Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    Loss of PML cooperates with mutant p53 to drive more aggressive cancers in a gender-dependent manner
    Haupt, S ; Mitchell, C ; Corneille, V ; Shortt, J ; Fox, S ; Pandolfi, PP ; Castillo-Martin, M ; Bonal, DM ; Cordon-Cardo, C ; Lozano, G ; Haupt, Y (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2013-06-01)
    UNLABELLED: p53 mutations and downregulation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) are common genetic alterations in human cancers. In healthy cells these two key tumor suppressors exist in a positive regulatory loop, promoting cell death and cellular senescence. However, the influence of their interplay on tumorigenesis has not been explored directly in vivo. The contribution of PML to mutant p53 driven cancer was evaluated in a mouse model harboring a p53 mutation (p53 (wild-type/R172H) ) that recapitulates a frequent p53 mutation (p53 (R175H) ) in human sporadic and Li-Fraumeni cancers. These mice with PML displayed perturbation of the hematopoietic compartment, manifested either as lymphoma or extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). EMH was associated with peripheral blood leucocytosis and macrocytic anemia, suggestive of myeloproliferative- myelodysplastic overlap. In contrast, a complete loss of PML from these mice resulted in a marked alteration in tumor profile. While the incidence of lymphomas was unaltered, EMH was not detected and the majority of mice succumbed to sarcomas. Further, males lacking PML exhibited a high incidence of soft tissue sarcomas and reduced survival, while females largely developed osteosarcomas, without impact on survival. Together, these findings demonstrate that PML is an important tumor suppressor dictating disease development in a pertinent mouse model of human cancer.   KEY POINTS: (1) A mutant p53 allele disrupts hematopoiesis in mice, by promoting lymphomas and myeloproliferative / myelodysplastic overlap. (2) Coincidental p53 allele mutation and PML loss shifts the tumor profile toward sarcoma formation, which is paralleled in human leiomyosarcomas (indicated by immunohistochemistry; IHC).
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    E6AP ubiquitin ligase regulates PML-induced senescence in Myc-driven lymphomagenesis
    Wolyniec, K ; Shortt, J ; de Stanchina, E ; Levav-Cohen, Y ; Alsheich-Bartok, O ; Louria-Hayon, I ; Corneille, V ; Kumar, B ; Woods, SJ ; Opat, S ; Johnstone, RW ; Scott, CL ; Segal, D ; Pandolfi, PP ; Fox, S ; Strasser, A ; Jiang, Y-H ; Lowe, SW ; Haupt, S ; Haupt, Y (AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY, 2012-07-26)
    Neoplastic transformation requires the elimination of key tumor suppressors, which may result from E3 ligase-mediated proteasomal degradation. We previously demonstrated a key role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP in the regulation of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) stability and formation of PML nuclear bodies. Here, we report the involvement of the E6AP-PML axis in B-cell lymphoma development. A partial loss of E6AP attenuated Myc-induced B-cell lymphomagenesis. This tumor suppressive action was achieved by the induction of cellular senescence. B-cell lymphomas deficient for E6AP expressed elevated levels of PML and PML-nuclear bodies with a concomitant increase in markers of cellular senescence, including p21, H3K9me3, and p16. Consistently, PML deficiency accelerated the rate of Myc-induced B-cell lymphomagenesis. Importantly, E6AP expression was elevated in ∼ 60% of human Burkitt lymphomas, and down-regulation of E6AP in B-lymphoma cells restored PML expression with a concurrent induction of cellular senescence in these cells. Our findings demonstrate that E6AP-mediated down-regulation of PML-induced senescence is essential for B-cell lymphoma progression. This provides a molecular explanation for the down-regulation of PML observed in non-Hodgkin lymphomas, thereby suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for restoration of tumor suppression in B-cell lymphoma.