Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Endometriosis and menopausal hormone therapy impact the hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association.
    Khoja, L ; Weber, RP ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Webb, PM ; Jordan, SJ ; Muthukumar, A ; Chang-Claude, J ; Fortner, RT ; Jensen, A ; Kjaer, SK ; Risch, H ; Doherty, JA ; Harris, HR ; Goodman, MT ; Modugno, F ; Moysich, K ; Berchuck, A ; Schildkraut, JM ; Cramer, D ; Terry, KL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Ziogas, A ; Phung, MT ; Hanley, GE ; Wu, AH ; Mukherjee, B ; McLean, K ; Cho, K ; Pike, MC ; Pearce, CL ; Lee, AW (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer, and to understand how hormone therapy (HT) use and endometriosis affect this association. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of self-reported data from 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Women with (n = 5350) and without ovarian cancer (n = 7544) who never used HT or exclusively used either estrogen-only therapy (ET) or estrogen+progestin therapy (EPT) were included. Risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer adjusted for duration of ET and EPT use and stratified on history of endometriosis was determined using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall and among women without endometriosis, there was a positive association between ovarian cancer risk and hysterectomy (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.31 and OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32, respectively), but no association upon adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.16 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18, respectively). Among women with a history of endometriosis, there was a slight inverse association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.69-1.26), but this association became stronger and statistically significant after adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association is complex and cannot be understood without considering duration of ET and EPT use and history of endometriosis. Failure to take these exposures into account in prior studies casts doubt on their conclusions. Overall, hysterectomy is not risk-reducing for ovarian cancer, however the inverse association among women with endometriosis warrants further investigation.
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    High Prediagnosis Inflammation-Related Risk Score Associated with Decreased Ovarian Cancer Survival
    Brieger, KK ; Phung, MT ; Mukherjee, B ; Bakulski, KM ; Anton-Culver, H ; Bandera, E ; Bowtell, DDL ; Cramer, DW ; DeFazio, A ; Doherty, JA ; Fereday, S ; Fortner, RT ; Gentry-Maharaj, A ; Goode, EL ; Goodman, MT ; Harris, HR ; Matsuo, K ; Menon, U ; Modugno, F ; Moysich, KB ; Qin, B ; Ramus, SJ ; Risch, HA ; Rossing, MA ; Schildkraut, JM ; Trabert, B ; Vierkant, RA ; Winham, SJ ; Wentzensen, N ; Wu, AH ; Ziogas, A ; Khoja, L ; Cho, KR ; McLean, K ; Richardson, J ; Grout, B ; Chase, A ; Deurloo, CM ; Odunsi, K ; Nelson, BH ; Brenton, JD ; Terry, KL ; Pharoah, PDP ; Berchuck, A ; Hanley, GE ; Webb, PM ; Pike, MC ; Pearce, CL (AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, 2022-02-01)
    BACKGROUND: There is suggestive evidence that inflammation is related to ovarian cancer survival. However, more research is needed to identify inflammation-related factors that are associated with ovarian cancer survival and to determine their combined effects. METHODS: This analysis used pooled data on 8,147 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The prediagnosis inflammation-related exposures of interest included alcohol use; aspirin use; other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use; body mass index; environmental tobacco smoke exposure; history of pelvic inflammatory disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis; menopausal hormone therapy use; physical inactivity; smoking status; and talc use. Using Cox proportional hazards models, the relationship between each exposure and survival was assessed in 50% of the data. A weighted inflammation-related risk score (IRRS) was developed, and its association with survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models in the remaining 50% of the data. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant trend of increasing risk of death per quartile of the IRRS [HR = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.14]. Women in the upper quartile of the IRRS had a 31% higher death rate compared with the lowest quartile (95% CI, 1.11-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: A higher prediagnosis IRRS was associated with an increased mortality risk after an ovarian cancer diagnosis. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate whether postdiagnosis exposures are also associated with survival. IMPACT: Given that pre- and postdiagnosis exposures are often correlated and many are modifiable, our study results can ultimately motivate the development of behavioral recommendations to enhance survival among patients with ovarian cancer.
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    Abstract 3141: Evolution of core archetypal phenotypes in progressive high grade serous ovarian cancer
    Nath, A ; Cosgrove, P ; Copeland, B ; Mirsafian, H ; Christie, E ; Pflieger, L ; Majumdar, S ; Cristea, M ; Han, E ; Lee, S ; Wang, E ; Fereday, S ; Traficante, N ; Salgia, R ; Werner, T ; Cohen, A ; Moos, P ; Chang, J ; Bowtell, D ; Bild, A (American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), 2021-07-01)
    Abstract The evolution of resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells following chemotherapy is only partially understood. To uncover phenotypic changes associated with chemotherapy resistance, we profiled single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) transcriptomes of HGSOC tumors collected longitudinally during patient treatment. Analysis of scRNA-seq data from two independent patient cohorts revealed that HGSOC is driven by three core archetypal phenotypes, defined as oncogenic tasks that describe the majority of the transcriptome variation. A multi-task learning approach to identify the biological tasks of each archetype identified metabolism and proliferation, cellular defense response, and DNA repair signaling. The metabolism and proliferation archetype evolved during treatment and was enriched in cancer cells from patients that received multiple-lines of treatment and had elevated tumor burden indicated by CA-125 levels. The emergence of archetypes was not consistently associated with specific whole-genome driver mutations. However, archetypes were closely associated with subclonal populations at the single-cell level, indicating that subclones within a tumor often specialize in unique biological tasks. Our study reveals the core archetypes found in progressive HGSOC and shows consistent enrichment of subclones with the metabolism archetype as resistance is acquired to multiple lines of therapy. Citation Format: Aritro Nath, Patrick Cosgrove, Benjamin Copeland, Hoda Mirsafian, Elizabeth Christie, Lance Pflieger, Sumana Majumdar, Mihaela Cristea, Ernest Han, Stephen Lee, Edward Wang, Sian Fereday, Nadia Traficante, Ravi Salgia, Theresa Werner, Adam Cohen, Phillip Moos, Jeffrey Chang, David Bowtell, Andrea Bild. Evolution of core archetypal phenotypes in progressive high grade serous ovarian cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 3141.
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    REZOLVE (ANZGOG-1101): A phase 2 trial of intraperitoneal bevacizumab to treat symptomatic ascites in patients with chemotherapy-resistant, epithelial ovarian cancer
    Sjoquist, KM ; Espinoza, D ; Mileshkin, L ; Ananda, S ; Shannon, C ; Yip, S ; Goh, J ; Bowtell, D ; Harrison, M ; Friedlander, ML (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-04-24)
    BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of intraperitoneal bevacizumab (IP-bev) in delaying re-accumulation of malignant ascites in women with chemotherapy-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CR-EOC) who have ceased chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes were safety and quality of life. METHODS: Women with CR-EOC and malignant ascites that reaccumulated within 28 days of their last paracentesis (P-1) were administered IP-bev 5 mg/kg following their first therapeutic paracentesis on study (P0). Additional doses of IP-bev were allowed at each subsequent paracentesis (P1, P2, etc) provided the interval from the last dose was 42 days or greater (median time from first to second therapeutic ascitic drainage). RESULTS: 24 participants (median age 67 years [range 38-86]; median 4.5 lines prior systemic treatment [range 1-12]; ECOG performance status of 0 in 1, 1 in 8, and 2-3 in 15) were recruited. The doses of IP-bev administered were 1 in 13 participants, 2 in 5, 3 in 2, 4 in 1, and 5 in 1. The proportion with a TTP of >42 days using competing risk analysis was 77% (95% CI 58-92). Median time from P0 to P1 or death was 48 days (range 8-248). Median paracentesis-free interval (P0-P1 or death) was 4.29-fold (95% CI 2.4-5.8) higher following a first dose of IP-bev compared with the time between paracenteses prior to study entry (P-1-P0). CONCLUSION: IP-bev was safe, active, and warrants further study as a palliative intervention for recurrent ascites in CR-EOC patients receiving best supportive care.
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    Common variants in breast cancer risk loci predispose to distinct tumor subtypes
    Ahearn, TU ; Zhang, H ; Michailidou, K ; Milne, RL ; Bolla, MK ; Dennis, J ; Dunning, AM ; Lush, M ; Wang, Q ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Arndt, V ; Aronson, KJ ; Auer, PL ; Augustinsson, A ; Baten, A ; Becher, H ; Behrens, S ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Blomqvist, C ; Bojesen, SE ; Bonanni, B ; Borresen-Dale, A-L ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Brooks-Wilson, A ; Bruening, T ; Burwinkel, B ; Buys, SS ; Canzian, F ; Castelao, JE ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Clarke, CL ; Collee, JM ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; Devilee, P ; Dork, T ; Dwek, M ; Eccles, DM ; Evans, DG ; Fasching, PA ; Figueroa, J ; Floris, G ; Gago-Dominguez, M ; Gapstur, SM ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Gaudet, MM ; Giles, GG ; Goldberg, MS ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Alnaes, GIG ; Grip, M ; Guenel, P ; Haiman, CA ; Hall, P ; Hamann, U ; Harkness, EF ; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, BAM ; Holleczek, B ; Hollestelle, A ; Hooning, MJ ; Hoover, RN ; Hopper, JL ; Howell, A ; Jakimovska, M ; Jakubowska, A ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Jung, A ; Kaaks, R ; Kauppila, S ; Keeman, R ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kitahara, CM ; Ko, Y-D ; Koutros, S ; Kristensen, VN ; Kruger, U ; Kubelka-Sabit, K ; Kurian, AW ; Kyriacou, K ; Lambrechts, D ; Lee, DG ; Lindblom, A ; Linet, M ; Lissowska, J ; Llaneza, A ; Lo, W-Y ; MacInnis, RJ ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoochehri, M ; Margolin, S ; Martinez, ME ; McLean, C ; Meindl, A ; Menon, U ; Nevanlinna, H ; Newman, WG ; Nodora, J ; Offit, K ; Olsson, H ; Orr, N ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Patel, A ; Peto, J ; Pita, G ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Prentice, R ; Punie, K ; Pylkas, K ; Radice, P ; Rennert, G ; Romero, A ; Ruediger, T ; Saloustros, E ; Sampson, S ; Sandler, DP ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmutzler, RK ; Schoemaker, MJ ; Schottker, B ; Sherman, ME ; Shu, X-O ; Smichkoska, S ; Southey, MC ; Spinelli, JJ ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tamimi, RM ; Tapper, WJ ; Taylor, JA ; Teras, LR ; Terry, MB ; Torres, D ; Troester, MA ; Vachon, CM ; van Deurzen, CHM ; van Veen, EM ; Wagner, P ; Weinberg, CR ; Wendt, C ; Wesseling, J ; Winqvist, R ; Wolk, A ; Yang, XR ; Zheng, W ; Couch, FJ ; Simard, J ; Kraft, P ; Easton, DF ; Pharoah, PDP ; Schmidt, MK ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Chatterjee, N (BMC, 2022-01-04)
    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. METHODS: Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. RESULTS: Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
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    Differential expression of selected histone modifier genes in human solid cancers
    Ozdag, H ; Teschendorff, AE ; Ahmed, AA ; Hyland, SJ ; Blenkiron, C ; Bobrow, L ; Veerakumarasivam, A ; Burtt, G ; Subkhankulova, T ; Arends, MJ ; Collins, VP ; Bowtell, D ; Kouzarides, T ; Brenton, JD ; Caldas, C (BMC, 2006-04-25)
    BACKGROUND: Post-translational modification of histones resulting in chromatin remodelling plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report characteristic patterns of expression of 12 members of 3 classes of chromatin modifier genes in 6 different cancer types: histone acetyltransferases (HATs)- EP300, CREBBP, and PCAF; histone deacetylases (HDACs)- HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7A, and SIRT1; and histone methyltransferases (HMTs)- SUV39H1and SUV39H2. Expression of each gene in 225 samples (135 primary tumours, 47 cancer cell lines, and 43 normal tissues) was analysedby QRT-PCR, normalized with 8 housekeeping genes, and given as a ratio by comparison with a universal reference RNA. RESULTS: This involved a total of 13,000 PCR assays allowing for rigorous analysis by fitting a linear regression model to the data. Mutation analysis of HDAC1, HDAC2, SUV39H1, and SUV39H2 revealed only two out of 181 cancer samples (both cell lines) with significant coding-sequence alterations. Supervised analysis and Independent Component Analysis showed that expression of many of these genes was able to discriminate tumour samples from their normal counterparts. Clustering based on the normalized expression ratios of the 12 genes also showed that most samples were grouped according to tissue type. Using a linear discriminant classifier and internal cross-validation revealed that with as few as 5 of the 12 genes, SIRT1, CREBBP, HDAC7A, HDAC5 and PCAF, most samples were correctly assigned. CONCLUSION: The expression patterns of HATs, HDACs, and HMTs suggest these genes are important in neoplastic transformation and have characteristic patterns of expression depending on tissue of origin, with implications for potential clinical application.
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    A mouse with a loss-of-function mutation in the c-Cbl TKB domain shows perturbed thymocyte signaling without enhancing the activity of the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase
    Thien, CBF ; Scaife, RM ; Papadimitriou, JM ; Murphy, MA ; Bowtell, DDL ; Langdon, WY (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2003-02-17)
    The unique tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) domain of Cbl targets phosphorylated tyrosines on activated protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs); this targeting is considered essential for Cbl proteins to negatively regulate PTKs. Here, a loss-of-function mutation (G304E) in the c-Cbl TKB domain, first identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, was introduced into a mouse and its effects in thymocytes and T cells were studied. In marked contrast to the c-Cbl knockout mouse, we found no evidence of enhanced activity of the ZAP-70 PTK in thymocytes from the TKB domain mutant mouse. This finding contradicts the accepted mechanism of c-Cbl-mediated negative regulation, which requires TKB domain targeting of phosphotyrosine 292 in ZAP-70. However, the TKB domain mutant mouse does show aspects of enhanced signaling that parallel those of the c-Cbl knockout mouse, but these involve the constitutive activation of Rac and not enhanced PTK activity. Furthermore, the enhanced signaling in CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes appears to be compensated by the selective down-regulation of CD3 on mature thymocytes and peripheral T cells from both strains of mutant c-Cbl mice.
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    Cbl associates with Pyk2 and Src to regulate Src kinase activity, alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated signaling, cell adhesion, and osteoclast motility
    Sanjay, A ; Houghton, A ; Neff, L ; DiDomenico, E ; Bardelay, C ; Antoine, E ; Levy, J ; Gailit, J ; Bowtell, D ; Horne, WC ; Baron, R (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2001-01-08)
    The signaling events downstream of integrins that regulate cell attachment and motility are only partially understood. Using osteoclasts and transfected 293 cells, we find that a molecular complex comprising Src, Pyk2, and Cbl functions to regulate cell adhesion and motility. The activation of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) induces the [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402, its association with Src SH2, Src activation, and the Src SH3-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Furthermore, the PTB domain of Cbl is shown to bind to phosphorylated Tyr-416 in the activation loop of Src, the autophosphorylation site of Src, inhibiting Src kinase activity and integrin-mediated adhesion. Finally, we show that deletion of c Src or c-Cbl leads to a decrease in osteoclast migration. Thus, binding of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin induces the formation of a Pyk2/Src/Cbl complex in which Cbl is a key regulator of Src kinase activity and of cell adhesion and migration. These findings may explain the osteopetrotic phenotype in the Src(-/-) mice.
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    TRACEBACK: Testing of Historical Tubo-Ovarian Cancer Patients for Hereditary Risk Genes as a Cancer Prevention Strategy in Family Members
    Delahunty, R ; Nguyen, L ; Craig, S ; Creighton, B ; Ariyaratne, D ; Garsed, DW ; Christie, E ; Fereday, S ; Andrews, L ; Lewis, A ; Limb, S ; Pandey, A ; Hendley, J ; Traficante, N ; Carvajal, N ; Spurdle, AB ; Thompson, B ; Parsons, MT ; Beshay, V ; Volcheck, M ; Semple, T ; Lupat, R ; Doig, K ; Yu, J ; Chen, XQ ; Marsh, A ; Love, C ; Bilic, S ; Beilin, M ; Nichols, CB ; Greer, C ; Lee, YC ; Gerty, S ; Gill, L ; Newton, E ; Howard, J ; Williams, R ; Norris, C ; Stephens, AN ; Tutty, E ; Smyth, C ; O'Connell, S ; Jobling, T ; Stewart, CJR ; Tan, A ; Fox, SB ; Pachter, N ; Li, J ; Ellul, J ; Mir Arnau, G ; Young, M-A ; Gordon, L ; Forrest, L ; Harris, M ; Livingstone, K ; Hill, J ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Cohen, PA ; Webb, PM ; Friedlander, M ; James, P ; Bowtell, D ; Alsop, K (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2022-06-20)
    PURPOSE: Tubo-ovarian cancer (TOC) is a sentinel cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs). Identification of a PV in the first member of a family at increased genetic risk (the proband) provides opportunities for cancer prevention in other at-risk family members. Although Australian testing rates are now high, PVs in patients with TOC whose diagnosis predated revised testing guidelines might have been missed. We assessed the feasibility of detecting PVs in this population to enable genetic risk reduction in relatives. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this pilot study, deceased probands were ascertained from research cohort studies, identification by a relative, and gynecologic oncology clinics. DNA was extracted from archival tissue or stored blood for panel sequencing of 10 risk-associated genes. Testing of deceased probands ascertained through clinic records was performed with a consent waiver. RESULTS: We identified 85 PVs in 84 of 787 (11%) probands. Familial contacts of 39 of 60 (65%) deceased probands with an identified recipient (60 of 84; 71%) have received a written notification of results, with follow-up verbal contact made in 85% (33 of 39). A minority of families (n = 4) were already aware of the PV. For many (29 of 33; 88%), the genetic result provided new information and referral to a genetic service was accepted in most cases (66%; 19 of 29). Those who declined referral (4 of 29) were all male next of kin whose family member had died more than 10 years before. CONCLUSION: We overcame ethical and logistic challenges to demonstrate that retrospective genetic testing to identify PVs in previously untested deceased probands with TOC is feasible. Understanding reasons for a family member's decision to accept or decline a referral will be important for guiding future TRACEBACK projects.
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    Phenotypic Consequences of SLC25A40-ABCB1 Fusions beyond Drug Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer
    Pishas, K ; Cowley, KJ ; Pandey, A ; Hoang, T ; Beach, JA ; Luu, J ; Vary, R ; Smith, LK ; Shembrey, CE ; Rashoo, N ; White, MO ; Simpson, KJ ; Bild, A ; Griffiths, J ; Cheasley, D ; Campbell, I ; Bowtell, DDL ; Christie, EL (MDPI, 2021-11-01)
    Despite high response rates to initial chemotherapy, the majority of women diagnosed with High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC) ultimately develop drug resistance within 1-2 years of treatment. We previously identified the most common mechanism of acquired resistance in HGSOC to date, transcriptional fusions involving the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1, which has well established roles in multidrug resistance. However, the underlying biology of fusion-positive cells, as well as how clonal interactions between fusion-negative and positive populations influences proliferative fitness and therapeutic response remains unknown. Using a panel of fusion-negative and positive HGSOC single-cell clones, we demonstrate that in addition to mediating drug resistance, ABCB1 fusion-positive cells display impaired proliferative capacity, elevated oxidative metabolism, altered actin cellular morphology and an extracellular matrix/inflammatory enriched transcriptional profile. The co-culture of fusion-negative and positive populations had no effect on cellular proliferation but markedly altered drug sensitivity to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin. Finally, high-throughput screening of 2907 FDA-approved compounds revealed 36 agents that induce equal cytotoxicity in both pure and mixed ABCB1 fusion populations. Collectively, our findings have unraveled the underlying biology of ABCB1 fusion-positive cells beyond drug resistance and identified novel therapeutic agents that may significantly improve the prognosis of relapsed HGSOC patients.