Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Gene expression profiling of mucinous ovarian tumors and comparison with upper and lower gastrointestinal tumors identifies markers associated with adverse outcomes.
    Meagher, NS ; Gorringe, KL ; Wakefield, MJ ; Bolithon, A ; Pang, CNI ; Chiu, DS ; Anglesio, MS ; Mallitt, K-A ; Doherty, JA ; Harris, HR ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Cushing-Haugen, KL ; Chezar, K ; Chou, A ; Tan, A ; Alsop, J ; Barlow, E ; Beckmann, MW ; Boros, J ; Bowtell, DD ; Brand, AH ; Brenton, JD ; Campbell, I ; Cheasley, D ; Cohen, J ; Cybulski, C ; Elishaev, E ; Erber, R ; Farrell, R ; Fischer, A ; Fu, Z ; Gilks, B ; Gill, AJ ; Gourley, C ; Grube, M ; Harnett, P ; Hartmann, A ; Hettiaratchi, A ; Høgdall, CK ; Huzarski, T ; Jakubowska, A ; Jimenez-Linan, M ; Kennedy, CJ ; Kim, B-G ; Kim, J-W ; Kim, J-H ; Klett, K ; Koziak, J ; Lai, T ; Laslavic, A ; Lester, J ; Leung, Y ; Li, N ; Liauw, W ; Lim, BWX ; Linder, A ; Lubinski, J ; Mahale, S ; Mateoiu, C ; McInerny, S ; Menkiszak, J ; Minoo, P ; Mittelstadt, S ; Morris, D ; Orsulic, S ; Park, SY ; Pearce, CL ; Pearson, JV ; Pike, MC ; Quinn, CM ; Mohan, GR ; Rao, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Ruebner, M ; Salfinger, S ; Scott, CL ; Shah, M ; Steed, H ; Stewart, CJR ; Subramanian, D ; Sung, S ; Tang, K ; Timpson, P ; Ward, RL ; Wiedenhoefer, R ; Thorne, H ; Cohen, PA ; Crowe, P ; Fasching, PA ; Gronwald, J ; Hawkins, NJ ; Høgdall, E ; Huntsman, DG ; James, PA ; Karlan, BY ; Kelemen, LE ; Kommoss, S ; Konecny, GE ; Modugno, F ; Park, SK ; Staebler, A ; Sundfeldt, K ; Wu, AH ; Talhouk, A ; Pharoah, PDP ; Anderson, L ; DeFazio, A ; Köbel, M ; Friedlander, ML ; Ramus, SJ (American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), 2022-10-12)
    PURPOSE: Advanced stage MOC have poor chemotherapy response and prognosis and lack biomarkers to aid Stage I adjuvant treatment. Differentiating primary mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) from gastrointestinal (GI) metastases to the ovary is also challenging due to phenotypic similarities. Clinicopathological and gene expression data were analysed to identify prognostic and diagnostic features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Discovery analyses selected 19 genes with prognostic/diagnostic potential. Validation was performed through the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium and GI cancer biobanks comprising 604 patients with MOC (n=333), mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (MBOT, n=151), upper GI (n=65), and lower GI tumors (n=55). RESULTS: Infiltrative pattern of invasion was associated with decreased overall survival (OS) within 2-years from diagnosis, compared with expansile pattern in Stage I MOC (hazard ratio HR 2.77 (1.04-7.41, p=0.042). Increased expression of THBS2 and TAGLN were associated with shorter OS in MOC patients, (HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.04-1.51, p=0.016)) and (1.21 (1.01-1.45, p=0.043)) respectively. ERBB2 (HER2)-amplification or high mRNA expression was evident in 64/243 (26%) of MOCs, but only 8/243 (3%) were also infiltrative (4/39, 10%) or Stage III/IV (4/31, 13%). CONCLUSIONS: An infiltrative growth pattern infers poor prognosis within 2-years from diagnosis and may help select Stage I patients for adjuvant therapy. High expression of THBS2 and TAGLN in MOC confer an adverse prognosis and is upregulated in the infiltrative subtype which warrants further investigation. Anti-HER2 therapy should be investigated in a subset of patients. MOC samples clustered with upper GI, yet markers to differentiate these entities remain elusive, suggesting similar underlying biology and shared treatment strategies.
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    Copy number variants as modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.
    Hakkaart, C ; Pearson, JF ; Marquart, L ; Dennis, J ; Wiggins, GAR ; Barnes, DR ; Robinson, BA ; Mace, PD ; Aittomäki, K ; Andrulis, IL ; Arun, BK ; Azzollini, J ; Balmaña, J ; Barkardottir, RB ; Belhadj, S ; Berger, L ; Blok, MJ ; Boonen, SE ; Borde, J ; Bradbury, AR ; Brunet, J ; Buys, SS ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; GEMO Study Collaborators, ; EMBRACE Collaborators, ; Collonge-Rame, M-A ; Cook, J ; Cosgrove, C ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dandiker, S ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Delnatte, C ; Dhawan, M ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Domchek, SM ; Donaldson, A ; Eason, J ; Easton, DF ; Ehrencrona, H ; Engel, C ; Evans, DG ; Faust, U ; Feliubadaló, L ; Fostira, F ; Friedman, E ; Frone, M ; Frost, D ; Garber, J ; Gayther, SA ; Gehrig, A ; Gesta, P ; Godwin, AK ; Goldgar, DE ; Greene, MH ; Hahnen, E ; Hake, CR ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Hauke, J ; Hentschel, J ; Herold, N ; Honisch, E ; Hulick, PJ ; Imyanitov, EN ; SWE-BRCA Investigators, ; kConFab Investigators, ; HEBON Investigators, ; Isaacs, C ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; John, EM ; Joseph, V ; Karlan, BY ; Kemp, Z ; Kirk, J ; Konstantopoulou, I ; Koudijs, M ; Kwong, A ; Laitman, Y ; Lalloo, F ; Lasset, C ; Lautrup, C ; Lazaro, C ; Legrand, C ; Leslie, G ; Lesueur, F ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Mari, V ; Martens, JWM ; McGuffog, L ; Mebirouk, N ; Meindl, A ; Miller, A ; Montagna, M ; Moserle, L ; Mouret-Fourme, E ; Musgrave, H ; Nambot, S ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nguyen-Dumont, T ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olopade, OI ; Osorio, A ; Ott, C-E ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Perez-Segura, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Pocza, T ; Radice, P ; Ramser, J ; Rantala, J ; Rodriguez, GC ; Rønlund, K ; Rosenberg, EH ; Rossing, M ; Schmutzler, RK ; Shah, PD ; Sharif, S ; Sharma, P ; Side, LE ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Snape, K ; Steinemann, D ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutter, C ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Thomassen, M ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Toland, AE ; Trainer, AH ; Tripathi, V ; Tung, N ; van Engelen, K ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Viel, A ; Walker, L ; Weitzel, JN ; Wevers, MR ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Spurdle, AB ; Antoniou, AC ; Walker, LC (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-10-06)
    The contribution of germline copy number variants (CNVs) to risk of developing cancer in individuals with pathogenic BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants remains relatively unknown. We conducted the largest genome-wide analysis of CNVs in 15,342 BRCA1 and 10,740 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. We used these results to prioritise a candidate breast cancer risk-modifier gene for laboratory analysis and biological validation. Notably, the HR for deletions in BRCA1 suggested an elevated breast cancer risk estimate (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21), 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.09-1.35) compared with non-CNV pathogenic variants. In contrast, deletions overlapping SULT1A1 suggested a decreased breast cancer risk (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers. Functional analyses of SULT1A1 showed that reduced mRNA expression in pathogenic BRCA1 variant cells was associated with reduced cellular proliferation and reduced DNA damage after treatment with DNA damaging agents. These data provide evidence that deleterious variants in BRCA1 plus SULT1A1 deletions contribute to variable breast cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers.
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    The Clinical and Psychosocial Outcomes for Women Who Received Unexpected Clinically Actionable Germline Information Identified through Research: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed-Methods Comparative Study
    Forrest, LE ; Shepherd, RF ; Tutty, E ; Pearce, A ; Campbell, I ; Devereux, L ; Trainer, AH ; James, PA ; Young, M-A (MDPI, 2022-07-01)
    UNLABELLED: Background Research identifying and returning clinically actionable germline variants offer a new avenue of access to genetic information. The psychosocial and clinical outcomes for women who have received this 'genome-first care' delivering hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk information outside of clinical genetics services are unknown. METHODS: An exploratory sequential mixed-methods case-control study compared outcomes between women who did (cases; group 1) and did not (controls; group 2) receive clinically actionable genetic information from a research cohort in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed an online survey examining cancer risk perception and worry, and group 1 also completed distress and adaptation measures. Group 1 participants subsequently completed a semi structured interview. RESULTS: Forty-five participants (group 1) and 96 (group 2) completed the online survey, and 31 group 1 participants were interviewed. There were no demographic differences between groups 1 and 2, although more of group 1 participants had children (p = 0.03). Group 1 reported significantly higher breast cancer risk perception (p < 0.001) compared to group 2, and higher cancer worry than group 2 (p < 0.001). Some group 1 participants described how receiving their genetic information heightened their cancer risk perception and exacerbated their cancer worry while waiting for risk-reducing surgery. Group 1 participants reported a MICRA mean score of 27.4 (SD 11.8, range 9-56; possible range 0-95), and an adaptation score of 2.9 (SD = 1.1). CONCLUSION: There were no adverse psychological outcomes amongst women who received clinically actionable germline information through a model of 'genome-first' care compared to those who did not. These findings support the return of clinically actionable research results to research participants.
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    Correction: Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmaña, J ; Bandera, EV ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, NV ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; GEMO Study Collaborators, ; GC-HBOC Study Collaborators, ; EMBRACE Collaborators, ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dörk, T ; du Bois, A ; Dürst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, RT ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; OPAL Study Group, ; AOCS Group, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Håkansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Høgdall, E ; Høgdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; KConFab Investigators, ; HEBON Investigators, ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Lubiński, J ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; Matsuno, RK ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, OI ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamariña, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; Terry, MB ; OCAC Consortium, ; CIMBA Consortium, ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05)
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    Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmana, J ; Bandera, E ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, N ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dork, T ; du Bois, A ; Durst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, R ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Group, OS ; AOCSGroup, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Hogdall, E ; Hogdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; KimMatsuno, R ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, O ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamarina, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; BethTerry, M ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-01-14)
    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, "select and shrink for summary statistics" (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28-1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21-1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35-1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.
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    Integration of tumour sequencing and case-control data to assess pathogenicity of RAD51C missense variants in familial breast cancer
    Lim, BWX ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Thompson, ER ; McInerny, S ; Zethoven, M ; Scott, RJ ; Devereux, L ; Sloan, EK ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-01-17)
    While protein-truncating variants in RAD51C have been shown to predispose to triple-negative (TN) breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer, little is known about the pathogenicity of missense (MS) variants. The frequency of rare RAD51C MS variants was assessed in the BEACCON study of 5734 familial BC cases and 14,382 population controls, and findings were integrated with tumour sequencing data from 21 cases carrying a candidate variant. Collectively, a significant enrichment of rare MS variants was detected in cases (MAF < 0.001, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.00-2.44, p = 0.05), particularly for variants with a REVEL score >0.5 (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.40-12.01, p = 0.006). Sequencing of 21 tumours from 20 heterozygous and 1 homozygous carriers of nine candidate MS variants identified four cases with biallelic inactivation through loss of the wild-type allele, while six lost the variant allele and ten that remained heterozygous. Biallelic loss of the wild-type alleles corresponded strongly with ER- and TN breast tumours, high homologous recombination deficiency scores and mutational signature 3. Using this approach, the p.Gly264Ser variant, which was previously suspected to be pathogenic based on small case-control analyses and loss of activity in in vitro functional assays, was shown to be benign with similar prevalence in cases and controls and seven out of eight tumours showing no biallelic inactivation or characteristic mutational signature. Conversely, evaluation of case-control findings and tumour sequencing data identified p.Ile144Thr, p.Arg212His, p.Gln143Arg and p.Gly114Arg as variants warranting further investigation.
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    A functionally impaired missense variant identified in French Canadian families implicates FANCI as a candidate ovarian cancer-predisposing gene
    Fierheller, CT ; Guitton-Sert, L ; Alenezi, WM ; Revil, T ; Oros, KK ; Gao, Y ; Bedard, K ; Arcand, SL ; Serruya, C ; Behl, S ; Meunier, L ; Fleury, H ; Fewings, E ; Subramanian, DN ; Nadaf, J ; Bruce, JP ; Bell, R ; Provencher, D ; Foulkes, WD ; El Haffaf, Z ; Mes-Masson, A-M ; Majewski, J ; Pugh, TJ ; Tischkowitz, M ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG ; Greenwood, CMT ; Ragoussis, J ; Masson, J-Y ; Tonin, PN (BMC, 2021-12-03)
    BACKGROUND: Familial ovarian cancer (OC) cases not harbouring pathogenic variants in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 OC-predisposing genes, which function in homologous recombination (HR) of DNA, could involve pathogenic variants in other DNA repair pathway genes. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify rare variants in HR genes in a BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC family of French Canadian (FC) ancestry, a population exhibiting genetic drift. OC cases and cancer-free individuals from FC and non-FC populations were investigated for carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T; p.L605F, the top-ranking candidate. Gene and protein expression were investigated in cancer cell lines and tissue microarrays, respectively. RESULTS: In FC subjects, c.1813C>T was more common in familial (7.1%, 3/42) than sporadic (1.6%, 7/439) OC cases (P = 0.048). Carriers were detected in 2.5% (74/2950) of cancer-free females though female/male carriers were more likely to have a first-degree relative with OC (121/5249, 2.3%; Spearman correlation = 0.037; P = 0.011), suggesting a role in risk. Many of the cancer-free females had host factors known to reduce risk to OC which could influence cancer risk in this population. There was an increased carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC families, when including the discovery family, compared to cancer-free females (3/23, 13%; OR = 5.8; 95%CI = 1.7-19; P = 0.005). In non-FC subjects, 10 candidate FANCI variants were identified in 4.1% (21/516) of Australian OC cases negative for pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including 10 carriers of FANCI c.1813C>T. Candidate variants were significantly more common in familial OC than in sporadic OC (P = 0.04). Localization of FANCD2, part of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID2) binding complex in the Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway, to sites of induced DNA damage was severely impeded in cells expressing the p.L605F isoform. This isoform was expressed at a reduced level, destabilized by DNA damaging agent treatment in both HeLa and OC cell lines, and exhibited sensitivity to cisplatin but not to a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. By tissue microarray analyses, FANCI protein was consistently expressed in fallopian tube epithelial cells and only expressed at low-to-moderate levels in 88% (83/94) of OC samples. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe candidate OC variants in FANCI, a member of the ID2 complex of the FA DNA repair pathway. Our data suggest that pathogenic FANCI variants may modify OC risk in cancer families.
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    Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk
    Park, HA ; Neumeyer, S ; Michailidou, K ; Bolla, MK ; Wang, Q ; Dennis, J ; Ahearn, TU ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Arndt, V ; Aronson, KJ ; Augustinsson, A ; Baten, A ; Freeman, LEB ; Becher, H ; Beckmann, MW ; Behrens, S ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bogdanova, N ; Bojesen, SE ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Brucker, SY ; Burwinkel, B ; Campa, D ; Canzian, F ; Castelao, JE ; Chanock, SJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Clarke, CL ; Conroy, DM ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; Devilee, P ; Dork, T ; Dos-Santos-Silva, I ; Dwek, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, AH ; Engel, C ; Eriksson, M ; Evans, DG ; Fasching, PA ; Flyger, H ; Fritschi, L ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Gaudet, MM ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Goldberg, MS ; Goldgar, DE ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Grip, M ; Guenel, P ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hall, P ; Hamann, U ; Han, S ; Harkness, EF ; Hart, SN ; He, W ; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, BAM ; Hopper, JL ; Hunter, DJ ; Jager, A ; Jakubowska, A ; John, EM ; Jung, A ; Kaaks, R ; Kapoor, PM ; Keeman, R ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kitahara, CM ; Koppert, LB ; Koutros, S ; Kristensen, VN ; Kurian, AW ; Lacey, J ; Lambrechts, D ; LeMarchand, L ; Lo, W-Y ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoochehri, M ; Margolin, S ; ElenaMartinez, M ; Mavroudis, D ; Meindl, A ; Menon, U ; Milne, RL ; Muranen, TA ; Nevanlinna, H ; Newman, WG ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Offit, K ; Olshan, AF ; Olsson, H ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Peterlongo, P ; Peto, J ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Presneau, N ; Radice, P ; Rennert, G ; Rennert, HS ; Romero, A ; Saloustros, E ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmidt, MK ; Schmutzler, RK ; Schoemaker, MJ ; Schwentner, L ; Scott, C ; Shah, M ; Shu, X-O ; Simard, J ; Smeets, A ; Southey, MC ; Spinelli, JJ ; Stevens, V ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tamimi, RM ; Tapper, WJ ; Taylor, JA ; Terry, MB ; Tomlinson, I ; Troester, MA ; Truong, T ; Vachon, CM ; van Veen, EM ; Vijai, J ; Wang, S ; Wendt, C ; Winqvist, R ; Wolk, A ; Ziogas, A ; Dunning, AM ; Pharoah, PDP ; Easton, DF ; Zheng, W ; Kraft, P ; Chang-Claude, J (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-08-02)
    BACKGROUND: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. RESULTS: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10-2), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. CONCLUSION: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
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    Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores
    Barnes, DR ; Silvestri, V ; Leslie, G ; McGuffog, L ; Dennis, J ; Yang, X ; Adlard, J ; Agnarsson, BA ; Ahmed, M ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrulis, IL ; Arason, A ; Arnold, N ; Auber, B ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Barwell, J ; Belotti, M ; Benitez, J ; Berthet, P ; Boonen, SE ; Borg, A ; Bozsik, A ; Brady, AF ; Brennan, P ; Brewer, C ; Brunet, J ; Bucalo, A ; Buys, SS ; Caldes, T ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cassingham, H ; Christensen, LL ; Cini, G ; Claes, KBM ; Cook, J ; Coppa, A ; Cortesi, L ; Damante, G ; Darder, E ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; De Leeneer, K ; de Putter, R ; Del Valle, J ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Domchek, SM ; Donaldson, A ; Eason, J ; Eeles, R ; Engel, C ; Evans, DG ; Feliubadalo, L ; Fostira, F ; Frone, M ; Frost, D ; Gallagher, D ; Gehrig, A ; Giraud, S ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goldgar, DE ; Greene, MH ; Gregory, H ; Gross, E ; Hahnen, E ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Hanson, H ; Hentschel, J ; Horvath, J ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, UB ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Kramer, G ; Kroeldrup, L ; Kruse, TA ; Lautrup, C ; Lazaro, C ; Lesueur, F ; Lopez-Fernandez, A ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Matrai, Z ; Matricardi, L ; Maxwell, KN ; Mebirouk, N ; Meindl, A ; Montagna, M ; Monteiro, AN ; Morrison, PJ ; Muranen, TA ; Murray, A ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Tu, N-D ; Niederacher, D ; Olah, E ; Olopade, O ; Palli, D ; Parsons, MT ; Pedersen, IS ; Peissel, B ; Perez-Segura, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Petersen, AH ; Pinto, P ; Porteous, ME ; Pottinger, C ; Pujana, MA ; Radice, P ; Ramser, J ; Rantala, J ; Robson, M ; Rogers, MT ; Ronlund, K ; Rump, A ; Sanchez de Abajo, AM ; Shah, PD ; Sharif, S ; Side, LE ; Singer, CF ; Stadler, Z ; Steele, L ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutter, C ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teule, A ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Toland, AE ; Tommasi, S ; Toss, A ; Trainer, AH ; Tripathi, V ; Valentini, V ; van Asperen, CJ ; Venturelli, M ; Viel, A ; Vijai, J ; Walker, L ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Whaite, A ; Zanna, I ; Offit, K ; Thomassen, M ; Couch, FJ ; Schmutzler, RK ; Simard, J ; Easton, DF ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Antoniou, AC ; Ottini, L (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-07-28)
    BACKGROUND: Recent population-based female breast cancer and prostate cancer polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. We assessed the associations of these PRS with breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: 483 BRCA1 and 1318 BRCA2 European ancestry male carriers were available from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A 147-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prostate cancer PRS (PRSPC) and a 313-SNP breast cancer PRS were evaluated. There were 3 versions of the breast cancer PRS, optimized to predict overall (PRSBC), estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (PRSER-), or ER-positive (PRSER+) breast cancer risk. RESULTS: PRSER+ yielded the strongest association with breast cancer risk. The odds ratios (ORs) per PRSER+ standard deviation estimates were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.07 to 1.83) for BRCA1 and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.16 to 1.52) for BRCA2 carriers. PRSPC was associated with prostate cancer risk for BRCA1 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.33) and BRCA2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34 to 1.91) carriers. The estimated breast cancer odds ratios were larger after adjusting for female relative breast cancer family history. By age 85 years, for BRCA2 carriers, the breast cancer risk varied from 7.7% to 18.4% and prostate cancer risk from 34.1% to 87.6% between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based prostate and female breast cancer PRS are associated with a wide range of absolute breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These findings warrant further investigation aimed at providing personalized cancer risks for male carriers and informing clinical management.
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    Evaluation of two population screening programmes for BRCA1/2 founder mutations in the Australian Jewish community: a protocol paper
    Cousens, NE ; Tiller, J ; Meiser, B ; Barlow-Stewart, K ; Rowley, S ; Ko, Y-A ; Mahale, S ; Campbell, IG ; Kaur, R ; Bankier, A ; Burnett, L ; Jacobs, C ; James, PA ; Trainer, A ; Neil, S ; Delatycki, MB ; Andrews, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: People of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) ancestry are more likely than unselected populations to have a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant, which cause a significantly increased risk of breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. Three specific BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants, referred to as BRCA-Jewish founder mutations (B-JFM), account for >90% of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in people of AJ ancestry. Current practice of identifying eligible individuals for BRCA testing based on personal and/or family history has been shown to miss at least 50% of people who have one of these variants. Here we describe the protocol of the JeneScreen study-a study established to develop and evaluate two different population-based B-JFM screening programmes, offered to people of Jewish ancestry in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To rmeasure the acceptability of population-based B-JFM screening in Australia, two screening programmes using different methodologies have been developed. The Sydney JeneScreen programme provides information and obtains informed consent by way of an online tool. The Melbourne JeneScreen programme does this by way of community sessions attended in person. Participants complete questionnaires to measure clinical and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, and for those who have testing, 2 weeks postresult. Participants who decline testing are sent a questionnaire regarding reasons for declining. Participants with a B-JFM are sent questionnaires 12-month and 24-month post-testing. The questionnaires incorporate validated scales, which measure anxiety, decisional conflict and regret, and test-related distress and positive experiences, and other items specifically developed or adapted for the study. These measures will be assessed for each programme and the two population-based B-JFM screening methods will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained from the South Eastern Area Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee: HREC Ref 16/125.Following the analysis of the study results, the findings will be disseminated widely through conferences and publications, and directly to participants in writing.