Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 54
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Endometriosis and menopausal hormone therapy impact the hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association.
    Khoja, L ; Weber, RP ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Webb, PM ; Jordan, SJ ; Muthukumar, A ; Chang-Claude, J ; Fortner, RT ; Jensen, A ; Kjaer, SK ; Risch, H ; Doherty, JA ; Harris, HR ; Goodman, MT ; Modugno, F ; Moysich, K ; Berchuck, A ; Schildkraut, JM ; Cramer, D ; Terry, KL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Ziogas, A ; Phung, MT ; Hanley, GE ; Wu, AH ; Mukherjee, B ; McLean, K ; Cho, K ; Pike, MC ; Pearce, CL ; Lee, AW (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer, and to understand how hormone therapy (HT) use and endometriosis affect this association. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of self-reported data from 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Women with (n = 5350) and without ovarian cancer (n = 7544) who never used HT or exclusively used either estrogen-only therapy (ET) or estrogen+progestin therapy (EPT) were included. Risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer adjusted for duration of ET and EPT use and stratified on history of endometriosis was determined using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall and among women without endometriosis, there was a positive association between ovarian cancer risk and hysterectomy (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.31 and OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32, respectively), but no association upon adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.16 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18, respectively). Among women with a history of endometriosis, there was a slight inverse association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.69-1.26), but this association became stronger and statistically significant after adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association is complex and cannot be understood without considering duration of ET and EPT use and history of endometriosis. Failure to take these exposures into account in prior studies casts doubt on their conclusions. Overall, hysterectomy is not risk-reducing for ovarian cancer, however the inverse association among women with endometriosis warrants further investigation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Correction: Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmaña, J ; Bandera, EV ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, NV ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; GEMO Study Collaborators, ; GC-HBOC Study Collaborators, ; EMBRACE Collaborators, ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dörk, T ; du Bois, A ; Dürst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, RT ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; OPAL Study Group, ; AOCS Group, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Håkansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Høgdall, E ; Høgdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; KConFab Investigators, ; HEBON Investigators, ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Lubiński, J ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; Matsuno, RK ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, OI ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamariña, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; Terry, MB ; OCAC Consortium, ; CIMBA Consortium, ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05)
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Pheo-Type: A Diagnostic Gene-expression Assay for the Classification of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
    Flynn, A ; Dwight, T ; Harris, J ; Benn, D ; Zhou, L ; Hogg, A ; Catchpoole, D ; James, P ; Duncan, EL ; Trainer, A ; Gill, AJ ; Clifton-Bligh, R ; Hicks, RJ ; Tothill, RW (ENDOCRINE SOC, 2016-03-01)
    CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are heritable neoplasms that can be classified into gene-expression subtypes corresponding to their underlying specific genetic drivers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a diagnostic and research tool (Pheo-type) capable of classifying PPGL tumors into gene-expression subtypes that could be used to guide and interpret genetic testing, determine surveillance programs, and aid in elucidation of PPGL biology. DESIGN: A compendium of published microarray data representing 205 PPGL tumors was used for the selection of subtype-specific genes that were then translated to the Nanostring gene-expression platform. A support vector machine was trained on the microarray dataset and then tested on an independent Nanostring dataset representing 38 familial and sporadic cases of PPGL of known genotype (RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX, HRAS, VHL, and SDHx). Different classifier models involving between three and six subtypes were compared for their discrimination potential. RESULTS: A gene set of 46 genes and six endogenous controls was selected representing six known PPGL subtypes; RTK1-3 (RET, NF1, TMEM127, and HRAS), MAX-like, VHL, and SDHx. Of 38 test cases, 34 (90%) were correctly predicted to six subtypes based on the known genotype to gene-expression subtype association. Removal of the RTK2 subtype from training, characterized by an admixture of tumor and normal adrenal cortex, improved the classification accuracy (35/38). Consolidation of RTK and pseudohypoxic PPGL subtypes to four- and then three-class architectures improved the classification accuracy for clinical application. CONCLUSIONS: The Pheo-type gene-expression assay is a reliable method for predicting PPGL genotype using routine diagnostic tumor samples.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk
    Dareng, EO ; Tyrer, JP ; Barnes, DR ; Jones, MR ; Yang, X ; Aben, KKH ; Adank, MA ; Agata, S ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Aravantinos, G ; Arun, BK ; Augustinsson, A ; Balmana, J ; Bandera, E ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Beckmann, MW ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bernardini, MQ ; Bjorge, L ; Black, A ; Bogdanova, N ; Bonanni, B ; Borg, A ; Brenton, JD ; Budzilowska, A ; Butzow, R ; Buys, SS ; Cai, H ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cannioto, R ; Cassingham, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Chanock, SJ ; Chen, K ; Chiew, Y-E ; Chung, WK ; Claes, KBM ; Colonna, S ; Cook, LS ; Couch, FJ ; Daly, MB ; Dao, F ; Davies, E ; de la Hoya, M ; de Putter, R ; Dennis, J ; DePersia, A ; Devilee, P ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Doherty, JA ; Domchek, SM ; Dork, T ; du Bois, A ; Durst, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, HA ; Engel, C ; Evans, GD ; Fasching, PA ; Flanagan, JM ; Fortner, R ; Machackova, E ; Friedman, E ; Ganz, PA ; Garber, J ; Gensini, F ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goodman, MT ; Greene, MH ; Gronwald, J ; Group, OS ; AOCSGroup, ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Harris, HR ; Hartman, M ; Heitz, F ; Hildebrandt, MAT ; Hogdall, E ; Hogdall, CK ; Hopper, JL ; Huang, R-Y ; Huff, C ; Hulick, PJ ; Huntsman, DG ; Imyanitov, EN ; Isaacs, C ; Jakubowska, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, A ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Jones, ME ; Kang, D ; Karlan, BY ; Karnezis, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kiemeney, LA ; Kim, B-G ; Kjaer, SK ; Komenaka, I ; Kupryjanczyk, J ; Kurian, AW ; Kwong, A ; Lambrechts, D ; Larson, MC ; Lazaro, C ; Le, ND ; Leslie, G ; Lester, J ; Lesueur, F ; Levine, DA ; Li, L ; Li, J ; Loud, JT ; Lu, KH ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Marks, JR ; KimMatsuno, R ; Matsuo, K ; May, T ; McGuffog, L ; McLaughlin, JR ; McNeish, IA ; Mebirouk, N ; Menon, U ; Miller, A ; Milne, RL ; Minlikeeva, A ; Modugno, F ; Montagna, M ; Moysich, KB ; Munro, E ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Yie, JNY ; Nielsen, HR ; Nielsen, FC ; Nikitina-Zake, L ; Odunsi, K ; Offit, K ; Olah, E ; Olbrecht, S ; Olopade, O ; Olson, SH ; Olsson, H ; Osorio, A ; Papi, L ; Park, SK ; Parsons, MT ; Pathak, H ; Pedersen, IS ; Peixoto, A ; Pejovic, T ; Perez-Segura, P ; Permuth, JB ; Peshkin, B ; Peterlongo, P ; Piskorz, A ; Prokofyeva, D ; Radice, P ; Rantala, J ; Riggan, MJ ; Risch, HA ; Rodriguez-Antona, C ; Ross, E ; Rossing, MA ; Runnebaum, I ; Sandler, DP ; Santamarina, M ; Soucy, P ; Schmutzler, RK ; Setiawan, VW ; Shan, K ; Sieh, W ; Simard, J ; Singer, CF ; Sokolenko, AP ; Song, H ; Southey, MC ; Steed, H ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutphen, R ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teo, SH ; Terry, KL ; BethTerry, M ; Thomassen, M ; Thompson, PJ ; Thomsen, LCV ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Titus, L ; Toland, AE ; Torres, D ; Trabert, B ; Travis, R ; Tung, N ; Tworoger, SS ; Valen, E ; van Altena, AM ; van der Hout, AH ; Nieuwenhuysen, E ; van Rensburg, EJ ; Vega, A ; Edwards, DV ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, F ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Webb, PM ; Weinberg, CR ; Weitzel, JN ; Wentzensen, N ; White, E ; Whittemore, AS ; Winham, SJ ; Wolk, A ; Woo, Y-L ; Wu, AH ; Yan, L ; Yannoukakos, D ; Zavaglia, KM ; Zheng, W ; Ziogas, A ; Zorn, KK ; Kleibl, Z ; Easton, D ; Lawrenson, K ; DeFazio, A ; Sellers, TA ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Monteiro, AN ; Cunningham, J ; Goode, EL ; Schildkraut, JM ; Berchuck, A ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Gayther, SA ; Antoniou, AC ; Pharoah, PDP (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-01-14)
    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, "select and shrink for summary statistics" (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28-1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21-1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35-1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Integration of tumour sequencing and case-control data to assess pathogenicity of RAD51C missense variants in familial breast cancer
    Lim, BWX ; Li, N ; Rowley, SM ; Thompson, ER ; McInerny, S ; Zethoven, M ; Scott, RJ ; Devereux, L ; Sloan, EK ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-01-17)
    While protein-truncating variants in RAD51C have been shown to predispose to triple-negative (TN) breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer, little is known about the pathogenicity of missense (MS) variants. The frequency of rare RAD51C MS variants was assessed in the BEACCON study of 5734 familial BC cases and 14,382 population controls, and findings were integrated with tumour sequencing data from 21 cases carrying a candidate variant. Collectively, a significant enrichment of rare MS variants was detected in cases (MAF < 0.001, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.00-2.44, p = 0.05), particularly for variants with a REVEL score >0.5 (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.40-12.01, p = 0.006). Sequencing of 21 tumours from 20 heterozygous and 1 homozygous carriers of nine candidate MS variants identified four cases with biallelic inactivation through loss of the wild-type allele, while six lost the variant allele and ten that remained heterozygous. Biallelic loss of the wild-type alleles corresponded strongly with ER- and TN breast tumours, high homologous recombination deficiency scores and mutational signature 3. Using this approach, the p.Gly264Ser variant, which was previously suspected to be pathogenic based on small case-control analyses and loss of activity in in vitro functional assays, was shown to be benign with similar prevalence in cases and controls and seven out of eight tumours showing no biallelic inactivation or characteristic mutational signature. Conversely, evaluation of case-control findings and tumour sequencing data identified p.Ile144Thr, p.Arg212His, p.Gln143Arg and p.Gly114Arg as variants warranting further investigation.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A functionally impaired missense variant identified in French Canadian families implicates FANCI as a candidate ovarian cancer-predisposing gene
    Fierheller, CT ; Guitton-Sert, L ; Alenezi, WM ; Revil, T ; Oros, KK ; Gao, Y ; Bedard, K ; Arcand, SL ; Serruya, C ; Behl, S ; Meunier, L ; Fleury, H ; Fewings, E ; Subramanian, DN ; Nadaf, J ; Bruce, JP ; Bell, R ; Provencher, D ; Foulkes, WD ; El Haffaf, Z ; Mes-Masson, A-M ; Majewski, J ; Pugh, TJ ; Tischkowitz, M ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG ; Greenwood, CMT ; Ragoussis, J ; Masson, J-Y ; Tonin, PN (BMC, 2021-12-03)
    BACKGROUND: Familial ovarian cancer (OC) cases not harbouring pathogenic variants in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 OC-predisposing genes, which function in homologous recombination (HR) of DNA, could involve pathogenic variants in other DNA repair pathway genes. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify rare variants in HR genes in a BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC family of French Canadian (FC) ancestry, a population exhibiting genetic drift. OC cases and cancer-free individuals from FC and non-FC populations were investigated for carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T; p.L605F, the top-ranking candidate. Gene and protein expression were investigated in cancer cell lines and tissue microarrays, respectively. RESULTS: In FC subjects, c.1813C>T was more common in familial (7.1%, 3/42) than sporadic (1.6%, 7/439) OC cases (P = 0.048). Carriers were detected in 2.5% (74/2950) of cancer-free females though female/male carriers were more likely to have a first-degree relative with OC (121/5249, 2.3%; Spearman correlation = 0.037; P = 0.011), suggesting a role in risk. Many of the cancer-free females had host factors known to reduce risk to OC which could influence cancer risk in this population. There was an increased carrier frequency of FANCI c.1813C>T in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant negative OC families, when including the discovery family, compared to cancer-free females (3/23, 13%; OR = 5.8; 95%CI = 1.7-19; P = 0.005). In non-FC subjects, 10 candidate FANCI variants were identified in 4.1% (21/516) of Australian OC cases negative for pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, including 10 carriers of FANCI c.1813C>T. Candidate variants were significantly more common in familial OC than in sporadic OC (P = 0.04). Localization of FANCD2, part of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID2) binding complex in the Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway, to sites of induced DNA damage was severely impeded in cells expressing the p.L605F isoform. This isoform was expressed at a reduced level, destabilized by DNA damaging agent treatment in both HeLa and OC cell lines, and exhibited sensitivity to cisplatin but not to a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. By tissue microarray analyses, FANCI protein was consistently expressed in fallopian tube epithelial cells and only expressed at low-to-moderate levels in 88% (83/94) of OC samples. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe candidate OC variants in FANCI, a member of the ID2 complex of the FA DNA repair pathway. Our data suggest that pathogenic FANCI variants may modify OC risk in cancer families.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    TRACEBACK: Testing of Historical Tubo-Ovarian Cancer Patients for Hereditary Risk Genes as a Cancer Prevention Strategy in Family Members
    Delahunty, R ; Nguyen, L ; Craig, S ; Creighton, B ; Ariyaratne, D ; Garsed, DW ; Christie, E ; Fereday, S ; Andrews, L ; Lewis, A ; Limb, S ; Pandey, A ; Hendley, J ; Traficante, N ; Carvajal, N ; Spurdle, AB ; Thompson, B ; Parsons, MT ; Beshay, V ; Volcheck, M ; Semple, T ; Lupat, R ; Doig, K ; Yu, J ; Chen, XQ ; Marsh, A ; Love, C ; Bilic, S ; Beilin, M ; Nichols, CB ; Greer, C ; Lee, YC ; Gerty, S ; Gill, L ; Newton, E ; Howard, J ; Williams, R ; Norris, C ; Stephens, AN ; Tutty, E ; Smyth, C ; O'Connell, S ; Jobling, T ; Stewart, CJR ; Tan, A ; Fox, SB ; Pachter, N ; Li, J ; Ellul, J ; Mir Arnau, G ; Young, M-A ; Gordon, L ; Forrest, L ; Harris, M ; Livingstone, K ; Hill, J ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Cohen, PA ; Webb, PM ; Friedlander, M ; James, P ; Bowtell, D ; Alsop, K (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2022-06-20)
    PURPOSE: Tubo-ovarian cancer (TOC) is a sentinel cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs). Identification of a PV in the first member of a family at increased genetic risk (the proband) provides opportunities for cancer prevention in other at-risk family members. Although Australian testing rates are now high, PVs in patients with TOC whose diagnosis predated revised testing guidelines might have been missed. We assessed the feasibility of detecting PVs in this population to enable genetic risk reduction in relatives. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this pilot study, deceased probands were ascertained from research cohort studies, identification by a relative, and gynecologic oncology clinics. DNA was extracted from archival tissue or stored blood for panel sequencing of 10 risk-associated genes. Testing of deceased probands ascertained through clinic records was performed with a consent waiver. RESULTS: We identified 85 PVs in 84 of 787 (11%) probands. Familial contacts of 39 of 60 (65%) deceased probands with an identified recipient (60 of 84; 71%) have received a written notification of results, with follow-up verbal contact made in 85% (33 of 39). A minority of families (n = 4) were already aware of the PV. For many (29 of 33; 88%), the genetic result provided new information and referral to a genetic service was accepted in most cases (66%; 19 of 29). Those who declined referral (4 of 29) were all male next of kin whose family member had died more than 10 years before. CONCLUSION: We overcame ethical and logistic challenges to demonstrate that retrospective genetic testing to identify PVs in previously untested deceased probands with TOC is feasible. Understanding reasons for a family member's decision to accept or decline a referral will be important for guiding future TRACEBACK projects.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Cousins not twins: intratumoural and intertumoural heterogeneity in syndromic neuroendocrine tumours
    Flynn, A ; Dwight, T ; Benn, D ; Deb, S ; Colebatch, AJ ; Fox, S ; Harris, J ; Duncan, EL ; Robinson, B ; Hogg, A ; Ellul, J ; To, H ; Cuong, D ; Miller, JA ; Yates, C ; James, P ; Trainer, A ; Gill, AJ ; Clifton-Bligh, R ; Hicks, RJ ; Tothill, RW (WILEY, 2017-07-01)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk
    Park, HA ; Neumeyer, S ; Michailidou, K ; Bolla, MK ; Wang, Q ; Dennis, J ; Ahearn, TU ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Antonenkova, NN ; Arndt, V ; Aronson, KJ ; Augustinsson, A ; Baten, A ; Freeman, LEB ; Becher, H ; Beckmann, MW ; Behrens, S ; Benitez, J ; Bermisheva, M ; Bogdanova, N ; Bojesen, SE ; Brauch, H ; Brenner, H ; Brucker, SY ; Burwinkel, B ; Campa, D ; Canzian, F ; Castelao, JE ; Chanock, SJ ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Clarke, CL ; Conroy, DM ; Couch, FJ ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Czene, K ; Daly, MB ; Devilee, P ; Dork, T ; Dos-Santos-Silva, I ; Dwek, M ; Eccles, DM ; Eliassen, AH ; Engel, C ; Eriksson, M ; Evans, DG ; Fasching, PA ; Flyger, H ; Fritschi, L ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Garcia-Saenz, JA ; Gaudet, MM ; Giles, GG ; Glendon, G ; Goldberg, MS ; Goldgar, DE ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Grip, M ; Guenel, P ; Hahnen, E ; Haiman, CA ; Hakansson, N ; Hall, P ; Hamann, U ; Han, S ; Harkness, EF ; Hart, SN ; He, W ; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, BAM ; Hopper, JL ; Hunter, DJ ; Jager, A ; Jakubowska, A ; John, EM ; Jung, A ; Kaaks, R ; Kapoor, PM ; Keeman, R ; Khusnutdinova, E ; Kitahara, CM ; Koppert, LB ; Koutros, S ; Kristensen, VN ; Kurian, AW ; Lacey, J ; Lambrechts, D ; LeMarchand, L ; Lo, W-Y ; Mannermaa, A ; Manoochehri, M ; Margolin, S ; ElenaMartinez, M ; Mavroudis, D ; Meindl, A ; Menon, U ; Milne, RL ; Muranen, TA ; Nevanlinna, H ; Newman, WG ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Offit, K ; Olshan, AF ; Olsson, H ; Park-Simon, T-W ; Peterlongo, P ; Peto, J ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D ; Presneau, N ; Radice, P ; Rennert, G ; Rennert, HS ; Romero, A ; Saloustros, E ; Sawyer, EJ ; Schmidt, MK ; Schmutzler, RK ; Schoemaker, MJ ; Schwentner, L ; Scott, C ; Shah, M ; Shu, X-O ; Simard, J ; Smeets, A ; Southey, MC ; Spinelli, JJ ; Stevens, V ; Swerdlow, AJ ; Tamimi, RM ; Tapper, WJ ; Taylor, JA ; Terry, MB ; Tomlinson, I ; Troester, MA ; Truong, T ; Vachon, CM ; van Veen, EM ; Vijai, J ; Wang, S ; Wendt, C ; Winqvist, R ; Wolk, A ; Ziogas, A ; Dunning, AM ; Pharoah, PDP ; Easton, DF ; Zheng, W ; Kraft, P ; Chang-Claude, J (SPRINGERNATURE, 2021-08-02)
    BACKGROUND: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. RESULTS: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10-2), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. CONCLUSION: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Breast and Prostate Cancer Risks for Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant Carriers Using Polygenic Risk Scores
    Barnes, DR ; Silvestri, V ; Leslie, G ; McGuffog, L ; Dennis, J ; Yang, X ; Adlard, J ; Agnarsson, BA ; Ahmed, M ; Aittomaki, K ; Andrulis, IL ; Arason, A ; Arnold, N ; Auber, B ; Azzollini, J ; Balmana, J ; Barkardottir, RB ; Barrowdale, D ; Barwell, J ; Belotti, M ; Benitez, J ; Berthet, P ; Boonen, SE ; Borg, A ; Bozsik, A ; Brady, AF ; Brennan, P ; Brewer, C ; Brunet, J ; Bucalo, A ; Buys, SS ; Caldes, T ; Caligo, MA ; Campbell, I ; Cassingham, H ; Christensen, LL ; Cini, G ; Claes, KBM ; Cook, J ; Coppa, A ; Cortesi, L ; Damante, G ; Darder, E ; Davidson, R ; de la Hoya, M ; De Leeneer, K ; de Putter, R ; Del Valle, J ; Diez, O ; Ding, YC ; Domchek, SM ; Donaldson, A ; Eason, J ; Eeles, R ; Engel, C ; Evans, DG ; Feliubadalo, L ; Fostira, F ; Frone, M ; Frost, D ; Gallagher, D ; Gehrig, A ; Giraud, S ; Glendon, G ; Godwin, AK ; Goldgar, DE ; Greene, MH ; Gregory, H ; Gross, E ; Hahnen, E ; Hamann, U ; Hansen, TVO ; Hanson, H ; Hentschel, J ; Horvath, J ; Izatt, L ; Izquierdo, A ; James, PA ; Janavicius, R ; Jensen, UB ; Johannsson, OT ; John, EM ; Kramer, G ; Kroeldrup, L ; Kruse, TA ; Lautrup, C ; Lazaro, C ; Lesueur, F ; Lopez-Fernandez, A ; Mai, PL ; Manoukian, S ; Matrai, Z ; Matricardi, L ; Maxwell, KN ; Mebirouk, N ; Meindl, A ; Montagna, M ; Monteiro, AN ; Morrison, PJ ; Muranen, TA ; Murray, A ; Nathanson, KL ; Neuhausen, SL ; Nevanlinna, H ; Tu, N-D ; Niederacher, D ; Olah, E ; Olopade, O ; Palli, D ; Parsons, MT ; Pedersen, IS ; Peissel, B ; Perez-Segura, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Petersen, AH ; Pinto, P ; Porteous, ME ; Pottinger, C ; Pujana, MA ; Radice, P ; Ramser, J ; Rantala, J ; Robson, M ; Rogers, MT ; Ronlund, K ; Rump, A ; Sanchez de Abajo, AM ; Shah, PD ; Sharif, S ; Side, LE ; Singer, CF ; Stadler, Z ; Steele, L ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D ; Sutter, C ; Tan, YY ; Teixeira, MR ; Teule, A ; Thull, DL ; Tischkowitz, M ; Toland, AE ; Tommasi, S ; Toss, A ; Trainer, AH ; Tripathi, V ; Valentini, V ; van Asperen, CJ ; Venturelli, M ; Viel, A ; Vijai, J ; Walker, L ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Wappenschmidt, B ; Whaite, A ; Zanna, I ; Offit, K ; Thomassen, M ; Couch, FJ ; Schmutzler, RK ; Simard, J ; Easton, DF ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Antoniou, AC ; Ottini, L (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2021-07-28)
    BACKGROUND: Recent population-based female breast cancer and prostate cancer polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. We assessed the associations of these PRS with breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: 483 BRCA1 and 1318 BRCA2 European ancestry male carriers were available from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A 147-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prostate cancer PRS (PRSPC) and a 313-SNP breast cancer PRS were evaluated. There were 3 versions of the breast cancer PRS, optimized to predict overall (PRSBC), estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (PRSER-), or ER-positive (PRSER+) breast cancer risk. RESULTS: PRSER+ yielded the strongest association with breast cancer risk. The odds ratios (ORs) per PRSER+ standard deviation estimates were 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.07 to 1.83) for BRCA1 and 1.33 (95% CI = 1.16 to 1.52) for BRCA2 carriers. PRSPC was associated with prostate cancer risk for BRCA1 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.28 to 2.33) and BRCA2 (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34 to 1.91) carriers. The estimated breast cancer odds ratios were larger after adjusting for female relative breast cancer family history. By age 85 years, for BRCA2 carriers, the breast cancer risk varied from 7.7% to 18.4% and prostate cancer risk from 34.1% to 87.6% between the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based prostate and female breast cancer PRS are associated with a wide range of absolute breast and prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These findings warrant further investigation aimed at providing personalized cancer risks for male carriers and informing clinical management.