Radiology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 349
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Charting the potential of brain computed tomography deep learning systems.
    Buchlak, QD ; Milne, MR ; Seah, J ; Johnson, A ; Samarasinghe, G ; Hachey, B ; Esmaili, N ; Tran, A ; Leveque, J-C ; Farrokhi, F ; Goldschlager, T ; Edelstein, S ; Brotchie, P (Elsevier BV, 2022-05)
    Brain computed tomography (CTB) scans are widely used to evaluate intracranial pathology. The implementation and adoption of CTB has led to clinical improvements. However, interpretation errors occur and may have substantial morbidity and mortality implications for patients. Deep learning has shown promise for facilitating improved diagnostic accuracy and triage. This research charts the potential of deep learning applied to the analysis of CTB scans. It draws on the experience of practicing clinicians and technologists involved in development and implementation of deep learning-based clinical decision support systems. We consider the past, present and future of the CTB, along with limitations of existing systems as well as untapped beneficial use cases. Implementing deep learning CTB interpretation systems and effectively navigating development and implementation risks can deliver many benefits to clinicians and patients, ultimately improving efficiency and safety in healthcare.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Early predictors of visual and axonal outcomes after acute optic neuritis.
    Nguyen, MNL ; Zhu, C ; Kolbe, SC ; Butzkueven, H ; White, OB ; Fielding, J ; Kilpatrick, TJ ; Egan, GF ; Klistorner, A ; van der Walt, A (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    BACKGROUND: Predicting long-term visual outcomes and axonal loss following acute optic neuritis (ON) is critical for choosing treatment. Predictive models including all clinical and paraclinical measures of optic nerve dysfunction following ON are lacking. OBJECTIVES: Using a prospective study method, to identify 1 and 3 months predictors of 6 and 12 months visual outcome (low contrast letter acuity 2.5%) and axonal loss [retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and multifocal evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitude] following acute ON. METHODS: In total, 37 patients of acute ON onset were evaluated within 14 days using between-eye asymmetry of visual acuity, color vision (Ishihara plates), optical coherence tomography, mfVEP, and optic nerve magnetic resonance imaging [magnetic transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)]. RESULTS: Visual outcome at 6 and 12 months was best predicted by Ishihara asymmetry at 1 and 3 months following ON onset. Axonal loss at 6 and 12 months was reliably predicted by Ishihara asymmetry at 1 month. Optic nerve MTR and DTI at 3 months post-acute ON could predict axonal loss at 6 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Simple Ishihara asymmetry testing 1 month after acute ON onset can best predict visual outcome and axonal loss at 6 and 12 months in a clinical or research setting.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Application of 7T MRS to High-Grade Gliomas
    McCarthy, L ; Verma, G ; Hangel, G ; Neal, A ; Moffat, BA ; Stockmann, JP ; Andronesi, OC ; Balchandani, P ; Hadjipanayis, CG (AMER SOC NEURORADIOLOGY, 2022-05-26)
    MRS, including single-voxel spectroscopy and MR spectroscopic imaging, captures metabolites in high-grade gliomas. Emerging evidence indicates that 7T MRS may be more sensitive to aberrant metabolic activity than lower-field strength MRS. However, the literature on the use of 7T MRS to visualize high-grade gliomas has not been summarized. We aimed to identify metabolic information provided by 7T MRS, optimal spectroscopic sequences, and areas for improvement in and new applications for 7T MRS. Literature was found on PubMed using "high-grade glioma," "malignant glioma," "glioblastoma," "anaplastic astrocytoma," "7T," "MR spectroscopy," and "MR spectroscopic imaging." 7T MRS offers higher SNR, modestly improved spatial resolution, and better resolution of overlapping resonances. 7T MRS also yields reduced Cramér-Rao lower bound values. These features help to quantify D-2-hydroxyglutarate in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gliomas and to isolate variable glutamate, increased glutamine, and increased glycine with higher sensitivity and specificity. 7T MRS may better characterize tumor infiltration and treatment effect in high-grade gliomas, though further study is necessary. 7T MRS will benefit from increased sample size; reductions in field inhomogeneity, specific absorption rate, and acquisition time; and advanced editing techniques. These findings suggest that 7T MRS may advance understanding of high-grade glioma metabolism, with reduced Cramér-Rao lower bound values and better measurement of smaller metabolite signals. Nevertheless, 7T is not widely used clinically, and technical improvements are necessary. 7T MRS isolates metabolites that may be valuable therapeutic targets in high-grade gliomas, potentially resulting in wider ranging neuro-oncologic applications.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    PEDAL protocol: a prospective single-arm paired comparison of multiparametric MRI and 18F-DCPFyl PSMA PET/CT to diagnose prostate cancer
    Tran, V ; Hong, A ; Sutherland, T ; Taubman, K ; Lee, S-F ; Lenaghan, D ; Sethi, K ; Corcoran, NM ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Woo, H ; Tarlinton, L ; Bolton, D ; Spelman, T ; Thomas, L ; Booth, R ; Hegarty, J ; Perry, E ; Wong, L-M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) has emerged as valuable imaging to assessing metastatic disease in prostate malignancy. However, there has been limited studies exploring the utility PSMA-PET as primary imaging assessing for index lesions prior to biopsy. The primary objective of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18-fluorine PSMA (18F DCFPyL PSMA) PET scans to multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to detect primary prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PEDAL trial is a multicentre, prospective, single-arm, paired comparison, non-randomised phase III trial in subjects considered for diagnostic prostate biopsy. Subjects who are eligible for a diagnostic mpMRI prostate will undergo additional same-day 18 F DCFPyl PSMA PET/CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Software coregistration of the mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT images will be performed. The reporting of the mpMRI prostate, PSMA-PET/CT and PSMA PET/MRI coregistration will be performed blinded. The diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT alone, and in combination with mpMRI, to detect prostate cancer will be assessed. Histopathology at prostate biopsy will be used as the reference standard. Sample size calculations estimate that 240 subjects will need to be recruited to demonstrate 20% superiority of PSMA-PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combination of mpMRI prostate and PSMA PET/CT compared with targeted and systematic prostate biopsy will be evaluated. It is hypothesised that PSMA PET/CT combined with mpMRI prostate will have improved diagnostic accuracy compared with mpMRI prostate alone for detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men, resulting in a significant impact on patient management. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the independent Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals with eligible investigators will significantly contribute. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000261910.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Hippocampal glutathione depletion with enhanced iron level in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy elderly participants.
    Mandal, PK ; Goel, A ; Bush, AI ; Punjabi, K ; Joon, S ; Mishra, R ; Tripathi, M ; Garg, A ; Kumar, NK ; Sharma, P ; Shukla, D ; Ayton, SJ ; Fazlollahi, A ; Maroon, JC ; Dwivedi, D ; Samkaria, A ; Sandal, K ; Megha, K ; Shandilya, S (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022)
    Oxidative stress has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, and it is potentially driven by the depletion of primary antioxidant, glutathione, as well as elevation of the pro-oxidant, iron. Present study evaluates glutathione level by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, iron deposition by quantitative susceptibility mapping in left hippocampus, as well as the neuropsychological scores of healthy old participants (N = 25), mild cognitive impairment (N = 16) and Alzheimer's disease patients (N = 31). Glutathione was found to be significantly depleted in mild cognitive impaired (P < 0.05) and Alzheimer's disease patients (P < 0.001) as compared with healthy old participants. A significant higher level of iron was observed in left hippocampus region for Alzheimer's disease patients as compared with healthy old (P < 0.05) and mild cognitive impairment (P < 0.05). Multivariate receiver-operating curve analysis for combined glutathione and iron in left hippocampus region provided diagnostic accuracy of 82.1%, with 81.8% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease patients from healthy old participants. We conclude that tandem glutathione and iron provides novel avenue to investigate further research in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Structural network alterations in focal and generalized epilepsy assessed in a worldwide ENIGMA study follow axes of epilepsy risk gene expression
    Lariviere, S ; Royer, J ; Rodriguez-Cruces, R ; Paquola, C ; Caligiuri, ME ; Gambardella, A ; Concha, L ; Keller, SS ; Cendes, F ; Yasuda, CL ; Bonilha, L ; Gleichgerrcht, E ; Focke, NK ; Domin, M ; von Podewills, F ; Langner, S ; Rummel, C ; Wiest, R ; Martin, P ; Kotikalapudi, R ; O'Brien, TJ ; Sinclair, B ; Vivash, L ; Desmond, PM ; Lui, E ; Vaudano, AE ; Meletti, S ; Tondelli, M ; Alhusaini, S ; Doherty, CP ; Cavalleri, GL ; Delanty, N ; Kalviainen, R ; Jackson, GD ; Kowalczyk, M ; Mascalchi, M ; Semmelroch, M ; Thomas, RH ; Soltanian-Zadeh, H ; Davoodi-Bojd, E ; Zhang, J ; Winston, GP ; Griffin, A ; Singh, A ; Tiwari, VK ; Kreilkamp, BAK ; Lenge, M ; Guerrini, R ; Hamandi, K ; Foley, S ; Ruber, T ; Weber, B ; Depondt, C ; Absil, J ; Carr, SJA ; Abela, E ; Richardson, MP ; Devinsky, O ; Severino, M ; Striano, P ; Tortora, D ; Kaestner, E ; Hatton, SN ; Vos, SB ; Caciagli, L ; Duncan, JS ; Whelan, CD ; Thompson, PM ; Sisodiya, SM ; Bernasconi, A ; Labate, A ; McDonald, CR ; Bernasconi, N ; Bernhardt, BC (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-07-27)
    Epilepsy is associated with genetic risk factors and cortico-subcortical network alterations, but associations between neurobiological mechanisms and macroscale connectomics remain unclear. This multisite ENIGMA-Epilepsy study examined whole-brain structural covariance networks in patients with epilepsy and related findings to postmortem epilepsy risk gene expression patterns. Brain network analysis included 578 adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), 288 adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and 1328 healthy controls from 18 centres worldwide. Graph theoretical analysis of structural covariance networks revealed increased clustering and path length in orbitofrontal and temporal regions in TLE, suggesting a shift towards network regularization. Conversely, people with IGE showed decreased clustering and path length in fronto-temporo-parietal cortices, indicating a random network configuration. Syndrome-specific topological alterations reflected expression patterns of risk genes for hippocampal sclerosis in TLE and for generalized epilepsy in IGE. These imaging-transcriptomic signatures could potentially guide diagnosis or tailor therapeutic approaches to specific epilepsy syndromes.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Long-term structural brain changes in adult rats after mild ischaemic stroke.
    Syeda, W ; Ermine, CM ; Khilf, MS ; Wright, D ; Brait, VH ; Nithianantharajah, J ; Kolbe, S ; Johnston, LA ; Thompson, LH ; Brodtmann, A (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022)
    Preclinical studies of remote degeneration have largely focused on brain changes over the first few days or weeks after stroke. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration occurs in other brain regions remote to the site of infarction for months and even years following ischaemic stroke. Brain atrophy appears to be driven by both axonal degeneration and widespread brain inflammation. The evolution and duration of these changes are increasingly being described in human studies, using advanced brain imaging techniques. Here, we sought to investigate long-term structural brain changes in a model of mild focal ischaemic stroke following injection of endothlin-1 in adult Long-Evans rats (n = 14) compared with sham animals (n = 10), over a clinically relevant time-frame of 48 weeks. Serial structural and diffusion-weighted MRI data were used to assess dynamic volume and white matter trajectories. We observed dynamic regional brain volume changes over the 48 weeks, reflecting both normal changes with age in sham animals and neurodegeneration in regions connected to the infarct following ischaemia. Ipsilesional cortical volume loss peaked at 24 weeks but was less prominent at 36 and 48 weeks. We found significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in both ipsi- and contralesional motor cortex and cingulum bundle regions of infarcted rats (P < 0.05) from 4 to 36 weeks, suggesting ongoing white matter degeneration in tracts connected to but distant from the stroke. We conclude that there is evidence of significant cortical atrophy and white matter degeneration up to 48 weeks following infarct, consistent with enduring, pervasive stroke-related degeneration.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    An Update on the Measurement of Motor Cerebellar Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
    Kenyon, KH ; Boonstra, F ; Noffs, G ; Butzkueven, H ; Vogel, AP ; Kolbe, S ; van der Walt, A (SPRINGER, 2022-06-27)
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease that often affects the cerebellum. It is characterised by demyelination, inflammation, and neurodegeneration within the central nervous system. Damage to the cerebellum in MS is associated with increased disability and decreased quality of life. Symptoms include gait and balance problems, motor speech disorder, upper limb dysfunction, and oculomotor difficulties. Monitoring symptoms is crucial for effective management of MS. A combination of clinical, neuroimaging, and task-based measures is generally used to diagnose and monitor MS. This paper reviews the present and new tools used by clinicians and researchers to assess cerebellar impairment in people with MS (pwMS). It also describes recent advances in digital and home-based monitoring for people with MS.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Microstructure in patients with visual snow syndrome: an ultra-high field morphological and quantitative MRI study.
    Strik, M ; Clough, M ; Solly, EJ ; Glarin, R ; White, OB ; Kolbe, SC ; Fielding, J (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022)
    Visual snow syndrome is a neurological condition characterized by continuous visual disturbance and a range of non-visual symptoms, including tinnitus and migraine. Little is known about the pathological mechanisms underlying visual snow syndrome. Here, we assessed brain morphometry and microstructure in visual snow syndrome patients using high-resolution structural and quantitative MRI. Forty visual snow syndrome patients (22 with migraine) and 43 controls underwent 7-Tesla MRI (MP2RAGE, 0.75 mm isotropic resolution). Volumetric and quantitative T1 values were extracted for white and grey matter regions and compared between groups. Where regions were significantly different between groups (false discovery rate corrected for multiple comparisons), post hoc comparisons were examined between patients with and without migraine. For visual snow syndrome patients, significant MRI variables were correlated with clinical severity (number of visual symptoms, perceived visual snow intensity, disruptiveness, fatigue and quality of life) and psychiatric symptoms prevalent in visual snow syndrome (depression, anxiety and depersonalization). Finally, cortical regions and individual thalamic nuclei were studied. Compared with controls, visual snow syndrome patients demonstrated a trend towards larger brain and white matter volumes and significantly lower T1 values for the entire cortex (P < 0.001), thalamus (P = 0.001) and pallidum (P = 0.001). For the patient group, thalamic T1 correlated with number of visual symptoms (P = 0.019, r = 0.390) and perceived disruptiveness of visual snow (P = 0.010, r = 0.424). These correlations did not survive multiple comparison corrections. As for specificity in visual snow syndrome group, T1 changes were most evident in caudal regions (occipital cortices) followed by parietal, temporal and prefrontal cortices. T1 values differed between groups for most individual thalamic nuclei. No differences were revealed between patients with and without migraine. In visual snow syndrome patients, we observed no changes in morphometry, instead widespread changes in grey matter microstructure, which followed a caudal-rostral pattern and affected the occipital cortices most profoundly. Migraine did not appear to independently affect these changes. Lower T1 values may potentially result from higher neurite density, myelination or increased iron levels in the visual snow syndrome brain. Further investigation of these changes may enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of visual snow syndrome, ultimately leading to new treatment strategies.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Germline variants in tumor suppressor FBXW7 lead to impaired ubiquitination and a neurodevelopmental syndrome
    Stephenson, SEM ; Costain, G ; Blok, LER ; Silk, MA ; Nguyen, TB ; Dong, X ; Alhuzaimi, DE ; Dowling, JJ ; Walker, S ; Amburgey, K ; Hayeems, RZ ; Rodan, LH ; Schwartz, MA ; Picker, J ; Lynch, SA ; Gupta, A ; Rasmussen, KJ ; Schimmenti, LA ; Klee, EW ; Niu, Z ; Agre, KE ; Chilton, I ; Chung, WK ; Revah-Politi, A ; Au, PYB ; Griffith, C ; Racobaldo, M ; Raas-Rothschild, A ; Ben Zeev, B ; Barel, O ; Moutton, S ; Morice-Picard, F ; Carmignac, V ; Cornaton, J ; Marle, N ; Devinsky, O ; Stimach, C ; Wechsler, SB ; Hainline, BE ; Sapp, K ; Willems, M ; Bruel, A ; Dias, K-R ; Evans, C-A ; Roscioli, T ; Sachdev, R ; Temple, SEL ; Zhu, Y ; Baker, JJ ; Scheffer, IE ; Gardiner, FJ ; Schneider, AL ; Muir, AM ; Mefford, HC ; Crunk, A ; Heise, EM ; Millan, F ; Monaghan, KG ; Person, R ; Rhodes, L ; Richards, S ; Wentzensen, IM ; Cogne, B ; Isidor, B ; Nizon, M ; Vincent, M ; Besnard, T ; Piton, A ; Marcelis, C ; Kato, K ; Koyama, N ; Ogi, T ; Goh, ES-Y ; Richmond, C ; Amor, DJ ; Boyce, JO ; Morgan, AT ; Hildebrand, MS ; Kaspi, A ; Bahlo, M ; Fridriksdottir, R ; Katrinardottir, H ; Sulem, P ; Stefansson, K ; Bjornsson, HT ; Mandelstam, S ; Morleo, M ; Mariani, M ; Scala, M ; Accogli, A ; Torella, A ; Capra, V ; Wallis, M ; Jansen, S ; Waisfisz, Q ; de Haan, H ; Sadedin, S ; Lim, SC ; White, SM ; Ascher, DB ; Schenck, A ; Lockhart, PJ ; Christodoulou, J ; Tan, TY (CELL PRESS, 2022-04-07)
    Neurodevelopmental disorders are highly heterogenous conditions resulting from abnormalities of brain architecture and/or function. FBXW7 (F-box and WD-repeat-domain-containing 7), a recognized developmental regulator and tumor suppressor, has been shown to regulate cell-cycle progression and cell growth and survival by targeting substrates including CYCLIN E1/2 and NOTCH for degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. We used a genotype-first approach and global data-sharing platforms to identify 35 individuals harboring de novo and inherited FBXW7 germline monoallelic chromosomal deletions and nonsense, frameshift, splice-site, and missense variants associated with a neurodevelopmental syndrome. The FBXW7 neurodevelopmental syndrome is distinguished by global developmental delay, borderline to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, and gastrointestinal issues. Brain imaging detailed variable underlying structural abnormalities affecting the cerebellum, corpus collosum, and white matter. A crystal-structure model of FBXW7 predicted that missense variants were clustered at the substrate-binding surface of the WD40 domain and that these might reduce FBXW7 substrate binding affinity. Expression of recombinant FBXW7 missense variants in cultured cells demonstrated impaired CYCLIN E1 and CYCLIN E2 turnover. Pan-neuronal knockdown of the Drosophila ortholog, archipelago, impaired learning and neuronal function. Collectively, the data presented herein provide compelling evidence of an F-Box protein-related, phenotypically variable neurodevelopmental disorder associated with monoallelic variants in FBXW7.