Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Glucagonoma Masquerading as a Mucinous Cancer of the Ovary: Lessons from Cell Biology
    Ho, GY ; Ananda, S ; Vandenberg, CJ ; McNally, O ; Tie, J ; Gorringe, K ; Bowtell, D ; Pyman, J ; Wakefield, MJ ; Scott, CL ; Ho, GY ; Frentzas, S (IntechOpen, 2020-06-17)
    High-grade mucinous ovarian cancer (HGMOC) is often a misnomer as the majority of cases are metastatic disease with a gastro-intestinal origin. The standard platinum-based ovarian cancer (OC) chemotherapy regimens are often ineffective, and there are insufficient data to support the use of colorectal cancer (CRC) chemotherapy regimens due to the rarity of HGMOC. We described a cohort of four consecutive suspected HGMOC cases treated at the Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne in 2012. Two cases were treated as primary MOC, whereas the other two were considered to be metastatic CRC based on histopathological and clinical evidence. From the RNAseq analysis, we identified two cases of HGMOC whose gene expression profiles were consistent with mucinous epithelial OC, one case that was treated as metastatic CRC with gene expression profile correlated with CRC and one case with neuroendocrine (NET) gene expression features. Interestingly, glucagon was over-expressed in this tumor that was subsequently confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These findings suggest a rare glucagonoma-like NET appendiceal tumor that had metastasized to the surface of ovary and were unresponsive to CRC chemotherapy regimens. In summary, a carefully curated panel of expression markers and selected functional genomics could provide diagnosis and treatment guidance for patients with possible HGMOC.
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    Thumbnail Image An Ethically Approved Online Database for Patient-Entered Data to Facilitate Rare Cancer Research
    Kee, D ; Parker, C ; Bae, S ; Tucker, KM ; Harrison, M ; Tohidi-Esfahani, I ; Black, M ; Delahunty, R ; Ananda, S ; Friedlander, M ; Cunliffe, HE ; Gibbs, P ; Desai, J ; Trotman, J ; Scott, CL (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-02-21)
    PURPOSE: Rare cancers are challenging for researchers, as clinicians and scientists have difficulty recruiting sufficient patient cases to power studies appropriately. Likewise, patients often are frustrated by a lack of specific information or evidence base for their cancer and, although eager to participate in research, have limited opportunities. We established, an online patient-entered database, to directly engage patients in the research process, collect rare cancer data, and facilitate their entry into additional research. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients access directly online. Clinical information is collected from users via a streamlined questionnaire developed collaboratively with consumer groups to ensure accessibility and relevance. Data collected include the following: patient demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors and tumor diagnostic, biomarker, and treatment history. Patients can download a medical summary for personal use; consent for research use of data; and indicate willingness to be contacted about other research or clinical trials. We describe data collected to date and its validation, and we provide examples of how can facilitate rare cancer research. RESULTS: From January 2010 to March 2018, 558 patients provided consent and entered their rare cancer data. One hundred distinct rare tumor types and patients from 22 countries were included. Validation of data entered by 21 patients with sarcoma against a hospital database demonstrated accuracy sufficient to facilitate future research in key fields, such as tumor site (95%) and histopathologic diagnosis (90%). Examples of CART-WHEEL-based disease-specific projects, subsequent recruitment to other rare cancer projects, and rare cancer patient cases of interest are described. CONCLUSIONS: Online platforms like can engage consumers directly, facilitating collection of patient-entered rare cancer data for hypothesis generation, and connect patients with researchers to enable specific rare cancer research and clinical trials.
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    Therapeutic options for mucinous ovarian carcinoma
    Gorringe, KL ; Cheasley, D ; Wakefield, MJ ; Ryland, GL ; Allan, PE ; Alsop, K ; Amarasinghe, KC ; Ananda, S ; Bowtell, DDL ; Christie, M ; Chiew, Y-E ; Churchman, M ; DeFazio, A ; Fereday, S ; Gilks, CB ; Gourley, C ; Hadley, AM ; Hendley, J ; Hunter, SM ; Kaufmann, SH ; Kennedy, CJ ; Kobel, M ; Le Page, C ; Li, J ; Lupat, R ; McNally, OM ; McAlpine, JN ; Pyman, J ; Rowley, SM ; Salazar, C ; Saunders, H ; Semple, T ; Stephens, AN ; Thio, N ; Torres, MC ; Traficante, N ; Zethoven, M ; Antill, YC ; Campbell, IG ; Scott, CL (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03)
    OBJECTIVE: Mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) is an uncommon ovarian cancer histotype that responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy regimens. Although long overall survival outcomes can occur with early detection and optimal surgical resection, recurrent and advanced disease are associated with extremely poor survival. There are no current guidelines specifically for the systemic management of recurrent MOC. We analyzed data from a large cohort of women with MOC to evaluate the potential for clinical utility from a range of systemic agents. METHODS: We analyzed gene copy number (n = 191) and DNA sequencing data (n = 184) from primary MOC to evaluate signatures of mismatch repair deficiency and homologous recombination deficiency, and other genetic events. Immunohistochemistry data were collated for ER, CK7, CK20, CDX2, HER2, PAX8 and p16 (n = 117-166). RESULTS: Molecular aberrations noted in MOC that suggest a match with current targeted therapies include amplification of ERBB2 (26.7%) and BRAF mutation (9%). Observed genetic events that suggest potential efficacy for agents currently in clinical trials include: KRAS/NRAS mutations (66%), TP53 missense mutation (49%), RNF43 mutation (11%), ARID1A mutation (10%), and PIK3CA/PTEN mutation (9%). Therapies exploiting homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) may not be effective in MOC, as only 1/191 had a high HRD score. Mismatch repair deficiency was similarly rare (1/184). CONCLUSIONS: Although genetically diverse, MOC has several potential therapeutic targets. Importantly, the lack of response to platinum-based therapy observed clinically corresponds to the lack of a genomic signature associated with HRD, and MOC are thus also unlikely to respond to PARP inhibition.