Theoretically-based on-line survey with Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), Self Determination Theory (SDT, Intrinsic Motivation), and open-text questions targeting barriers and benefits was administered (June-September 2019). Individual/group interviews were conducted, eliciting improvement suggestions and requirements for ongoing use. Descriptive and regression analyses (quantitative data) and directed content and thematic analysis (open text and interview data) were conducted. RESULTS: There were 135 surveys completed. Identifying that the MSU was beneficial to daily work (β=0.61), not experiencing pressure/tension about working on the MSU (β=0.17) and thinking they did well working within the team model (β=0.17) were significantly associated with wanting to continue working within the MSU model [R2=0.76; F(15, 60)=12.76, P<.001]. Experiences varied between those on the MSU team and those working with the MSU. Advantages were identified for patients (better, faster care) and clinicians (interdisciplinary learning). Disadvantages included challenges integrating into established systems, and establishing working relationships. Themes identified from 35 interviews were MSU team composition, MSU vehicle design and layout, personnel recruitment and rostering, communication improvements between organisations, telemedicine options, MSU operations and dispatch specificity. CONCLUSION: Important factors affecting the sustainability of the MSU model of stroke care emerged. A cohesive team approach, with identifiable benefits and good communication between participating organisations is important for clinical and operational sustainability.
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    Aicardi Syndrome Is a Genetically Heterogeneous Disorder
    Ha, TT ; Burgess, R ; Newman, M ; Moey, C ; Mandelstam, SA ; Gardner, AE ; Ivancevic, AM ; Pham, D ; Kumar, R ; Smith, N ; Patel, C ; Malone, S ; Ryan, MM ; Calvert, S ; van Eyk, CL ; Lardelli, M ; Berkovic, SF ; Leventer, RJ ; Richards, LJ ; Scheffer, IE ; Gecz, J ; Corbett, MA (MDPI, 2023-08)
    Aicardi Syndrome (AIC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder recognized by the classical triad of agenesis of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunae and infantile epileptic spasms syndrome. The diagnostic criteria of AIC were revised in 2005 to include additional phenotypes that are frequently observed in this patient group. AIC has been traditionally considered as X-linked and male lethal because it almost exclusively affects females. Despite numerous genetic and genomic investigations on AIC, a unifying X-linked cause has not been identified. Here, we performed exome and genome sequencing of 10 females with AIC or suspected AIC based on current criteria. We identified a unique de novo variant, each in different genes: KMT2B, SLF1, SMARCB1, SZT2 and WNT8B, in five of these females. Notably, genomic analyses of coding and non-coding single nucleotide variants, short tandem repeats and structural variation highlighted a distinct lack of X-linked candidate genes. We assessed the likely pathogenicity of our candidate autosomal variants using the TOPflash assay for WNT8B and morpholino knockdown in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for other candidates. We show expression of Wnt8b and Slf1 are restricted to clinically relevant cortical tissues during mouse development. Our findings suggest that AIC is genetically heterogeneous with implicated genes converging on molecular pathways central to cortical development.
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    Investigation of Brain Iron in Niemann-Pick Type C: A 7T Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study
    Ravanfar, P ; Syeda, WT ; Rushmore, RJ ; Moffat, B ; Lyall, AE ; Merritt, AH ; Devenyi, GA ; Chakravarty, MM ; Desmond, P ; Cropley, VL ; Makris, N ; Shenton, ME ; Bush, AI ; Velakoulis, D ; Pantelis, C ; Walterfang, M (AMER SOC NEURORADIOLOGY, 2023-06-22)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While brain iron dysregulation has been observed in several neurodegenerative disorders, its association with the progressive neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick type C is unknown. Systemic iron abnormalities have been reported in patients with Niemann-Pick type C and in animal models of Niemann-Pick type C. In this study, we examined brain iron using quantitative susceptibility mapping MR imaging in individuals with Niemann-Pick type C compared with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 10 patients with adolescent- and adult-onset Niemann-Pick type C and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 7T brain MR imaging with T1 and quantitative susceptibility mapping acquisitions. A probing whole-brain voxelwise comparison of quantitative susceptibility mapping between groups was conducted. Mean quantitative susceptibility mapping in the ROIs (thalamus, hippocampus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus) was further compared. The correlations between regional volume, quantitative susceptibility mapping values, and clinical features, which included disease severity on the Iturriaga scale, cognitive function, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, were explored as secondary analyses. RESULTS: We observed lower volume in the thalamus and voxel clusters of higher quantitative susceptibility mapping in the pulvinar nuclei bilaterally in patients with Niemann-Pick type C compared with the control group. In patients with Niemann-Pick type C, higher quantitative susceptibility mapping in the pulvinar nucleus clusters correlated with lower volume of the thalamus on both sides. Moreover, higher quantitative susceptibility mapping in the right pulvinar cluster was associated with greater disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest iron deposition in the pulvinar nucleus in Niemann-Pick type C disease, which is associated with thalamic atrophy and disease severity. This preliminary evidence supports the link between iron and neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick type C, in line with existing literature on other neurodegenerative disorders.
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    Investigation of brain iron in anorexia nervosa, a quantitative susceptibility mapping study
    Ravanfar, P ; Rushmore, RJ ; Lyall, AEE ; Cropley, V ; Makris, N ; Desmond, P ; Velakoulis, D ; Shenton, MEE ; Bush, AII ; Rossell, SLL ; Pantelis, C ; Syeda, WTT ; Phillipou, A (BMC, 2023-08-21)
    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a potentially fatal psychiatric condition, associated with structural brain changes such as gray matter volume loss. The pathophysiological mechanisms for these changes are not yet fully understood. Iron is a crucial element in the development and function of the brain. Considering the systemic alterations in iron homeostasis in AN, we hypothesized that brain iron would be altered as a possible factor associated with structural brain changes in AN. METHODS: In this study, we used quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain iron in current AN (c-AN) and weight-restored AN compared with healthy individuals. Whole-brain voxel wise comparison was used to probe areas with possible group differences. Further, the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and amygdala were selected as the regions of interest (ROIs) for ROI-based comparison of mean QSM values. RESULTS: Whole-brain voxel-wise and ROI-based comparison of QSM did not reveal any differences between groups. Exploratory analyses revealed a correlation between higher regional QSM (higher iron) and lower body mass index, higher illness severity, longer illness duration, and younger age at onset in the c-AN group. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find evidence of altered brain iron in AN compared to healthy individuals. However, the correlations between clinical variables and QSM suggest a link between brain iron and weight status or biological processes in AN, which warrants further investigation.
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    Development and Validation of a Postprocedural Model to Predict Outcome After Endovascular Treatment for Ischemic Stroke.
    Chalos, V ; Venema, E ; Mulder, MJHL ; Roozenbeek, B ; Steyerberg, EW ; Wermer, MJH ; Lycklama À Nijeholt, GJ ; van der Worp, HB ; Goyal, M ; Campbell, BCV ; Muir, KW ; Guillemin, F ; Bracard, S ; White, P ; Dávalos, A ; Jovin, TG ; Hill, MD ; Mitchell, PJ ; Demchuk, AM ; Saver, JL ; van der Lugt, A ; Brown, S ; Dippel, DWJ ; Lingsma, HF ; HERMES CollaboratorsMR CLEAN Registry Investigators, (American Medical Association (AMA), 2023-07-31)
    IMPORTANCE: Outcome prediction after endovascular treatment (EVT) for ischemic stroke is important to patients, family members, and physicians. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a model based on preprocedural and postprocedural characteristics to predict functional outcome for individual patients after EVT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prediction model was developed using individual patient data from 7 randomized clinical trials, performed between December 2010 and December 2014. The model was developed within the Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials (HERMES) collaboration and external validation in data from the Dutch Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) Registry of patients treated in clinical practice between March 2014 and November 2017. Participants included patients from multiple centers throughout different countries in Europe, North America, East Asia, and Oceania (derivation cohort), and multiple centers in the Netherlands (validation cohort). Included were adult patients with a history of ischemic stroke from an intracranial large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation who underwent EVT within 12 hours of symptom onset or last seen well. Data were last analyzed in July 2022. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): A total of 19 variables were assessed by multivariable ordinal regression to predict functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) 90 days after EVT. Variables were routinely available 1 day after EVT. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to optimize model fit vs model complexity. Probabilities for functional independence (mRS 0-2) and survival (mRS 0-5) were derived from the ordinal model. Model performance was expressed with discrimination (C statistic) and calibration. RESULTS: A total of 781 patients (median [IQR] age, 67 [57-76] years; 414 men [53%]) constituted the derivation cohort, and 3260 patients (median [IQR] age, 72 [61-80] years; 1684 men [52%]) composed the validation cohort. Nine variables were included in the model: age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, prestroke mRS score, history of diabetes, occlusion location, collateral score, reperfusion grade, NIHSS score at 24 hours, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage 24 hours after EVT. External validation in the MR CLEAN Registry showed excellent discriminative ability for functional independence (C statistic, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.90-0.92) and survival (0.89; 95% CI, 0.88-0.90). The proportion of functional independence in the MR CLEAN Registry was systematically higher than predicted by the model (41% vs 34%), whereas observed and predicted survival were similar (72% vs 75%). The model was updated and implemented for clinical use. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The prognostic tool MR PREDICTS@24H can be applied 1 day after EVT to accurately predict functional outcome for individual patients at 90 days and to provide reliable outcome expectations and personalize follow-up and rehabilitation plans. It will need further validation and updating for contemporary patients.
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    Fat fraction quantification of bone marrow in the lumbar spine using the LiverLab assessment tool in healthy adult volunteers and patients with Gaucher disease
    Gan, C ; Robertson, PL ; Lai, JKC ; Szer, J (WILEY, 2023-07)
    BACKGROUND: Magnetic Resonance Imaging is used for evaluation of bone in Gaucher disease (GD), but a widely available quantitative scoring method remains elusive. AIMS: The study purpose was to assess the reproducibility of the LiverLab tool for assessing bone marrow fat fraction (FF) and determine whether it could differentiate GD patients from healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers and 18 GD patients were prospectively recruited. FF was calculated at L3, L4 and L5. GD patient bone marrow burden (BMB) score assessed by one observer. Inter and intra-rater agreement assessed with Bland-Altman data plots. Differences in FF between healthy volunteers versus GD patients and between subjects treated versus not treated assessed using two-sample t-tests. In GD patients, the relationship between FF, BMB and glucosylsphingosine was determined using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Healthy volunteer mean FF was 0.36, standard deviation (SD) 0.10 (range 0.20-0.57). Intra and inter-rater SD were both 0.02. GD patient mean FF was 0.40, SD 0.13 (range 0.09-0.57). No statistical difference was shown between healthy volunteers and GD patients (P = 0.447) or between GD patients whether on enzyme replacement therapy or not (P = 0.090). No significant correlation between mean FF and total BMB (r = -0.525, P = 0.253) or between FF and glucosylsphingosine levels (r = 0.287, P = 0.248). CONCLUSION: Excellent reproducibility of LiverLab FF measurements across studies and observers is comparable to Dixon quantitative chemical shift imaging (QCSI). Lack of statistical difference between GD patients and controls may be explained by limited patient numbers, active treatment or mild disease severity in untreated patients.