Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Molecular comparison of interval and screen-detected breast cancers
    Cheasley, D ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Elder, K ; Mann, GB ; Loi, S ; Savas, P ; Goode, DL ; Kader, T ; Zethoven, M ; Semple, T ; Fox, SB ; Pang, J-M ; Byrne, D ; Devereux, L ; Nickson, C ; Procopio, P ; Lee, G ; Hughes, S ; Saunders, H ; Fujihara, KM ; Kuykhoven, K ; Connaughton, J ; James, PA ; Gorringe, KL ; Campbell, IG (WILEY, 2019-06-01)
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    Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations
    Rebbeck, TR ; Friebel, TM ; Friedman, E ; Hamann, U ; Huo, D ; Kwong, A ; Olah, E ; Olopade, OI ; Solano, AR ; Teo, S-H ; Thomassen, M ; Weitzel, JN ; Chan, TL ; Couch, FJ ; Goldgar, DE ; Kruse, TA ; Palmero, EI ; Park, SK ; Torres, D ; van Rensburg, EJ ; McGuffog, L ; Parsons, MT ; Leslie, G ; Aalfs, CM ; Abugattas, J ; Adlard, J ; Agata, S ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrews, L ; Andrulis, IL ; Arason, A ; Arnold, N ; Arun, BK ; Asseryanis, E ; Auerbach, L ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barile, M ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Benitez, J ; Berger, A ; Berger, R ; Blanco, AM ; Blazer, KR ; Blok, MJ ; Bonadona, V ; Bonanni, B ; Bradbury, AR ; Brewer, C ; Buecher, B ; Buys, SS ; Caldes, T ; Caliebe, A ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Caputo, SM ; Chiquette, J ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Collee, JM ; Cook, J ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; De Leeneer, K ; de Pauw, A ; Delnatte, C ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Ditsch, N ; Domchek, S ; Dorfling, CM ; Velazquez, C ; Dworniczak, B ; Eason, J ; Easton, DF ; Eeles, R ; Ehrencrona, H ; Ejlertsen, B ; Engel, C ; Engert, S ; Evans, DG ; Faivre, L ; Feliubadalo, L ; Ferrer, SF ; Foretova, L ; Fowler, J ; Frost, D ; Galvao, HCR ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gauthier-Villars, M ; Gehrig, A ; Gerdes, A-M ; Gesta, P ; Giannini, G ; Giraud, S ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Gutierrez-Barrera, A ; Hahnen, E ; Hauke, J ; Henderson, A ; Hentschel, J ; Hogervorst, FBL ; Honisch, E ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; Jakubowska, A ; James, P ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, UB ; John, EM ; Vijai, J ; Kaczmarek, K ; Karlan, BY ; Kast, K ; Kim, S-W ; Konstantopoulou, I ; Korach, J ; Laitman, Y ; Lasa, A ; Lasset, C ; Lazaro, C ; Lee, A ; Lee, MH ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Liljegren, A ; Lindor, NM ; Longy, M ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Lubinski, J ; Machackova, E ; Manoukian, S ; Mari, V ; Martinez-Bouzas, C ; Matrai, Z ; Mebirouk, N ; Meijers-Heijboer, HEJ ; Meindl, A ; Mensenkamp, AR ; Mickys, U ; Miller, A ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Mulligan, AM ; Musinsky, J ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Ngeow, J ; Nguyen, HP ; Niederacher, D ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nussbaum, RL ; Offit, K ; Ofverholm, A ; Ong, K-R ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Papp, J ; Pasini, B ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Peruga, N ; Peterlongo, P ; Pohl, E ; Pradhan, N ; Prajzendanc, K ; Prieur, F ; Pujol, P ; Radice, P ; Ramus, SJ ; Rantala, J ; Rashid, MU ; Rhiem, K ; Robson, M ; Rodriguez, GC ; Rogers, MT ; Rudaitis, V ; Schmidt, AY ; Schmutzler, RK ; Senter, L ; Shah, PD ; Sharma, P ; Side, LE ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Skytte, A-B ; Slavin, TP ; Snape, K ; Sobol, H ; Southey, M ; Steele, L ; Steinemann, D ; Sukiennicki, G ; Sutter, C ; Szabo, CI ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Terry, MB ; Teule, A ; Thomas, A ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Tognazzo, S ; Toland, AE ; Topka, S ; Trainer, AH ; Tung, N ; van Asperen, CJ ; van der Hout, AH ; van der Kolk, LE ; van der Luijt, RB ; Van Heetvelde, M ; Varesco, L ; Varon-Mateeva, R ; Vega, A ; Villarreal-Garza, C ; von Wachenfeldt, A ; Walker, L ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Weber, BHF ; Yannoukakos, D ; Yoon, S-Y ; Zanzottera, C ; Zidan, J ; Zorn, KK ; Selkirk, CGH ; Hulick, PJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Spurdle, AB ; Antoniou, AC ; Nathanson, KL (WILEY, 2018-05-01)
    The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.
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    Molecular analysis of PALB2-associated breast cancers
    Lee, JEA ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Cheasley, D ; Zethoven, M ; McInerny, S ; Gorringe, KL ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (WILEY, 2018-05-01)
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    Exome Sequencing Identifies Rare Deleterious Mutations in DNA Repair Genes FANCC and BLM as Potential Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles
    Thompson, ER ; Doyle, MA ; Ryland, GL ; Rowley, SM ; Choong, DYH ; Tothill, RW ; Thorne, H ; Barnes, DR ; Li, J ; Ellul, J ; Philip, GK ; Antill, YC ; James, PA ; Trainer, AH ; Mitchell, G ; Campbell, IG ; Horwitz, MS (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-09-01)
    Despite intensive efforts using linkage and candidate gene approaches, the genetic etiology for the majority of families with a multi-generational breast cancer predisposition is unknown. In this study, we used whole-exome sequencing of thirty-three individuals from 15 breast cancer families to identify potential predisposing genes. Our analysis identified families with heterozygous, deleterious mutations in the DNA repair genes FANCC and BLM, which are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorders Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome. In total, screening of all exons in these genes in 438 breast cancer families identified three with truncating mutations in FANCC and two with truncating mutations in BLM. Additional screening of FANCC mutation hotspot exons identified one pathogenic mutation among an additional 957 breast cancer families. Importantly, none of the deleterious mutations were identified among 464 healthy controls and are not reported in the 1,000 Genomes data. Given the rarity of Fanconi Anemia and Bloom syndrome disorders among Caucasian populations, the finding of multiple deleterious mutations in these critical DNA repair genes among high-risk breast cancer families is intriguing and suggestive of a predisposing role. Our data demonstrate the utility of intra-family exome-sequencing approaches to uncover cancer predisposition genes, but highlight the major challenge of definitively validating candidates where the incidence of sporadic disease is high, germline mutations are not fully penetrant, and individual predisposition genes may only account for a tiny proportion of breast cancer families.
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    Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in Australian familial breast cancer cases and controls
    Thompson, ER ; Gorringe, KL ; Rowley, SM ; Wong-Brown, MW ; McInerny, S ; Li, N ; Trainer, AH ; Devereux, L ; Doyle, MA ; Li, J ; Lupat, R ; Delatycki, MB ; Mitchell, G ; James, PA ; Scott, RJ ; Campbell, IG (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2015-08-19)
    INTRODUCTION: PALB2 is emerging as a high-penetrance breast cancer predisposition gene in the order of BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, large studies that have evaluated the full gene rather than just the most common variants in both cases and controls are required before all truncating variants can be included in familial breast cancer variant testing. METHODS: In this study we analyse almost 2000 breast cancer cases sourced from individuals referred to familial cancer clinics, thus representing typical cases presenting in clinical practice. These cases were compared to a similar number of population-based cancer-free controls. RESULTS: We identified a significant excess of truncating variants in cases (1.3 %) versus controls (0.2 %), including six novel variants (p = 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 6.58, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.3-18.9). Three of the four control individuals carrying truncating variants had at least one relative with breast cancer. There was no excess of missense variants in cases overall, but the common c.1676A > G variant (rs152451) was significantly enriched in cases and may represent a low-penetrance polymorphism (p = 0.002; OR 1.24 (95 % CI 1.09-1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support truncating variants in PALB2 as high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles, and suggest that a common missense variant may also lead to a low level of increased breast cancer risk.
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    Prediction of Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks in Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores
    Lecarpentier, J ; Silvestri, V ; Kuchenbaecker, KB ; Barrowdale, D ; Dennis, J ; McGuffog, L ; Soucy, P ; Leslie, G ; Rizzolo, P ; Navazio, AS ; Valentini, V ; Zelli, V ; Lee, A ; Al Olama, AA ; Tyrer, JP ; Southey, M ; John, EM ; Conner, TA ; Goldgar, DE ; Buys, SS ; Janavicius, R ; Steele, L ; Ding, YC ; Neuhausen, SL ; Hansen, TVO ; Osorio, A ; Weitzel, JN ; Toss, A ; Medici, V ; Cortesi, L ; Zanna, I ; Palli, D ; Radice, P ; Manoukian, S ; Peissel, B ; Azzollini, J ; Viel, A ; Cini, G ; Damante, G ; Tommasi, S ; Peterlongo, P ; Fostira, F ; Hamann, U ; Evans, DG ; Henderson, A ; Brewer, C ; Eccles, D ; Cook, J ; Ong, K-R ; Walker, L ; Side, LE ; Porteous, ME ; Davidson, R ; Hodgson, S ; Frost, D ; Adlard, J ; Izatt, L ; Eeles, R ; Ellis, S ; Tischkowitz, M ; Godwin, AK ; Meindl, A ; Gehrig, A ; Dworniczak, B ; Sutter, C ; Engel, C ; Niederacher, D ; Steinemann, D ; Hahnen, E ; Hauke, J ; Rhiem, K ; Kast, K ; Arnold, N ; Ditsch, N ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Wand, D ; Lasset, C ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Belotti, M ; Damiola, F ; Barjhoux, L ; Mazoyer, S ; Van Heetvelde, M ; Poppe, B ; De Leeneer, K ; Claes, KBM ; de la Hoya, M ; Garcia-Barberan, V ; Caldes, T ; Perez Segura, P ; Kiiski, JI ; Aittomaeki, K ; Khan, S ; Nevanlinna, H ; van Asperen, CJ ; Vaszko, T ; Kasler, M ; Olah, E ; Balmana, J ; Gutierrez-Enriquez, S ; Diez, O ; Teule, A ; Izquierdo, A ; Darder, E ; Brunet, J ; Del Valle, J ; Feliubadalo, L ; Pujana, MA ; Lazaro, C ; Arason, A ; Agnarsson, BA ; Johannsson, OT ; Barkardottir, RB ; Alducci, E ; Tognazzo, S ; Montagna, M ; Teixeira, MR ; Pinto, P ; Spurdle, AB ; Holland, H ; Lee, JW ; Lee, MH ; Lee, J ; Kim, S-W ; Kang, E ; Kim, Z ; Sharma, P ; Rebbeck, TR ; Vijai, J ; Robson, M ; Lincoln, A ; Musinsky, J ; Gaddam, P ; Tan, YY ; Berger, A ; Singer, CF ; Loud, JT ; Greene, MH ; Mulligan, AM ; Glendon, G ; Andrulis, IL ; Toland, AE ; Senter, L ; Bojesen, A ; Nielsen, HR ; Skytte, A-B ; Sunde, L ; Jensen, UB ; Pedersen, IS ; Krogh, L ; Kruse, TA ; Caligo, MA ; Yoon, S-Y ; Teo, S-H ; von Wachenfeldt, A ; Huo, D ; Nielsen, SM ; Olopade, OI ; Nathanson, KL ; Domchek, SM ; Lorenchick, C ; Jankowitz, RC ; Campbell, I ; James, P ; Mitchell, G ; Orr, N ; Park, SK ; Thomassen, M ; Offit, K ; Couch, FJ ; Simard, J ; Easton, DF ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Schmutzler, RK ; Antoniou, AC ; Ottini, L (AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 2017-07-10)
    Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.
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    Reevaluation of the BRCA2 truncating allele c.9976A > T (p.Lys3326Ter) in a familial breast cancer context
    Thompson, ER ; Gorringe, KL ; Rowley, SM ; Li, N ; McInerny, S ; Wong-Brown, MW ; Devereux, L ; Li, J ; Trainer, AH ; Mitchell, G ; Scott, RJ ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-10-12)
    The breast cancer predisposition gene, BRCA2, has a large number of genetic variants of unknown effect. The variant rs11571833, an A > T transversion in the final exon of the gene that leads to the creation of a stop codon 93 amino acids early (K3326*), is reported as a neutral polymorphism but there is some evidence to suggest an association with an increased risk of breast cancer. We assessed whether this variant was enriched in a cohort of breast cancer cases ascertained through familial cancer clinics compared to population-based non-cancer controls using a targeted sequencing approach. We identified the variant in 66/2634 (2.5%) cases and 33/1996 (1.65%) controls, indicating an enrichment in the breast cancer cases (p = 0.047, OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.00-2.34). This data is consistent with recent iCOGs data suggesting that this variant is not neutral with respect to breast cancer risk. rs11571833 may need to be included in SNP panels for evaluating breast cancer risk.
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    Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer
    Lawrenson, K ; Li, Q ; Kar, S ; Seo, J-H ; Tyrer, J ; Spindler, TJ ; Lee, J ; Chen, Y ; Karst, A ; Drapkin, R ; Aben, KKH ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, N ; Baker, H ; Bandera, EV ; Bean, Y ; Beckmann, MW ; Berchuck, A ; Bisogna, M ; Bjorge, L ; Bogdanova, N ; Brinton, LA ; Brooks-Wilson, A ; Bruinsma, F ; Butzow, R ; Campbell, IG ; Carty, K ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Chen, A ; Chen, Z ; Cook, LS ; Cramer, DW ; Cunningham, JM ; Cybulski, C ; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A ; Dennis, J ; Dicks, E ; Doherty, JA ; Doerk, T ; Du Bois, A ; Duerst, M ; Eccles, D ; Easton, DT ; Edwards, RP ; Eilber, U ; Ekici, AB ; Fasching, PA ; Fridley, BL ; Gao, Y-T ; Gentry-Maharaj, A ; Giles, GG ; Glasspool, R ; Goode, EL ; Goodman, MT ; Grownwald, J ; Harrington, P ; Harter, P ; Hasmad, HN ; Hein, A ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Hillemanns, P ; Hogdall, E ; Hogdall, C ; Hosono, S ; Iversen, ES ; Jakubowska, A ; James, P ; Jensen, A ; Ji, B-T ; Karlan, BY ; Kjaer, SK ; Kelemen, LE ; Kellar, M ; Kelley, JL ; Kiemeney, LA ; Krakstad, C ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Lambrechts, D ; Lambrechts, S ; Le, ND ; Lee, AW ; Lele, S ; Leminen, A ; Lester, J ; Levine, DA ; Liang, D ; Lissowska, J ; Lu, K ; Lubinski, J ; Lundvall, L ; Massuger, LFAG ; Matsuo, K ; McGuire, V ; McLaughlin, JR ; Nevanlinna, H ; McNeish, I ; Menon, U ; Modugno, F ; Moysich, KB ; Narod, SA ; Nedergaard, L ; Ness, RB ; Azmi, MAN ; Odunsi, K ; Olson, SH ; Orlow, I ; Orsulic, S ; Weber, RP ; Pearce, CL ; Pejovic, T ; Pelttari, LM ; Permuth-Wey, J ; Phelan, CM ; Pike, MC ; Poole, EM ; Ramus, SJ ; Risch, HA ; Rosen, B ; Rossing, MA ; Rothstein, JH ; Rudolph, A ; Runnebaum, IB ; Rzepecka, IK ; Salvesen, HB ; Schildkraut, JM ; Schwaab, I ; Sellers, TA ; Shu, X-O ; Shvetsov, YB ; Siddiqui, N ; Sieh, W ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Sucheston, L ; Tangen, IL ; Teo, S-H ; Terry, KL ; Thompson, PJ ; Timorek, A ; Tsai, Y-Y ; Tworoger, SS ; Van Altena, AM ; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E ; Vergote, I ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Walsh, C ; Wentzensen, N ; Whittemore, AS ; Wicklund, KG ; Wilkens, LR ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, X ; Wu, AH ; Yang, H ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Monteiro, A ; Pharoah, PD ; Gayther, SA ; Freedman, ML ; Grp, AOCS ; Bowtell, D ; Webb, PM ; Defazio, A (NATURE RESEARCH, 2015-09-01)
    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10(-5)). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10(-3), FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10(-10) for risk variants (P<10(-4)) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC.
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    Development and validation of a targeted gene sequencing panel for application to disparate cancers
    McCabe, MJ ; Gauthier, M-EA ; Chan, C-L ; Thompson, TJ ; De Sousa, SMC ; Puttick, C ; Grady, JP ; Gayevskiy, V ; Tao, J ; Ying, K ; Cipponi, A ; Deng, N ; Swarbrick, A ; Thomas, ML ; kConFab, ; Lord, RV ; Johns, AL ; Kohonen-Corish, M ; O'Toole, SA ; Clark, J ; Mueller, SA ; Gupta, R ; McCormack, AI ; Dinger, ME ; Cowley, MJ (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-11-19)
    Next generation sequencing has revolutionised genomic studies of cancer, having facilitated the development of precision oncology treatments based on a tumour's molecular profile. We aimed to develop a targeted gene sequencing panel for application to disparate cancer types with particular focus on tumours of the head and neck, plus test for utility in liquid biopsy. The final panel designed through Roche/Nimblegen combined 451 cancer-associated genes (2.01 Mb target region). 136 patient DNA samples were collected for performance and application testing. Panel sensitivity and precision were measured using well-characterised DNA controls (n = 47), and specificity by Sanger sequencing of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP) gene in 89 patients. Assessment of liquid biopsy application employed a pool of synthetic circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). Library preparation and sequencing were conducted on Illumina-based platforms prior to analysis with our accredited (ISO15189) bioinformatics pipeline. We achieved a mean coverage of 395x, with sensitivity and specificity of >99% and precision of >97%. Liquid biopsy revealed detection to 1.25% variant allele frequency. Application to head and neck tumours/cancers resulted in detection of mutations aligned to published databases. In conclusion, we have developed an analytically-validated panel for application to cancers of disparate types with utility in liquid biopsy.
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    Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer
    Ferreira, MA ; Gamazon, ER ; Al-Ejeh, F ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Arason, A ; Arndt, V ; Aronson, KJ ; Arun, BK ; Asseryanis, E ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barnes, DR ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Behrens, S ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bialkowska, K ; Blomqvist, C ; Bogdanova, N ; Bojesen, SE ; Bolla, MK ; Borg, A ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Broeks, A ; Burwinkel, B ; Caldes, T ; Caligo, MA ; Campa, D ; Campbell, I ; Canzian, F ; Carter, J ; Carter, BD ; Castelao, JE ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Christiansen, H ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Clarke, CL ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; de la Hoya, M ; Dennis, J ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Doerk, T ; Dunning, AM ; Dwek, M ; Eccles, DM ; Ejlertsen, B ; Ellberg, C ; Engel, C ; Eriksson, M ; Fasching, PA ; Fletcher, O ; Flyger, H ; Friedman, E ; Frost, D ; Gabrielson, M ; Gago-Dominguez, M ; Ganz, PA ; Gapstur, SM ; Garber, J ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Gaudet, MM ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goldberg, MS ; Goldgar, DE ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Guenel, P ; Haiman, CA ; Hall, P ; Hamann, U ; He, W ; Heyworth, J ; Hogervorst, FBL ; Hollestelle, A ; Hoover, RN ; Hopper, JL ; Hulick, PJ ; Humphreys, K ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Jakimovska, M ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jankowitz, RC ; John, EM ; Johnson, N ; Joseph, V ; Karlan, BY ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiiski, J ; Ko, Y-D ; Jones, ME ; Konstantopoulou, I ; Kristensen, VN ; Laitman, Y ; Lambrechts, D ; Lazaro, C ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Lindstrom, S ; Long, J ; Loud, JT ; Lubinski, J ; Makalic, E ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoochehri, M ; Margolin, S ; Maurer, T ; Mavroudis, D ; McGuffog, L ; Meindl, A ; Menon, U ; Michailidou, K ; Miller, A ; Montagna, M ; Moreno, F ; Moserle, L ; Mulligan, AM ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Nevelsteen, I ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Nussbaum, RL ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olopade, O ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papp, J ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Parsons, MT ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Peterlongo, P ; Pharoah, PDP ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Poppe, B ; Presneau, N ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Rennert, G ; Risch, HA ; Saloustros, E ; Sanden, K ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmidt, MK ; Schmutzler, RK ; Sharma, P ; Shu, X-O ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Soucy, P ; Southey, MC ; Spinelli, JJ ; Spurdle, AB ; Stone, J ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tapper, WJ ; Taylor, JA ; Teixeira, MR ; Terry, MB ; Teule, A ; Thomassen, M ; Thoene, K ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Truong, T ; Tung, N ; Vachon, CM ; van Asperen, CJ ; van den Ouweland, AMW ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Viel, A ; Wang, Q ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Weitzel, JN ; Wendt, C ; Winqvist, R ; Yang, XR ; Yannoukakos, D ; Ziogas, A ; Kraft, P ; Antoniou, AC ; Zheng, W ; Easton, DF ; Milne, RL ; Beesley, J ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Arnold, N ; Auber, B ; Bogdanova-Markov, N ; Borde, J ; Caliebe, A ; Ditsch, N ; Dworniczak, B ; Engert, S ; Faust, U ; Gehrig, A ; Hahnen, E ; Hauke, J ; Hentschel, J ; Herold, N ; Honisch, E ; Just, W ; Kast, K ; Larsen, M ; Lemke, J ; Huu, PN ; Niederacher, D ; Ott, C-E ; Platzer, K ; Pohl-Rescigno, E ; Ramser, J ; Rhiem, K ; Steinemann, D ; Sutter, C ; Varon-Mateeva, R ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Weber, BHF ; Prieur, F ; Pujol, P ; Sagne, C ; Sevenet, N ; Sobol, H ; Sokolowska, J ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Venat-Bouvet, L ; Adlard, J ; Ahmed, M ; Barwell, J ; Brady, A ; Brewer, C ; Cook, J ; Davidson, R ; Donaldson, A ; Eason, J ; Eeles, R ; Evans, DG ; Gregory, H ; Hanson, H ; Henderson, A ; Hodgson, S ; Izatt, L ; Kennedy, MJ ; Lalloo, F ; Miller, C ; Morrison, PJ ; Ong, K-R ; Perkins, J ; Porteous, ME ; Rogers, MT ; Side, LE ; Snape, K ; Walker, L ; Harrington, PA ; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, BAM ; Rookus, MA ; Seynaeve, CM ; van der Baan, FH ; van der Hout, AH ; van der Kolk, LE ; van der Luijt, RB ; van Deurzen, CHM ; van Doorn, HC ; van Engelen, K ; van Hest, L ; van Os, TAM ; Verhoef, S ; Vogel, MJ ; Wijnen, JT ; Miron, A ; Kapuscinski, M ; Bane, A ; Ross, E ; Buys, SS ; Conner, TA ; Balleine, R ; Baxter, R ; Braye, S ; Carpenter, J ; Dahlstrom, J ; Forbes, J ; Lee, SC ; Marsh, D ; Morey, A ; Pathmanathan, N ; Simpson, P ; Spigelman, A ; Wilcken, N ; Yip, D (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-04-15)
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.