Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Multiomic analysis of homologous recombination-deficient end-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer
    Burdett, NL ; Willis, MO ; Alsop, K ; Hunt, AL ; Pandey, A ; Hamilton, PT ; Abulez, T ; Liu, X ; Hoang, T ; Craig, S ; Fereday, S ; Hendley, J ; Garsed, DW ; Milne, K ; Kalaria, S ; Marshall, A ; Hood, BL ; Wilson, KN ; Conrads, KA ; Pishas, K ; Ananda, S ; Scott, CL ; Antill, Y ; McNally, O ; Mileshkin, L ; Hamilton, A ; Au-Yeung, G ; Devereux, L ; Thorne, H ; Bild, A ; Bateman, NW ; Maxwell, GL ; Chang, JT ; Conrads, TPP ; Nelson, BH ; Bowtell, DDL ; Christie, ELL (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2023-03)
    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is frequently characterized by homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair deficiency and, while most such tumors are sensitive to initial treatment, acquired resistance is common. We undertook a multiomics approach to interrogate molecular diversity in end-stage disease, using multiple autopsy samples collected from 15 women with HR-deficient HGSC. Patients had polyclonal disease, and several resistance mechanisms were identified within most patients, including reversion mutations and HR restoration by other means. We also observed frequent whole-genome duplication and global changes in immune composition with evidence of immune escape. This analysis highlights diverse evolutionary changes within HGSC that evade therapy and ultimately overwhelm individual patients.
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    The genomic and immune landscape of long-term survivors of high-grade serous ovarian cancer
    Garsed, DW ; Pandey, A ; Fereday, S ; Kennedy, CJ ; Takahashi, K ; Alsop, K ; Hamilton, PT ; Hendley, J ; Chiew, Y-E ; Traficante, N ; Provan, P ; Ariyaratne, D ; Au-Yeung, G ; Bateman, NW ; Bowes, L ; Brand, A ; Christie, EL ; Cunningham, JM ; Friedlander, M ; Grout, B ; Harnett, P ; Hung, J ; McCauley, B ; McNally, O ; Piskorz, AM ; Saner, FAM ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, C ; Winham, SJ ; Pharoah, PDP ; Brenton, JD ; Conrads, TP ; Maxwell, GL ; Ramus, SJ ; Pearce, CL ; Pike, MC ; Nelson, BH ; Goode, EL ; DeFazio, A ; Bowtell, DDL (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-12)
    Fewer than half of all patients with advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) survive more than five years after diagnosis, but those who have an exceptionally long survival could provide insights into tumor biology and therapeutic approaches. We analyzed 60 patients with advanced-stage HGSC who survived more than 10 years after diagnosis using whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome and methylome profiling of their primary tumor samples, comparing this data to 66 short- or moderate-term survivors. Tumors of long-term survivors were more likely to have multiple alterations in genes associated with DNA repair and more frequent somatic variants resulting in an increased predicted neoantigen load. Patients clustered into survival groups based on genomic and immune cell signatures, including three subsets of patients with BRCA1 alterations with distinctly different outcomes. Specific combinations of germline and somatic gene alterations, tumor cell phenotypes and differential immune responses appear to contribute to long-term survival in HGSC.
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    Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Supports Ovarian Carcinosarcoma Tumorigenesis and Confers Sensitivity to Microtubule Targeting with Eribulin
    Ho, GY ; Kyran, EL ; Bedo, J ; Wakefield, MJ ; Ennis, DP ; Mirza, HB ; Vandenberg, CJ ; Lieschke, E ; Farrell, A ; Hadla, A ; Lim, R ; Dall, G ; Vince, JE ; Chua, NK ; Kondrashova, O ; Upstill-Goddard, R ; Bailey, U-M ; Dowson, S ; Roxburgh, P ; Glasspool, RM ; Bryson, G ; Biankin, AV ; Cooke, SL ; Ratnayake, G ; McNally, O ; Traficante, N ; DeFazio, A ; Weroha, SJ ; Bowtell, DD ; McNeish, IA ; Papenfuss, AT ; Scott, CL ; Barker, HE (AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, 2022-12-01)
    UNLABELLED: Ovarian carcinosarcoma (OCS) is an aggressive and rare tumor type with limited treatment options. OCS is hypothesized to develop via the combination theory, with a single progenitor resulting in carcinomatous and sarcomatous components, or alternatively via the conversion theory, with the sarcomatous component developing from the carcinomatous component through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we analyzed DNA variants from isolated carcinoma and sarcoma components to show that OCS from 18 women is monoclonal. RNA sequencing indicated that the carcinoma components were more mesenchymal when compared with pure epithelial ovarian carcinomas, supporting the conversion theory and suggesting that EMT is important in the formation of these tumors. Preclinical OCS models were used to test the efficacy of microtubule-targeting drugs, including eribulin, which has previously been shown to reverse EMT characteristics in breast cancers and induce differentiation in sarcomas. Vinorelbine and eribulin more effectively inhibited OCS growth than standard-of-care platinum-based chemotherapy, and treatment with eribulin reduced mesenchymal characteristics and N-MYC expression in OCS patient-derived xenografts. Eribulin treatment resulted in an accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in OCS cells, which triggered a downregulation of the mevalonate pathway and prevented further cholesterol biosynthesis. Finally, eribulin increased expression of genes related to immune activation and increased the intratumoral accumulation of CD8+ T cells, supporting exploration of immunotherapy combinations in the clinic. Together, these data indicate that EMT plays a key role in OCS tumorigenesis and support the conversion theory for OCS histogenesis. Targeting EMT using eribulin could help improve OCS patient outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE: Genomic analyses and preclinical models of ovarian carcinosarcoma support the conversion theory for disease development and indicate that microtubule inhibitors could be used to suppress EMT and stimulate antitumor immunity.
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    Endometriosis and menopausal hormone therapy impact the hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association.
    Khoja, L ; Weber, RP ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Webb, PM ; Jordan, SJ ; Muthukumar, A ; Chang-Claude, J ; Fortner, RT ; Jensen, A ; Kjaer, SK ; Risch, H ; Doherty, JA ; Harris, HR ; Goodman, MT ; Modugno, F ; Moysich, K ; Berchuck, A ; Schildkraut, JM ; Cramer, D ; Terry, KL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Ziogas, A ; Phung, MT ; Hanley, GE ; Wu, AH ; Mukherjee, B ; McLean, K ; Cho, K ; Pike, MC ; Pearce, CL ; Lee, AW (Elsevier BV, 2022-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer, and to understand how hormone therapy (HT) use and endometriosis affect this association. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of self-reported data from 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Women with (n = 5350) and without ovarian cancer (n = 7544) who never used HT or exclusively used either estrogen-only therapy (ET) or estrogen+progestin therapy (EPT) were included. Risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer adjusted for duration of ET and EPT use and stratified on history of endometriosis was determined using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall and among women without endometriosis, there was a positive association between ovarian cancer risk and hysterectomy (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.31 and OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32, respectively), but no association upon adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.16 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18, respectively). Among women with a history of endometriosis, there was a slight inverse association between hysterectomy and ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.69-1.26), but this association became stronger and statistically significant after adjusting for duration of ET and EPT use (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The hysterectomy-ovarian cancer association is complex and cannot be understood without considering duration of ET and EPT use and history of endometriosis. Failure to take these exposures into account in prior studies casts doubt on their conclusions. Overall, hysterectomy is not risk-reducing for ovarian cancer, however the inverse association among women with endometriosis warrants further investigation.
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    Therapeutic options for mucinous ovarian carcinoma
    Gorringe, KL ; Cheasley, D ; Wakefield, MJ ; Ryland, GL ; Allan, PE ; Alsop, K ; Amarasinghe, KC ; Ananda, S ; Bowtell, DDL ; Christie, M ; Chiew, Y-E ; Churchman, M ; DeFazio, A ; Fereday, S ; Gilks, CB ; Gourley, C ; Hadley, AM ; Hendley, J ; Hunter, SM ; Kaufmann, SH ; Kennedy, CJ ; Kobel, M ; Le Page, C ; Li, J ; Lupat, R ; McNally, OM ; McAlpine, JN ; Pyman, J ; Rowley, SM ; Salazar, C ; Saunders, H ; Semple, T ; Stephens, AN ; Thio, N ; Torres, MC ; Traficante, N ; Zethoven, M ; Antill, YC ; Campbell, IG ; Scott, CL (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03)
    OBJECTIVE: Mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) is an uncommon ovarian cancer histotype that responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy regimens. Although long overall survival outcomes can occur with early detection and optimal surgical resection, recurrent and advanced disease are associated with extremely poor survival. There are no current guidelines specifically for the systemic management of recurrent MOC. We analyzed data from a large cohort of women with MOC to evaluate the potential for clinical utility from a range of systemic agents. METHODS: We analyzed gene copy number (n = 191) and DNA sequencing data (n = 184) from primary MOC to evaluate signatures of mismatch repair deficiency and homologous recombination deficiency, and other genetic events. Immunohistochemistry data were collated for ER, CK7, CK20, CDX2, HER2, PAX8 and p16 (n = 117-166). RESULTS: Molecular aberrations noted in MOC that suggest a match with current targeted therapies include amplification of ERBB2 (26.7%) and BRAF mutation (9%). Observed genetic events that suggest potential efficacy for agents currently in clinical trials include: KRAS/NRAS mutations (66%), TP53 missense mutation (49%), RNF43 mutation (11%), ARID1A mutation (10%), and PIK3CA/PTEN mutation (9%). Therapies exploiting homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) may not be effective in MOC, as only 1/191 had a high HRD score. Mismatch repair deficiency was similarly rare (1/184). CONCLUSIONS: Although genetically diverse, MOC has several potential therapeutic targets. Importantly, the lack of response to platinum-based therapy observed clinically corresponds to the lack of a genomic signature associated with HRD, and MOC are thus also unlikely to respond to PARP inhibition.
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    Methylation of all BRCA1 copies predicts response to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib in ovarian carcinoma
    Kondrashova, O ; Topp, M ; Nesic, K ; Lieschke, E ; Ho, G-Y ; Harrell, M ; Zapparoli, G ; Hadley, A ; Holian, R ; Boehm, E ; Heong, V ; Sanij, E ; Pearson, RB ; Krais, JJ ; Johnson, N ; McNally, O ; Ananda, S ; Alsop, K ; Hutt, KJ ; Kaufmann, SH ; Lin, KK ; Harding, TC ; Traficante, N ; deFazio, A ; McNeish, LA ; Bowtell, DD ; Swisher, EM ; Dobrovic, A ; Wakefield, MJ ; Scott, CL ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Green, A ; Webb, P ; Gertig, D ; Fereday, S ; Moore, S ; Hung, J ; Harrap, K ; Sadkowsky, T ; Pandeya, N ; Malt, M ; Mellon, A ; Robertson, R ; Vanden Bergh, T ; Jones, M ; Mackenzie, P ; Maidens, J ; Nattress, K ; Chiew, YE ; Stenlake, A ; Sullivan, H ; Alexander, B ; Ashover, P ; Brown, S ; Corrish, T ; Green, L ; Jackman, L ; Ferguson, K ; Martin, K ; Martyn, A ; Ranieri, B ; White, J ; Jayde, V ; Mamers, P ; Bowes, L ; Galletta, L ; Giles, D ; Hendley, J ; Schmidt, T ; Shirley, H ; Ball, C ; Young, C ; Viduka, S ; Tran, H ; Bilic, S ; Glavinas, L ; Brooks, J ; Stuart-Harris, R ; Kirsten, F ; Rutovitz, J ; Clingan, P ; Glasgow, A ; Proietto, A ; Braye, S ; Otton, G ; Shannon, J ; Bonaventura, T ; Stewart, J ; Begbie, S ; Friedlander, M ; Bell, D ; Baron-Hay, S ; Ferrier, A ; Gard, G ; Nevell, D ; Pavlakis, N ; Valmadre, S ; Young, B ; Camaris, C ; Crouch, R ; Edwards, L ; Hacker, N ; Marsden, D ; Robertson, G ; Beale, P ; Beith, J ; Carter, J ; Dalrymple, C ; Houghton, R ; Russell, P ; Links, M ; Grygiel, J ; Hill, J ; Brand, A ; Byth, K ; Jaworski, R ; Harnett, P ; Sharma, R ; Wain, G ; Ward, B ; Papadimos, D ; Crandon, A ; Cummings, M ; Horwood, K ; Obermair, A ; Perrin, L ; Wyld, D ; Nicklin, J ; Davy, M ; Oehler, MK ; Hall, C ; Dodd, T ; Healy, T ; Pittman, K ; Henderson, D ; Miller, J ; Pierdes, J ; Blomfield, P ; Challis, D ; Mclntosh, R ; Parker, A ; Brown, B ; Rome, R ; Allen, D ; Grant, P ; Hyde, S ; Laurie, R ; Robbie, M ; Healy, D ; Jobling, T ; Manolitsas, T ; McNealage, J ; Rogers, P ; Susil, B ; Sumithran, E ; Simpson, I ; Phillips, K ; Rischin, D ; Fox, S ; Johnson, D ; Lade, S ; Loughrey, M ; O'Callaghan, N ; Murray, W ; Waring, P ; Billson, V ; Pyman, J ; Neesham, D ; Quinn, M ; Underhill, C ; Bell, R ; Ng, LF ; Blum, R ; Ganju, V ; Hammond, I ; Leung, Y ; McCartney, A ; Buck, M ; Haviv, I ; Purdie, D ; Whiteman, D ; Zeps, N (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-28)
    Accurately identifying patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) who respond to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy is of great clinical importance. Here we show that quantitative BRCA1 methylation analysis provides new insight into PARPi response in preclinical models and ovarian cancer patients. The response of 12 HGSOC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) to the PARPi rucaparib was assessed, with variable dose-dependent responses observed in chemo-naive BRCA1/2-mutated PDX, and no responses in PDX lacking DNA repair pathway defects. Among BRCA1-methylated PDX, silencing of all BRCA1 copies predicts rucaparib response, whilst heterozygous methylation is associated with resistance. Analysis of 21 BRCA1-methylated platinum-sensitive recurrent HGSOC (ARIEL2 Part 1 trial) confirmed that homozygous or hemizygous BRCA1 methylation predicts rucaparib clinical response, and that methylation loss can occur after exposure to chemotherapy. Accordingly, quantitative BRCA1 methylation analysis in a pre-treatment biopsy could allow identification of patients most likely to benefit, and facilitate tailoring of PARPi therapy.
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    LRP1B Deletion in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancers Is Associated with Acquired Chemotherapy Resistance to Liposomal Doxorubicin
    Cowin, PA ; George, J ; Fereday, S ; Loehrer, E ; Van Loo, P ; Cullinane, C ; Etemadmoghadam, D ; Ftouni, S ; Galletta, L ; Anglesio, MS ; Hendley, J ; Bowes, L ; Sheppard, KE ; Christie, EL ; Pearson, RB ; Harnett, PR ; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V ; Friedlander, M ; McNally, O ; Quinn, M ; Campbell, P ; deFazio, A ; Bowtell, DDL (AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, 2012-08-15)
    High-grade serous cancer (HGSC), the most common subtype of ovarian cancer, often becomes resistant to chemotherapy, leading to poor patient outcomes. Intratumoral heterogeneity occurs in nearly all solid cancers, including ovarian cancer, contributing to the development of resistance mechanisms. In this study, we examined the spatial and temporal genomic variation in HGSC using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Multiple metastatic lesions from individual patients were analyzed along with 22 paired pretreatment and posttreatment samples. We documented regions of differential DNA copy number between multiple tumor biopsies that correlated with altered expression of genes involved in cell polarity and adhesion. In the paired primary and relapse cohort, we observed a greater degree of genomic change in tumors from patients that were initially sensitive to chemotherapy and had longer progression-free interval compared with tumors from patients that were resistant to primary chemotherapy. Notably, deletion or downregulation of the lipid transporter LRP1B emerged as a significant correlate of acquired resistance in our analysis. Functional studies showed that reducing LRP1B expression was sufficient to reduce the sensitivity of HGSC cell lines to liposomal doxorubicin, but not to doxorubicin, whereas LRP1B overexpression was sufficient to increase sensitivity to liposomal doxorubicin. Together, our findings underscore the large degree of variation in DNA copy number in spatially and temporally separated tumors in HGSC patients, and they define LRP1B as a potential contributor to the emergence of chemotherapy resistance in these patients.