Radiology - Research Publications

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    Assessment of the DTI-ALPS Parameter Along the Perivascular Space in Older Adults at Risk of Dementia
    Steward, CE ; Venkatraman, VK ; Lui, E ; Malpas, CB ; Ellis, KA ; Cyarto, EV ; Vivash, L ; O'Brien, TJ ; Velakoulis, D ; Ames, D ; Masters, CL ; Lautenschlager, NT ; Bammer, R ; Desmond, PM (WILEY, 2021-02-08)
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recently, there has been growing interest in the glymphatic system (the functional waste clearance pathway for the central nervous system and its role in flushing solutes (such as amyloid ß and tau), metabolic, and other cellular waste products in the brain. Herein, we investigate a recent potential biomarker for glymphatic activity (the diffusion tensor imaging along the perivascular space [DTI-ALPS] parameter) using diffusion MRI imaging in an elderly cohort comprising 10 cognitively normal, 10 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 16 Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: All 36 participants imaged on a Siemens 3.0T Tim Trio. Single-SE diffusion weighted Echo-planar imaging scans were acquired as well as T1 magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo, T2 axial, and susceptibility weighted imaging. Three millimeter regions of interest were drawn in the projection and association fibers adjacent to the medullary veins at the level of the lateral ventricle. The DTI-ALPS parameter was calculated in these regions and correlated with cognitive status, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ADASCog11 measures. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between DTI-ALPS and MMSE and ADASCog11 in the right hemisphere adjusting for age, sex, and APoE ε4 status. Significant differences were also found in the right DTI-ALPS indices between cognitively normal and AD groups (P < .026) and MCI groups (P < .025) in a univariate general linear model corrected for age, sex, and APoE ε4. Significant differences in apparent diffusion coefficient between cognitively normal and AD groups were found in the right projection fibers (P = .028). CONCLUSION: Further work is needed to determine the utility of DTI-ALPS index in larger elderly cohorts and whether it measures glymphatic activity.
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    Cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and longitudinal cognitive decline
    Yates, PA ; Villemagne, VL ; Ames, D ; Masters, CL ; Martins, RN ; Desmond, P ; Burnham, S ; Maruff, P ; Ellis, KA ; Rowe, CC (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-06-01)
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    Association Between Cognitive Function and Clustered Cardiovascular Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline
    Lai, MMY ; Ames, DJ ; Cox, KL ; Ellis, KA ; Sharman, MJ ; Hepworth, G ; Desmond, P ; Cyarto, E ; Szoeke, C ; Martins, R ; Masters, CL ; Lautenschlager, NT (SPRINGER FRANCE, 2020-02-11)
    OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of obesity and insulin resistance-related comorbidities. Abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated triglyceride and glucose levels are components of MetS and may have a negative effect on cognitive function, but few cognitive studies have examined the combined risk severity. We sought to determine which specific cognitive abilities were associated with MetS in older adults at risk of cognitive decline. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 108 AIBL Active participants with memory complaints and at least one cardiovascular risk factor. MEASUREMENTS: Cardiovascular parameters and blood tests were obtained to assess metabolic syndrome criteria. The factors of MetS were standardized to obtain continuous z-scores. A battery of neuropsychological tests was used to evaluate cognitive function. RESULTS: Higher MetS z-scores were associated with poorer global cognition using ADAS-cog (adjusted standardized beta=0.26, SE 0.11, p<0.05) and higher Trail Making B scores (adjusted beta=0.23, SE 0.11, p<0.05). Higher MetS risk was related to lower cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Combined risk due to multiple risk factors in MetS was related to lower global cognitive performance and executive function. A higher MetS risk burden may point to opportunities for cognitive testing in older adults as individuals may experience cognitive changes.
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    Alterations in dorsal and ventral posterior cingulate connectivity in APOE epsilon 4 carriers at risk of Alzheimer's disease
    Kerestes, R ; Phal, PM ; Steward, C ; Moffat, BA ; Salinas, S ; Cox, KL ; Ellis, KA ; Cyarto, EV ; Ames, D ; Martins, RN ; Masters, CL ; Rowe, CC ; Sharman, MJ ; Salvado, O ; Szoeke, C ; Lai, M ; Lautenschlager, NT ; Desmond, PM (ROYAL COLL PSYCHIATRISTS, 2015-10-01)
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    A Randomized Controlled Trial of Adherence to a 24-Month Home-Based Physical Activity Program and the Health Benefits for Older Adults at Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: The AIBL Active-Study
    Cox, KL ; Cyarto, E ; Ellis, KA ; Ames, D ; Desmond, P ; Phal, P ; Sharman, MJ ; Szoeke, C ; Rowe, CC ; Masters, CL ; You, E ; Burrows, S ; Lai, MMY ; Lautenschlager, NT ; Anstey, K ; Peters, R (IOS PRESS, 2019-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that physical activity (PA) interventions can improve physical and cognitive outcomes in older adults, but most have been relatively short in duration (<1 year) with a few having specifically targeting individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To examine adherence and physical health outcomes in a 24-month home-based PA intervention in older adults at risk of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Participants 60 years and older with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or subjective memory complaints (SMC) with at least 1 cerebrovascular risk factor recruited from The Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Aging (AIBL) were randomized to a PA or control group (n = 106). The control group continued with their usual lifestyle. The PA group received a 24-month home-based program with a target of 150 minutes/week of moderate PA and a behavioral intervention. Retention (participants remaining) and PA adherence (PA group only, percent PA completed to the PA prescribed) were determined at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months included, PA; fitness; body composition and fat distribution. Key outcome measures were PA adherence and PA. RESULTS: The 24-month retention rate (97.2%) and the median PA adherence 91.67% (Q1-Q3, 81.96, 100.00) were excellent. In the long-term the intervention group achieved significantly better improvements in PA levels, leg strength, fat mass and fat distribution compared to the control. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that in this target group, long-term PA adherence is achievable and has physical health benefits.
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    Baseline White Matter Is Associated With Physical Fitness Change in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
    Venkatraman, VK ; Steward, CE ; Cox, KL ; Ellis, KA ; Phal, PM ; Sharman, MJ ; Villemagne, VL ; Lai, MMY ; Cyarto, E ; Ames, D ; Szoeke, C ; Rowe, CC ; Masters, CL ; Lautenschlager, NT ; Desmond, PM (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-04-29)
    White matter (WM) microstructure is a sensitive marker to distinguish individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease. The association of objective physical fitness (PF) measures and WM microstructure has not been explored and mixed results reported with physical activity (PA). Longitudinal studies of WM with PA and PF measures have had limited investigation. This study explored the relationship between objective PF measures over 24-months with "normal-appearing" WM microstructure. Data acquired on magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure "normal-appearing" WM microstructure at baseline and 24-months. Clinical variables such as cognitive and blood-based measures were collected longitudinally. Also, as part of the randomized controlled trial of a PA, extensive measures of PA and fitness were obtained over the 24 months. Bilateral corticospinal tracts (CST) and the corpus callosum showed a significant association between PF performance over 24-months and baseline WM microstructural measures. There was no significant longitudinal effect of the intervention or PF performance over 24-months. Baseline WM microstructural measures were significantly associated with PF performance over 24-months in this cohort of participants with vascular risk factors and at risk of Alzheimer's disease with distinctive patterns for each PF test.
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    Cerebral quantitative susceptibility mapping predicts amyloid-beta-related cognitive decline
    Ayton, S ; Fazlollahi, A ; Bourgeat, P ; Raniga, P ; Ng, A ; Lim, YY ; Diouf, I ; Farquharson, S ; Fripp, J ; Ames, D ; Doecke, J ; Desmond, P ; Ordidge, R ; Masters, CL ; Rowe, CC ; Maruff, P ; Villemagne, VL ; Salvado, O ; Bush, AI (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-08-01)
    See Derry and Kent (doi:10.1093/awx167) for a scientific commentary on this article.The large variance in cognitive deterioration in subjects who test positive for amyloid-β by positron emission tomography indicates that convergent pathologies, such as iron accumulation, might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate Alzheimer's disease progression. Here, we applied quantitative susceptibility mapping, a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging method sensitive to tissue iron, to assess the relationship between iron, amyloid-β load, and cognitive decline in 117 subjects who underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid-β positron emission tomography from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study (AIBL). Cognitive function data were collected every 18 months for up to 6 years from 100 volunteers who were either cognitively normal (n = 64) or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (n = 17) or Alzheimer's disease (n = 19). Among participants with amyloid pathology (n = 45), higher hippocampal quantitative susceptibility mapping levels predicted accelerated deterioration in composite cognition tests for episodic memory [β(standard error) = -0.169 (0.034), P = 9.2 × 10-7], executive function [β(standard error) = -0.139 (0.048), P = 0.004), and attention [β(standard error) = -0.074 (0.029), P = 0.012]. Deteriorating performance in a composite of language tests was predicted by higher quantitative susceptibility mapping levels in temporal lobe [β(standard error) = -0.104 (0.05), P = 0.036] and frontal lobe [β(standard error) = -0.154 (0.055), P = 0.006]. These findings indicate that brain iron might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate clinical progression and that quantitative susceptibility mapping could be used in combination with amyloid-β positron emission tomography to stratify individuals at risk of decline.
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    Cerebral microbleeds: review of clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging associations
    Yates, PA ; Villemagne, VL ; Ellis, KA ; Desmond, PM ; Masters, CL ; Rowe, CC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2014-01-01)
    Cerebral microbleeds (microbleeds) are small, punctuate hypointense lesions seen in T2* Gradient-Recall Echo (GRE) and Susceptibility-Weighted (SWI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences, corresponding to areas of hemosiderin breakdown products from prior microscopic hemorrhages. They occur in the setting of impaired small vessel integrity, commonly due to either hypertensive vasculopathy or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Microbleeds are more prevalent in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and in those with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However they are also found in asymptomatic individuals, with increasing prevalence with age, particularly in carriers of the Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele. Other neuroimaging findings that have been linked with microbleeds include lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI, and increased cerebral β-amyloid burden using (11)C-PiB Positron Emission Tomography. The presence of microbleeds has been suggested to confer increased risk of incident intracerebral hemorrhage - particularly in the setting of anticoagulation - and of complications of immunotherapy for AD. Prospective data regarding the natural history and sequelae of microbleeds are currently limited, however there is a growing evidence base that will serve to inform clinical decision-making in the future.
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    Incidence of cerebral microbleeds in preclinical Alzheimer disease
    Yates, PA ; Desmond, PM ; Phal, PM ; Steward, C ; Szoeke, C ; Salvado, O ; Ellis, KA ; Martins, RN ; Masters, CL ; Ames, D ; Villemagne, VL ; Rowe, CC (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2014-04-08)
    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the incidence and associations of lobar microbleeds (LMBs) in a longitudinal cohort with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging. METHODS: One hundred seventy-four participants from the observational Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (97 with normal cognition [NC], 37 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 40 with Alzheimer disease [AD] dementia) were assessed at 3 time points over 3 years with 3-tesla susceptibility-weighted MRI and (11)C-PiB PET. MRIs were inspected for microbleeds, siderosis, infarction, and white matter hyperintensity severity, blind to clinical and PiB findings. Neocortical PiB standardized uptake value ratio, normalized to cerebellar cortex, was dichotomized as positive or negative (PiB+/-, standardized uptake value ratio >1.5). Annualized LMB incidence was calculated, and logistic regression was used to determine the association of incident LMBs with PiB, APOE ε4+ status, and cerebrovascular disease. RESULTS: LMBs were present in 18.6% of NC, 24.3% of MCI, and 40% of AD participants (p < 0.05 vs NC). LMB incidence was 0.2 ± 0.6 per year in NC participants, 0.2 ± 0.5 in MCI, and 0.7 ± 1.4 in AD (p < 0.03 vs NC) and was 6-fold higher in PiB+ than PiB-NC. Incident LMBs were associated with age, APOE ε4+, PiB+, and baseline LMBs. Incidence of multiple LMBs was also associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensity severity. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, baseline LMBs, higher β-amyloid burden, and concomitant cerebrovascular disease may all confer higher risk of incident LMBs. This should be considered when designing protocols for amyloid-modifying clinical trials.