Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 2065
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    The Development and Piloting of a Virtual Reality Patient Consultation Simulation to Improve Oncology Practitioners Communication and Counseling Skills
    Kok, DL ; Sapkaroski, D ; Dushyanthen, S ; Diggens, J ; Anderson, N ; Barrett, M ; McArthur, G (Elsevier BV, 2021-09)
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    IL-23 costimulates antigen-specific MAIT cell activation and enables vaccination against bacterial infection
    Wang, H ; Kjer-Nielsen, L ; Shi, M ; D'Souza, C ; Pediongco, TJ ; Cao, H ; Kostenko, L ; Lim, XY ; Eckle, SBG ; Meehan, BS ; Zhu, T ; Wang, B ; Zhao, Z ; Mak, JYW ; Fairlie, DP ; Teng, MWL ; Rossjohn, J ; Yu, D ; de St Groth, BF ; Lovrecz, G ; Lu, L ; McCluskey, J ; Strugnell, RA ; Corbett, AJ ; Chen, Z (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2019-11-01)
    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in a TCR-dependent manner by antigens derived from the riboflavin synthesis pathway, including 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), bound to MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). However, MAIT cell activation in vivo has not been studied in detail. Here, we have found and characterized additional molecular signals required for optimal activation and expansion of MAIT cells after pulmonary Legionella or Salmonella infection in mice. We show that either bone marrow–derived APCs or non–bone marrow–derived cells can activate MAIT cells in vivo, depending on the pathogen. Optimal MAIT cell activation in vivo requires signaling through the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), which is highly expressed on MAIT cells. Subsequent expansion and maintenance of MAIT-17/1-type responses are dependent on IL-23. Vaccination with IL-23 plus 5-OP-RU augments MAIT cell–mediated control of pulmonary Legionella infection. These findings reveal cellular and molecular targets for manipulating MAIT cell function under physiological conditions.
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    An alternative splicing switch in FLNB promotes the mesenchymal cell state in human breast cancer
    Li, J ; Choi, PS ; Chaffer, CL ; Labella, K ; Hwang, JH ; Giacomelli, AO ; Kim, JW ; Ilic, N ; Doench, JG ; Ly, SH ; Dai, C ; Hagel, K ; Hong, AL ; Gjoerup, O ; Goel, S ; Ge, JY ; Root, DE ; Zhao, JJ ; Brooks, AN ; Weinberg, RA ; Hahn, WC (ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-07-30)
    Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors represents a key gene expression regulatory step and permits the generation of distinct protein products with diverse functions. In a genome-scale expression screen for inducers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we found a striking enrichment of RNA-binding proteins. We validated that QKI and RBFOX1 were necessary and sufficient to induce an intermediate mesenchymal cell state and increased tumorigenicity. Using RNA-seq and eCLIP analysis, we found that QKI and RBFOX1 coordinately regulated the splicing and function of the actin-binding protein FLNB, which plays a causal role in the regulation of EMT. Specifically, the skipping of FLNB exon 30 induced EMT by releasing the FOXC1 transcription factor. Moreover, skipping of FLNB exon 30 is strongly associated with EMT gene signatures in basal-like breast cancer patient samples. These observations identify a specific dysregulation of splicing, which regulates tumor cell plasticity and is frequently observed in human cancer.
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    CDK4/6 inhibition: the late harvest cycle begins
    Goel, S ; Zhao, JJ (IMPACT JOURNALS LLC, 2016-08-02)
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    CDK4/6 inhibition in breast cancer: current practice and future directions
    Pernas, S ; Tolaney, SM ; Winer, EP ; Goel, S (SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018-07-17)
    The cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma protein (RB) pathway plays a key role in the proliferation of both normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. A strong rationale for inhibiting CDK4/6 in breast cancers has been present for many years. However, potent and selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have only recently become available. These agents prevent phosphorylation of the RB tumor suppressor, thereby invoking cancer cell cycle arrest in G1. CDK4/6 inhibitors have transited rapidly from preclinical studies to the clinical arena, and three have already been approved for the treatment of advanced, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients on account of striking clinical trial results demonstrating substantial improvements in progression-free survival. ER-positive breast cancers harbor several molecular features that would predict their sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. As physicians gain experience with using these agents in the clinic, new questions arise: are CDK4/6 inhibitors likely to be useful for patients with other subtypes of breast cancer? Are there other agents that could be effectively combined with CDK4/6 inhibitors, beyond endocrine therapy? Is there a rationale for combining CDK4/6 inhibitors with novel immune-based therapies? In this review, we describe not only the clinical data available to date, but also the biology of the CDK4/6 pathway and discuss answers to these questions. In particular, we highlight that CDK4 and CDK6 govern much more than the cancer cell cycle, and that their optimal use in the clinic depends on a deeper understanding of the less well characterized effects of these enzymes.
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    SUBA-Itraconazole for Primary Antifungal Prophylaxis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
    Lindsay, J ; Othman, J ; Kong, Y ; Yip, A ; Van Hal, S ; Larsen, S ; Bryant, C ; Gibson, J ; Kerridge, I ; Fay, K ; Stevenson, W ; Arthur, C ; Chen, SCA ; Kong, DCM ; Greenwood, M ; Pergam, SA ; Liu, C ; Slavin, MA (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-11-01)
    Background: Itraconazole (ITZ) is an effective agent when used as primary invasive fungal disease (IFD) prophylaxis, but is limited by drug tolerability and variability in serum concentrations. A new formulation, SUBA-itraconazole (for "super bioavailability"; S-ITZ), addresses the limitations of conventional ITZ formulations. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 2 Australian centers to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of S-ITZ as primary antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients without grade II-IV acute graft-vs-host disease, from day 1 until approximately day 100 (cohort A) or day 1 until neutrophil engraftment (cohort B). A total of 204 patients and 1410 trough plasma ITZ concentrations were assessed. Results: The incidence of breakthrough proven/probable IFD at day 180 was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], .2%-3.2%), with 1.6% in cohort A and 0% in cohort B, and overall fungal-free survival of proven/probable IFD was 82.9% (95% CI, 76.8%-87.4%). Preengraftment early permanent S-ITZ discontinuation was 3.4% overall, with no significant difference between cohorts. No patients required cessation due to gastrointestinal intolerance attributed to S-ITZ. The geometric mean trough plasma ITZ concentration was 1130ng/mL (interquartile range, 566-1801ng/mL; coefficient of variation, 56.57%) and the median time to achieve therapeutic levels was 10 days. Conclusions: S-ITZ is a safe and well-tolerated oral formulation and is a novel alternative for primary IFD prophylaxis after HCT.
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    Estrogen Receptor beta Activation Impairs Prostatic Regeneration by Inducing Apoptosis in Murine and Human Stem/Progenitor Enriched Cell Populations
    Hussain, S ; Lawrence, MG ; Taylor, RA ; Lo, CY-W ; BioResource, APC ; Frydenberg, M ; Ellem, SJ ; Furic, L ; Risbridger, GP ; Tang, DG (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-07-10)
    Androgen depletion is the primary treatment for prostate disease; however, it fails to target residual castrate-resistant cells that are regenerative and cells of origin of prostate cancer. Estrogens, like androgens, regulate survival in prostatic cells, and the goal of this study was to determine the advantages of selective activation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to induce cell death in stem cells that are castrate-resistant. Here we show two cycles of short-term ERβ agonist (8β-VE2) administration this treatment impairs regeneration, causing cystic atrophy that correlates with sustained depletion of p63+ basal cells. Furthermore, agonist treatment attenuates clonogenicity and self-renewal of murine prostatic stem/progenitor cells and depletes both murine (Lin(-)Sca1(+)CD49f(hi)) and human (CD49f(hi)Trop2(hi)) prostatic basal cells. Finally, we demonstrate the combined added benefits of selective stimulation of ERβ, including the induction of cell death in quiescent post-castration tissues. Subsequent to castration ERβ-induces further apoptosis in basal, luminal and intermediate cells. Our results reveal a novel benefit of ERβ activation for prostate disease and suggest that combining selective activation of ERβ with androgen-deprivation may be a feasible strategy to target stem cells implicated in the origin of prostatic disease.
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    mTORC1 and CK2 coordinate ternary and eIF4F complex assembly
    Gandin, V ; Masvidal, L ; Cargnello, M ; Gyenis, L ; McLaughlan, S ; Cai, Y ; Tenkerian, C ; Morita, M ; Balanathan, P ; Jean-Jean, O ; Stambolic, V ; Trost, M ; Furic, L ; Larose, L ; Koromilas, AE ; Asano, K ; Litchfield, D ; Larsson, O ; Topisirovic, I (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-04-01)
    Ternary complex (TC) and eIF4F complex assembly are the two major rate-limiting steps in translation initiation regulated by eIF2α phosphorylation and the mTOR/4E-BP pathway, respectively. How TC and eIF4F assembly are coordinated, however, remains largely unknown. We show that mTOR suppresses translation of mRNAs activated under short-term stress wherein TC recycling is attenuated by eIF2α phosphorylation. During acute nutrient or growth factor stimulation, mTORC1 induces eIF2β phosphorylation and recruitment of NCK1 to eIF2, decreases eIF2α phosphorylation and bolsters TC recycling. Accordingly, eIF2β mediates the effect of mTORC1 on protein synthesis and proliferation. In addition, we demonstrate a formerly undocumented role for CK2 in regulation of translation initiation, whereby CK2 stimulates phosphorylation of eIF2β and simultaneously bolsters eIF4F complex assembly via the mTORC1/4E-BP pathway. These findings imply a previously unrecognized mode of translation regulation, whereby mTORC1 and CK2 coordinate TC and eIF4F complex assembly to stimulate cell proliferation.
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    Targeting mTOR-dependent with specific inhibitors: a model for personalized medicine based on molecular diagnoses
    Furic, L ; Livingstone, M ; Dowling, RJO ; Sonenberg, N (MULTIMED INC, 2009-02-01)
    Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant growth arising from deregulated signalling pathways. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway integrates multiple growth signals coming from both intracellular and extracellular cues. In this short review, we summarize what is known about the efficacy of targeting the mTOR pathway to treat cancer patients, and we explain the rationale behind promising new inhibitors that could show more potent tumour growth inhibition than did the first generation of these drugs.
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    Pro-tumorigenic role of ER alpha in prostate cancer cells
    Furic, L ; Lawrence, MG ; Risbridger, GP (IMPACT JOURNALS LLC, 2015-06-01)