Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Optimising the quality of multidisciplinary team meetings: A narrative review
    Tran, TH ; de Boer, J ; Gyorki, DE ; Krishnasamy, M (WILEY, 2022-03-07)
    BACKGROUND: Understanding of factors that contribute to implementation of effective cancer multidisciplinary team meetings (MDMs) is still limited. Published literature on the effect of teamwork function, leadership roles, decision-making processes and structural components on the quality of MDMs was reviewed and synthesised. METHODS: In this paper, a MEDLINE review (September 2020) was performed to assess clinical decision-making in the context of MDM discussions. RESULTS: Twenty-nine eligible studies were included. Six studies addressed the infrastructural aspects of MDMs. Nine studies used either qualitative or mixed method approach to develop and validate observational tools to assess the quality of MDMs. Seven studies used qualitative approaches to explore the opinions of MDM members on factors that impact on the effectiveness of MDMs. Five studies used validated observational tools to observe and assess the effectiveness of MDMs. One prospective study explored the relationship between quality of information presented at MDMs and ability of MDM members to make clinical decisions. The final study prospectively tested the ability of a multicomponent intervention to improve decision-making processes within MDMs. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of factors including teamwork, leadership, case complexity, decision-making processes and availability of patient information were identified to impact the quality of MDMs. Evidence currently available largely focuses on the development of tools to identify factors in need of improvement to optimise MDMs. Robust research is required to identify the factors that are demonstrated to enhance MDM quality which can then aid the standardisation of how MDMs are conducted.
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    Tissue-resident memory T cells from a metastatic vaginal melanoma patient are tumor-responsive T cells and increase after anti-PD-1 treatment
    Pizzolla, A ; Keam, SP ; Vergara, IA ; Caramia, F ; Thio, N ; Wang, M ; Kocovski, N ; Tantalo, D ; Jabbari, J ; Au-Yeung, G ; Sandhu, S ; Gyorki, DE ; Weppler, A ; Perdicchio, M ; McArthur, GA ; Papenfuss, AT ; Neeson, PJ (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: Vaginal melanoma (VM) is a rare cancer and has a poor response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). CD8+Tissue Resident Memory (TRM) T cells proliferate in response to ICB and correlate with longer survival in metastatic cutaneous melanoma. However, their capacity to respond to VM and their neoantigens is not known. METHODS: Using longitudinal samples, we explored the evolution of VM mutations by whole-exome sequencing and RNAseq, we also defined the immune context using multiplex immunohistochemistry and nanostring pan cancer immune profile. Then using fresh single cell suspensions of the metastatic samples, we explored VM T cells via mass cytometry and single cell RNAseq and T cell receptor sequencing (TCRseq). Finally, we investigated TRM, pre-TRM and exhausted T cell function against melanoma neo-antigens and melanoma differentiation antigens in vitro. RESULTS: Primary VM was non-inflamed and devoid of CD8+ TRM cells. In contrast, both metastases showed proliferating CD8+ TRM were clustered at the tumor margin, with increased numbers in the second ICB-refractory metastasis. The first metastasis showed dense infiltration of CD8+ T cells, the second showed immune exclusion with loss of melanoma cell Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I expression associated with downregulation of antigen presentation pathway gene expression. CD8+ TRM from both metastases responded to autologous melanoma cells more robustly than all other CD8+ T cell subsets. In addition, CD8+ TRM shared TCR clones across metastases, suggesting a response to common antigens, which was supported by recognition of the same neoantigen by expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified TRM clusters in VM metastases from a patient, but not primary disease. We showed TRM location at the tumor margin, and their superior functional response to autologous tumor cells, predicted neoantigens and melanoma differentiation antigens. These CD8+ TRM exhibited the highest tumor-responsive potential and shared their TCR with tumor-infiltrating effector memory T cells. This suggests VM metastases from this patient retain strong antitumor T cell functional responses; however, this response is suppressed in vivo. The loss of VG MHC-I expression is a common immune escape mechanism which was not addressed by anti-PD-1 monotherapy; rather an additional targeted approach to upregulate MHC-I expression is required.
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    Characterization of the treatment-naive immune microenvironment in melanoma with BRAF mutation
    Wang, M ; Zadeh, S ; Pizzolla, A ; Thia, K ; Gyorki, DE ; McArthur, GA ; Scolyer, RA ; Long, G ; Wilmott, JS ; Andrews, MC ; Au-Yeung, G ; Weppler, A ; Sandhu, S ; Trapani, JA ; Davis, MJ ; Neeson, PJ (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-04-01)
    BACKGROUND: Patients with BRAF-mutant and wild-type melanoma have different response rates to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. However, the reasons for this remain unknown. To address this issue, we investigated the precise immune composition resulting from BRAF mutation in treatment-naive melanoma to determine whether this may be a driver for different response to immunotherapy. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the treatment-naive immune context in patients with BRAF-mutant and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-wt) melanoma using data from single-cell RNA sequencing, bulk RNA sequencing, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: In single-cell data, BRAF-mutant melanoma displayed a significantly reduced infiltration of CD8+ T cells and macrophages but also increased B cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells. We then validated this finding using bulk RNA-seq data from the skin cutaneous melanoma cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas and deconvoluted the data using seven different algorithms. Interestingly, BRAF-mutant tumors had more CD4+ T cells than BRAF-wt samples in both primary and metastatic cohorts. In the metastatic cohort, BRAF-mutant melanoma demonstrated more B cells but less CD8+ T cell infiltration when compared with BRAF-wt samples. In addition, we further investigated the immune cell infiltrate using flow cytometry and multiplex IHC techniques. We confirmed that BRAF-mutant melanoma metastases were enriched for CD4+ T cells and B cells and had a co-existing decrease in CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we then identified B cells were associated with a trend for improved survival (p=0.078) in the BRAF-mutant samples and Th2 cells were associated with prolonged survival in the BRAF-wt samples. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, treatment-naive BRAF-mutant melanoma has a distinct immune context compared with BRAF-wt melanoma, with significantly decreased CD8+ T cells and increased B cells and CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. These findings indicate that further mechanistic studies are warranted to reveal how this difference in immune context leads to improved outcome to combination immune checkpoint blockade in BRAF-mutant melanoma.
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    The role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in retroperitoneal sarcomas-A multicenter retrospective study
    Subramaniam, S ; Callahan, J ; Bressel, M ; Hofman, MS ; Mitchell, C ; Hendry, S ; Vissers, FL ; Van Der Hiel, B ; Patel, D ; Van Houdt, WJ ; Tseng, WW ; Gyorki, DE (WILEY, 2021-01-14)
    BACKGROUND: The role of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of retroperitoneal sarcomas is poorly defined. We evaluated the correlation of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) with pathologic tumor grade in the surgical specimen of primary retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). METHODS: Patients with the above histological subtypes in three participating institutions with preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and histopathological specimen available for review were included. The association between SUVmax and pathological grade was assessed. Correlation between SUVmax and relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were also studied. RESULTS: Of the total 58 patients, final pathological subtype was DDLPS in 44 (75.9%) patients and LMS in 14 (24.1%) patients. The mean SUVmax was 8.7 with a median 7.1 (range, 2.2-33.9). The tumors were graded I, II, III in 6 (10.3%), 35 (60.3%), and 17 (29.3%) patients, respectively. There was an association of higher histological grade with higher SUVmax (rs  = 0.40, p = .002). Increasing SUVmax was associated with worse RFS (p = .003) and OS (p = .003). CONCLUSION: There is a correlation between SUVmax and pathologic tumor grade; increasing SUVmax was associated with worse OS and RFS, providing a preoperative noninvasive surrogate marker of tumor grade and biological behavior.
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    Ptpn2 and KLRG1 regulate the generation and in skin
    Hochheiser, K ; Wiede, F ; Wagner, T ; Freestone, D ; Enders, MH ; Olshansky, M ; Russ, B ; Nussing, S ; Bawden, E ; Braun, A ; Bachem, A ; Gressier, E ; McConville, R ; Park, SL ; Jones, CM ; Davey, GM ; Gyorki, DE ; Tscharke, D ; Parish, IA ; Turner, S ; Herold, MJ ; Tiganis, T ; Bedoui, S ; Gebhardt, T (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2021-06-07)
    Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are key elements of tissue immunity. Here, we investigated the role of the regulator of T cell receptor and cytokine signaling, Ptpn2, in the formation and function of TRM cells in skin. Ptpn2-deficient CD8+ T cells displayed a marked defect in generating CD69+ CD103+ TRM cells in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) skin infection. This was accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of KLRG1- memory precursor cells and a transcriptional bias toward terminal differentiation. Of note, forced expression of KLRG1 was sufficient to impede TRM cell formation. Normalizing memory precursor frequencies by transferring equal numbers of KLRG1- cells restored TRM generation, demonstrating that Ptpn2 impacted skin seeding with precursors rather than downstream TRM cell differentiation. Importantly, Ptpn2-deficient TRM cells augmented skin autoimmunity but also afforded superior protection from HSV-1 infection. Our results emphasize that KLRG1 repression is required for optimal TRM cell formation in skin and reveal an important role of Ptpn2 in regulating TRM cell functionality.
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    Importance of preoperative diagnosis for management of patients with suspected retroperitoneal sarcoma
    Gyorki, DE ; Choong, PFM ; Slavin, J ; Henderson, MA (WILEY, 2018-04-01)
    Soft tissue sarcoma is an umbrella term which encompasses over 60 histological tumour types. Approximately 15% of soft tissue sarcomas arise in the retroperitoneum. This complex group of tumours poses unique management challenges due to their often large size, histological heterogeneity and complexity of anatomical relationships. This review discusses the management of retroperitoneal tumours including the need for preoperative diagnosis, the evidence for neoadjuvant radiotherapy, the role of multivisceral resection and the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach.
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    When is a sentinel node biopsy indicated for patients with primary melanoma? An update of the 'Australian guidelines for the management of cutaneous melanoma'
    Gyorki, DE ; Barbour, A ; Hanikeri, M ; Mar, V ; Sandhu, S ; Thompson, JF (WILEY, 2017-11-01)
    A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical staging procedure performed for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who are clinically lymph-node negative to determine whether there is low volume nodal metastasis in the draining lymph node field. A systematic review was recently performed to update the Australian clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of melanoma, addressing the question, 'When is a sentinel lymph node biopsy indicated?' This article discusses the findings of the systematic review and the evidence base for the updated guidelines.
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    Treatment of patients with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma: predictors of outcome from an Australian specialist sarcoma centre
    Snow, HA ; Hitchen, TX ; Head, J ; Herschtal, A ; Bae, S ; Chander, S ; Chu, J ; Hendry, S ; Ngan, SY ; Desai, J ; Choong, PFM ; Henderson, M ; Gyorki, DE (WILEY, 2018-11-01)
    BACKGROUND: Several unanswered questions surround the management of retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). Guidelines recommend treatment by a multidisciplinary team at a specialized referral centre. The objective of this study was to describe the management of RPS at an Australian specialist sarcoma centre, comparing outcomes to international standards and analysing for predictors of local failure. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed on patients with RPS treated between 2008 and 2016. A 5-year outcome analyses focussed on patients undergoing curative-intent surgery for primary, non-metastatic RPS. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients underwent surgery for primary RPS. Five-year overall survival was 66%, 5-year freedom from local recurrence was 65% and 5-year freedom from distant metastasis was 71%. Overall survival was associated with tumour grade (hazard ratio (HR) 6.1, P < 0.001) and histologic organ invasion (HR 5.7, P < 0.001). Variables associated with improved freedom from local recurrence were macroscopically complete resection (HR 0.14, P < 0.001) and neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.33, P = 0.014). Treatment at a specialist sarcoma centre was associated with a higher rate of preoperative biopsy and neoadjuvant radiotherapy (both with P < 0.001). There was a trend towards improved local control for patients undergoing surgery at a specialist centre (P = 0.055). CONCLUSION: This is the largest Australian series of RPS and outcomes are comparable to major international sarcoma centres. Patients treated at a specialist centre had higher rates of preoperative diagnosis and tailored therapy which was associated with improved outcomes. Patients with suspected RPS should be referred to a specialist centre for optimal preoperative evaluation and multidisciplinary management.
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    Generating CAR T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
    Mills, JK ; Henderson, MA ; Giuffrida, L ; Petrone, P ; Westwood, JA ; Darcy, PK ; Neeson, PJ ; Kershaw, MH ; Gyorki, DE (SAGE Publications, 2021)
    Background: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have demonstrated promising, though limited, efficacy against melanoma. Methods: We designed a model system to explore the efficacy of dual specific T cells derived from melanoma patient TILs by transduction with a Her2-specific CAR. Results: Metastatic melanoma cells in our biobank constitutively expressed Her2 antigen. CAR-TIL produced greater amounts of IFN compared with parental TIL, when co-cultured with Her2 expressing tumor lines, including autologous melanoma tumor lines, although no consistent increase in cytotoxicity by TIL was afforded by expression of a CAR. Results of an in vivo study in NSG mice demonstrated tumor shrinkage when CAR-TILs were used in an adoptive cell therapy protocol. Conclusion: Potential limitations of transduced TIL in our study included limited proliferative potential and a terminally differentiated phenotype, which would need addressing in further work before consideration of clinical translation.
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    Characterising the immune microenvironment in liposarcoma, its impact on prognosis and the impact of radiotherapy
    Snow, H ; Mitchell, C ; Hendry, S ; McKinley, M ; Byrne, D ; Ngan, S ; Chander, S ; Chu, J ; Desai, J ; Bae, S ; Henderson, M ; Choong, P ; Gyorki, D (WILEY, 2020-10-20)
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited literature exists examining the immune microenvironment in liposarcoma, particularly with regard to the impact of radiotherapy. A major problem is the lack of scoring system for the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in sarcoma. This study aims to describe the immune environment pre- and postradiotherapy and identify the optimal immune infiltrate scoring system for sarcoma. METHODS: Thirty-nine paired tissue samples (pre- and postradiotherapy) from patients with liposarcoma were scored by two pathologists for TILs using pre-existing systems (for breast cancer and melanoma) and compared for interobserver reliability. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for various immune markers. RESULTS: The TIL scoring system for breast cancer yielded perfect agreement (κ = 1.000). 21% of patients had increased TILs after radiotherapy, 87.5% of whom had dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Immune suppressor expression was increased frequently after radiotherapy (CD68 increased in 59.4%, PD-L1 increased in 25%). Immune effector expression (CD8) was unchanged in 84.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer TIL scoring is reproducible in liposarcoma and has high interobserver reliability. Radiotherapy was observed to have a limited impact on immune effectors but seemed to have more impact in upregulating immune suppressors, suggesting radiotherapy may contribute to disease control through immunomodulatory effects. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma represents a uniquely responsive subtype.