Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Correction: Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmaña, J ; Bandera, EV ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, NV ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; GEMO Study Collaborators, ; GC-HBOC Study Collaborators, ; EMBRACE Collaborators, ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dörk, T ; du Bois, A ; Dürst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, RT ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; OPAL Study Group, ; AOCS Group, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Håkansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Høgdall, E ; Høgdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; KConFab Investigators, ; HEBON Investigators, ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Lubiński, J ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; Matsuno, RK ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, OI ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamariña, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; Terry, MB ; OCAC Consortium, ; CIMBA Consortium, ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05)
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    Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmana, J ; Bandera, E ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, N ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dork, T ; du Bois, A ; Durst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, R ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Group, OS ; AOCSGroup, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Hogdall, E ; Hogdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; KimMatsuno, R ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, O ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamarina, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; BethTerry, M ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-01-14)
    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, "select and shrink for summary statistics" (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28-1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21-1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35-1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.
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    Integration of tumour sequencing and case-control data to assess pathogenicity of RAD51C missense variants in familial breast cancer
    Lim, BWX ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Thompson, ER ; McInerny, S ; Zethoven, M ; Scott, RJ ; Devereux, L ; Sloan, EK ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-01-17)
    While protein-truncating variants in RAD51C have been shown to predispose to triple-negative (TN) breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer, little is known about the pathogenicity of missense (MS) variants. The frequency of rare RAD51C MS variants was assessed in the BEACCON study of 5734 familial BC cases and 14,382 population controls, and findings were integrated with tumour sequencing data from 21 cases carrying a candidate variant. Collectively, a significant enrichment of rare MS variants was detected in cases (MAF < 0.001, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.00-2.44, p = 0.05), particularly for variants with a REVEL score >0.5 (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.40-12.01, p = 0.006). Sequencing of 21 tumours from 20 heterozygous and 1 homozygous carriers of nine candidate MS variants identified four cases with biallelic inactivation through loss of the wild-type allele, while six lost the variant allele and ten that remained heterozygous. Biallelic loss of the wild-type alleles corresponded strongly with ER- and TN breast tumours, high homologous recombination deficiency scores and mutational signature 3. Using this approach, the p.Gly264Ser variant, which was previously suspected to be pathogenic based on small case-control analyses and loss of activity in in vitro functional assays, was shown to be benign with similar prevalence in cases and controls and seven out of eight tumours showing no biallelic inactivation or characteristic mutational signature. Conversely, evaluation of case-control findings and tumour sequencing data identified p.Ile144Thr, p.Arg212His, p.Gln143Arg and p.Gly114Arg as variants warranting further investigation.
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    A functionally impaired missense variant identified in French Canadian families implicates FANCI as a candidate ovarian cancer-predisposing gene
    Fierheller, CT ; Guitton-Sert, L ; Alenezi, WM ; Revil, T ; Oros, KK ; Gao, Y ; Bedard, K ; Arcand, SL ; Serruya, C ; Behl, S ; Meunier, L ; Fleury, H ; Fewings, E ; Subramanian, DN ; Nadaf, J ; Bruce, JP ; Bell, R ; Provencher, D ; Foulkes, WD ; El Haffaf, Z ; Mes-Masson, A-M ; Majewski, J ; Pugh, TJ ; Tischkowitz, M ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG ; Greenwood, CMT ; Ragoussis, J ; Masson, J-Y ; Tonin, PN (BMC, 2021-12-03)
    BACKGROUND: Familial ovarian cancer (OC) cases not harbouring pathogenic variants in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 OC-predisposing genes, which function in homologous recombination (HR) of DNA, could involve pathogenic variants in other DNA repair pathway genes. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify rare variants in HR genes in a BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC family of French Canadian (FC) ancestry, a population exhibiting genetic drift. OC cases and cancer-free individuals from FC and non-FC populations were investigated for carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T; p.L605F, the top-ranking candidate. Gene and protein expression were investigated in cancer cell lines and tissue microarrays, respectively. RESULTS: In FC subjects, c.1813C>T was more common in familial (7.1%, 3/42) than sporadic (1.6%, 7/439) OC cases (P = 0.048). Carriers were detected in 2.5% (74/2950) of cancer-free females though female/male carriers were more likely to have a first-degree relative with OC (121/5249, 2.3%; Spearman correlation = 0.037; P = 0.011), suggesting a role in risk. Many of the cancer-free females had host factors known to reduce risk to OC which could influence cancer risk in this population. There was an increased carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC families, when including the discovery family, compared to cancer-free females (3/23, 13%; OR = 5.8; 95%CI = 1.7-19; P = 0.005). In non-FC subjects, 10 candidate FANCI variants were identified in 4.1% (21/516) of Australian OC cases negative for pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including 10 carriers of FANCI c.1813C>T. Candidate variants were significantly more common in familial OC than in sporadic OC (P = 0.04). Localization of FANCD2, part of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID2) binding complex in the Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway, to sites of induced DNA damage was severely impeded in cells expressing the p.L605F isoform. This isoform was expressed at a reduced level, destabilized by DNA damaging agent treatment in both HeLa and OC cell lines, and exhibited sensitivity to cisplatin but not to a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. By tissue microarray analyses, FANCI protein was consistently expressed in fallopian tube epithelial cells and only expressed at low-to-moderate levels in 88% (83/94) of OC samples. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe candidate OC variants in FANCI, a member of the ID2 complex of the FA DNA repair pathway. Our data suggest that pathogenic FANCI variants may modify OC risk in cancer families.
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    Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk
    Park, HA ; Neumeyer, S ; Michailidou, K ; Bolla, MK ; Wang, Q ; Dennis, J ; Ahearn, TU ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Arndt, V ; Aronson, KJ ; Augustinsson, A ; Baten, A ; Freeman, LEB ; Becher, H ; Beckmann, MW ; Behrens, S ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bogdanova, N ; Bojesen, SE ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Brucker, SY ; Burwinkel, B ; Campa, D ; Canzian, F ; Castelao, JE ; Chanock, SJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Clarke, CL ; Conroy, DM ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; Devilee, P ; Dork, T ; Dos-Santos-Silva, I ; Dwek, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, AH ; Engel, C ; Eriksson, M ; Evans, DG ; Fasching, PA ; Flyger, H ; Fritschi, L ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Gaudet, MM ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Goldberg, MS ; Goldgar, DE ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Grip, M ; Guenel, P ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hall, P ; Hamann, U ; Han, S ; Harkness, EF ; Hart, SN ; He, W ; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, BAM ; Hopper, JL ; Hunter, DJ ; Jager, A ; Jakubowska, A ; John, EM ; Jung, A ; Kaaks, R ; Kapoor, PM ; Keeman, R ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kitahara, CM ; Koppert, LB ; Koutros, S ; Kristensen, VN ; Kurian, AW ; Lacey, J ; Lambrechts, D ; LeMarchand, L ; Lo, W-Y ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoochehri, M ; Margolin, S ; ElenaMartinez, M ; Mavroudis, D ; Meindl, A ; Menon, U ; Milne, RL ; Muranen, TA ; Nevanlinna, H ; Newman, WG ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Offit, K ; Olshan, AF ; Olsson, H ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Peterlongo, P ; Peto, J ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Presneau, N ; Radice, P ; Rennert, G ; Rennert, HS ; Romero, A ; Saloustros, E ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmidt, MK ; Schmutzler, RK ; Schoemaker, MJ ; Schwentner, L ; Scott, C ; Shah, M ; Shu, X-O ; Simard, J ; Smeets, A ; Southey, MC ; Spinelli, JJ ; Stevens, V ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tamimi, RM ; Tapper, WJ ; Taylor, JA ; Terry, MB ; Tomlinson, I ; Troester, MA ; Truong, T ; Vachon, CM ; van Veen, EM ; Vijai, J ; Wang, S ; Wendt, C ; Winqvist, R ; Wolk, A ; Ziogas, A ; Dunning, AM ; Pharoah, PDP ; Easton, DF ; Zheng, W ; Kraft, P ; Chang-Claude, J (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-08-02)
    BACKGROUND: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. RESULTS: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10-2), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. CONCLUSION: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
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    Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores
    Barnes, DR ; Silvestri, V ; Leslie, G ; McGuffog, L ; Dennis, J ; Yang, X ; Adlard, J ; Agnarsson, BA ; Ahmed, M ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrulis, IL ; Arason, A ; Arnold, N ; Auber, B ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Barwell, J ; Belotti, M ; Benitez, J ; Berthet, P ; Boonen, SE ; Borg, A ; Bozsik, A ; Brady, AF ; Brennan, P ; Brewer, C ; Brunet, J ; Bucalo, A ; Buys, SS ; Caldes, T ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cassingham, H ; Christensen, LL ; Cini, G ; Claes, KBM ; Cook, J ; Coppa, A ; Cortesi, L ; Damante, G ; Darder, E ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; De Leeneer, K ; de Putter, R ; Del Valle, J ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Domchek, SM ; Donaldson, A ; Eason, J ; Eeles, R ; Engel, C ; Evans, DG ; Feliubadalo, L ; Fostira, F ; Frone, M ; Frost, D ; Gallagher, D ; Gehrig, A ; Giraud, S ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goldgar, DE ; Greene, MH ; Gregory, H ; Gross, E ; Hahnen, E ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Hanson, H ; Hentschel, J ; Horvath, J ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, UB ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Kramer, G ; Kroeldrup, L ; Kruse, TA ; Lautrup, C ; Lazaro, C ; Lesueur, F ; Lopez-Fernandez, A ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Matrai, Z ; Matricardi, L ; Maxwell, KN ; Mebirouk, N ; Meindl, A ; Montagna, M ; Monteiro, AN ; Morrison, PJ ; Muranen, TA ; Murray, A ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Tu, N-D ; Niederacher, D ; Olah, E ; Olopade, O ; Palli, D ; Parsons, MT ; Pedersen, IS ; Peissel, B ; Perez-Segura, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Petersen, AH ; Pinto, P ; Porteous, ME ; Pottinger, C ; Pujana, MA ; Radice, P ; Ramser, J ; Rantala, J ; Robson, M ; Rogers, MT ; Ronlund, K ; Rump, A ; Sanchez de Abajo, AM ; Shah, PD ; Sharif, S ; Side, LE ; Singer, CF ; Stadler, Z ; Steele, L ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutter, C ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teule, A ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Toland, AE ; Tommasi, S ; Toss, A ; Trainer, AH ; Tripathi, V ; Valentini, V ; van Asperen, CJ ; Venturelli, M ; Viel, A ; Vijai, J ; Walker, L ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Whaite, A ; Zanna, I ; Offit, K ; Thomassen, M ; Couch, FJ ; Schmutzler, RK ; Simard, J ; Easton, DF ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Antoniou, AC ; Ottini, L (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-07-28)
    BACKGROUND: Recent population-based female breast cancer and prostate cancer polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. We assessed the associations of these PRS with breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: 483 BRCA1 and 1318 BRCA2 European ancestry male carriers were available from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A 147-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prostate cancer PRS (PRSPC) and a 313-SNP breast cancer PRS were evaluated. There were 3 versions of the breast cancer PRS, optimized to predict overall (PRSBC), estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (PRSER-), or ER-positive (PRSER+) breast cancer risk. RESULTS: PRSER+ yielded the strongest association with breast cancer risk. The odds ratios (ORs) per PRSER+ standard deviation estimates were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.07 to 1.83) for BRCA1 and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.16 to 1.52) for BRCA2 carriers. PRSPC was associated with prostate cancer risk for BRCA1 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.33) and BRCA2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34 to 1.91) carriers. The estimated breast cancer odds ratios were larger after adjusting for female relative breast cancer family history. By age 85 years, for BRCA2 carriers, the breast cancer risk varied from 7.7% to 18.4% and prostate cancer risk from 34.1% to 87.6% between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based prostate and female breast cancer PRS are associated with a wide range of absolute breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These findings warrant further investigation aimed at providing personalized cancer risks for male carriers and informing clinical management.
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    Evaluation of two population screening programmes for BRCA1/2 founder mutations in the Australian Jewish community: a protocol paper
    Cousens, NE ; Tiller, J ; Meiser, B ; Barlow-Stewart, K ; Rowley, S ; Ko, Y-A ; Mahale, S ; Campbell, IG ; Kaur, R ; Bankier, A ; Burnett, L ; Jacobs, C ; James, PA ; Trainer, A ; Neil, S ; Delatycki, MB ; Andrews, L (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2021-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: People of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) ancestry are more likely than unselected populations to have a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant, which cause a significantly increased risk of breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. Three specific BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants, referred to as BRCA-Jewish founder mutations (B-JFM), account for >90% of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in people of AJ ancestry. Current practice of identifying eligible individuals for BRCA testing based on personal and/or family history has been shown to miss at least 50% of people who have one of these variants. Here we describe the protocol of the JeneScreen study-a study established to develop and evaluate two different population-based B-JFM screening programmes, offered to people of Jewish ancestry in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To rmeasure the acceptability of population-based B-JFM screening in Australia, two screening programmes using different methodologies have been developed. The Sydney JeneScreen programme provides information and obtains informed consent by way of an online tool. The Melbourne JeneScreen programme does this by way of community sessions attended in person. Participants complete questionnaires to measure clinical and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, and for those who have testing, 2 weeks postresult. Participants who decline testing are sent a questionnaire regarding reasons for declining. Participants with a B-JFM are sent questionnaires 12-month and 24-month post-testing. The questionnaires incorporate validated scales, which measure anxiety, decisional conflict and regret, and test-related distress and positive experiences, and other items specifically developed or adapted for the study. These measures will be assessed for each programme and the two population-based B-JFM screening methods will be compared. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Institutional Human Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained from the South Eastern Area Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee: HREC Ref 16/125.Following the analysis of the study results, the findings will be disseminated widely through conferences and publications, and directly to participants in writing.
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    Investigation of monogenic causes of familial breast cancer: data from the BEACCON case-control study
    Li, N ; Lim, BWX ; Thompson, ER ; McInerny, S ; Zethoven, M ; Cheasley, D ; Rowley, SM ; Wong-Brown, MW ; Devereux, L ; Gorringe, KL ; Sloan, EK ; Trainer, A ; Scott, RJ ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (NATURE RESEARCH, 2021-06-11)
    Breast cancer (BC) has a significant heritable component but the genetic contribution remains unresolved in the majority of high-risk BC families. This study aims to investigate the monogenic causes underlying the familial aggregation of BC beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2, including the identification of new predisposing genes. A total of 11,511 non-BRCA familial BC cases and population-matched cancer-free female controls in the BEACCON study were investigated in two sequencing phases: 1303 candidate genes in up to 3892 cases and controls, followed by validation of 145 shortlisted genes in an additional 7619 subjects. The coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of all candidate genes and 14 previously proposed BC genes were sequenced using custom designed sequencing panels. Pedigree and pathology data were analysed to identify genotype-specific associations. The contribution of ATM, PALB2 and CHEK2 to BC predisposition was confirmed, but not RAD50 and NBN. An overall excess of loss-of-function (LoF) (OR 1.27, p = 9.05 × 10-9) and missense (OR 1.27, p = 3.96 × 10-73) variants was observed in the cases for the 145 candidate genes. Leading candidates harbored LoF variants with observed ORs of 2-4 and individually accounted for no more than 0.79% of the cases. New genes proposed by this study include NTHL1, WRN, PARP2, CTH and CDK9. The new candidate BC predisposition genes identified in BEACCON indicate that much of the remaining genetic causes of high-risk BC families are due to genes in which pathogenic variants are both very rare and convey only low to moderate risk.
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    Molecular comparison of interval and screen-detected breast cancers
    Cheasley, D ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Elder, K ; Mann, GB ; Loi, S ; Savas, P ; Goode, DL ; Kader, T ; Zethoven, M ; Semple, T ; Fox, SB ; Pang, J-M ; Byrne, D ; Devereux, L ; Nickson, C ; Procopio, P ; Lee, G ; Hughes, S ; Saunders, H ; Fujihara, KM ; Kuykhoven, K ; Connaughton, J ; James, PA ; Gorringe, KL ; Campbell, IG (WILEY, 2019-06-01)
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    Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations
    Rebbeck, TR ; Friebel, TM ; Friedman, E ; Hamann, U ; Huo, D ; Kwong, A ; Olah, E ; Olopade, OI ; Solano, AR ; Teo, S-H ; Thomassen, M ; Weitzel, JN ; Chan, TL ; Couch, FJ ; Goldgar, DE ; Kruse, TA ; Palmero, EI ; Park, SK ; Torres, D ; van Rensburg, EJ ; McGuffog, L ; Parsons, MT ; Leslie, G ; Aalfs, CM ; Abugattas, J ; Adlard, J ; Agata, S ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrews, L ; Andrulis, IL ; Arason, A ; Arnold, N ; Arun, BK ; Asseryanis, E ; Auerbach, L ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barile, M ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Benitez, J ; Berger, A ; Berger, R ; Blanco, AM ; Blazer, KR ; Blok, MJ ; Bonadona, V ; Bonanni, B ; Bradbury, AR ; Brewer, C ; Buecher, B ; Buys, SS ; Caldes, T ; Caliebe, A ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Caputo, SM ; Chiquette, J ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Collee, JM ; Cook, J ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; De Leeneer, K ; de Pauw, A ; Delnatte, C ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Ditsch, N ; Domchek, S ; Dorfling, CM ; Velazquez, C ; Dworniczak, B ; Eason, J ; Easton, DF ; Eeles, R ; Ehrencrona, H ; Ejlertsen, B ; Engel, C ; Engert, S ; Evans, DG ; Faivre, L ; Feliubadalo, L ; Ferrer, SF ; Foretova, L ; Fowler, J ; Frost, D ; Galvao, HCR ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gauthier-Villars, M ; Gehrig, A ; Gerdes, A-M ; Gesta, P ; Giannini, G ; Giraud, S ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Gutierrez-Barrera, A ; Hahnen, E ; Hauke, J ; Henderson, A ; Hentschel, J ; Hogervorst, FBL ; Honisch, E ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; Jakubowska, A ; James, P ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, UB ; John, EM ; Vijai, J ; Kaczmarek, K ; Karlan, BY ; Kast, K ; Kim, S-W ; Konstantopoulou, I ; Korach, J ; Laitman, Y ; Lasa, A ; Lasset, C ; Lazaro, C ; Lee, A ; Lee, MH ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Liljegren, A ; Lindor, NM ; Longy, M ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Lubinski, J ; Machackova, E ; Manoukian, S ; Mari, V ; Martinez-Bouzas, C ; Matrai, Z ; Mebirouk, N ; Meijers-Heijboer, HEJ ; Meindl, A ; Mensenkamp, AR ; Mickys, U ; Miller, A ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Mulligan, AM ; Musinsky, J ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Ngeow, J ; Nguyen, HP ; Niederacher, D ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nussbaum, RL ; Offit, K ; Ofverholm, A ; Ong, K-R ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Papp, J ; Pasini, B ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Peruga, N ; Peterlongo, P ; Pohl, E ; Pradhan, N ; Prajzendanc, K ; Prieur, F ; Pujol, P ; Radice, P ; Ramus, SJ ; Rantala, J ; Rashid, MU ; Rhiem, K ; Robson, M ; Rodriguez, GC ; Rogers, MT ; Rudaitis, V ; Schmidt, AY ; Schmutzler, RK ; Senter, L ; Shah, PD ; Sharma, P ; Side, LE ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Skytte, A-B ; Slavin, TP ; Snape, K ; Sobol, H ; Southey, M ; Steele, L ; Steinemann, D ; Sukiennicki, G ; Sutter, C ; Szabo, CI ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Terry, MB ; Teule, A ; Thomas, A ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Tognazzo, S ; Toland, AE ; Topka, S ; Trainer, AH ; Tung, N ; van Asperen, CJ ; van der Hout, AH ; van der Kolk, LE ; van der Luijt, RB ; Van Heetvelde, M ; Varesco, L ; Varon-Mateeva, R ; Vega, A ; Villarreal-Garza, C ; von Wachenfeldt, A ; Walker, L ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Weber, BHF ; Yannoukakos, D ; Yoon, S-Y ; Zanzottera, C ; Zidan, J ; Zorn, KK ; Selkirk, CGH ; Hulick, PJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Spurdle, AB ; Antoniou, AC ; Nathanson, KL (WILEY, 2018-05-01)
    The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.