Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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    A DOMINANT-NEGATIVE MUTANT OF MSOS1 INHIBITS INSULIN-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION AND REVEALS RAS-DEPENDENT AND RAS-INDEPENDENT INSULIN SIGNALING PATHWAYS
    SAKAUE, M ; BOWTELL, D ; KASUGA, M (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 1995-01)
    The role of the Grb2-SOS complex in insulin signal transduction was investigated with a deletion mutant of mSOS1 that lacks the guanine nucleotide exchange domain of the wild-type protein. Cells over-expressing either wild-type (CHO-IR/SOS cells) or mutant (CHO-IR/delta SOS cells) mSOS1 were established by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells that express human insulin receptors (CHO-IR cells) with the appropriate expression plasmid. The mutant mSOS1 protein did not contain the guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro and associated with Grb2 both in vivo and in vitro. In both CHO-IR and CHO-IR/SOS cells, insulin rapidly stimulated the formation of GTP-bound Ras and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase; both these effects of insulin were markedly inhibited in CHO-IR/delta SOS cells. Insulin-induced glycogen synthase and 70-kDa S6 kinase activities were not affected by expression of either wild-type or mutant mSOS1. These results show that the mutant mSOS1 acts in a dominant-negative manner and suggest that the Grb2-SOS complex mediates, at least in part, insulin-induced activation of Ras in intact cells. The data also indicate that Ras activation is not required for insulin-induced stimulation of glycogen synthase and 70-kDa S6 kinase.
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    Tissue hyperplasia and enhanced T-cell signalling via ZAP-70 in c-Cbl-deficient mice
    Murphy, MA ; Schnall, RG ; Venter, DJ ; Barnett, L ; Bertoncello, I ; Thien, CBF ; Langdon, WY ; Bowtell, DDL (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 1998-08)
    The c-Cbl protein is tyrosine phosphorylated and forms complexes with a wide range of signalling partners in response to various growth factors. How c-Cbl interacts with proteins, such as Grb2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and phosphorylated receptors, is well understood, but its role in these complexes is unclear. Recently, the Caenorhabditis elegans Cbl homolog, Sli-1, was shown to act as a negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling. This finding forced a reassessment of the role of Cbl proteins and highlighted the desirability of testing genetically whether c-Cbl acts as a negative regulator of mammalian signalling. Here we investigate the role of c-Cbl in development and homeostasis in mice by targeted disruption of the c-Cbl locus. c-Cbl-deficient mice were viable, fertile, and outwardly normal in appearance. Bone development and remodelling also appeared normal in c-Cbl mutants, despite a previously reported requirement for c-Cbl in osteoclast function. However, consistent with a high level of expression of c-Cbl in the hemopoietic compartment, c-Cbl-deficient mice displayed marked changes in their hemopoietic profiles, including altered T-cell receptor expression, lymphoid hyperplasia, and primary splenic extramedullary hemopoiesis. The mammary fat pads of mutant female mice also showed increased ductal density and branching compared to those of their wild-type littermates, indicating an unanticipated role for c-Cbl in regulating mammary growth. Collectively, the hyperplastic histological changes seen in c-Cbl mutant mice are indicative of a normal role for c-Cbl in negatively regulating signalling events that control cell growth. Consistent with this view, we observed greatly increased intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation in thymocytes following CD3epsilon cross-linking. In particular, phosphorylation of ZAP-70 kinase in thymocytes was uncoupled from a requirement for CD4-mediated Lck activation. This study provides the first biochemical characterization of any organism that is deficient in a member of this unique protein family. Our findings demonstrate critical roles for c-Cbl in hemopoiesis and in controlling cellular proliferation and signalling by the Syk/ZAP-70 family of protein kinases.
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    Normal p53 function in primary cells deficient for Siah genes
    Frew, IJ ; Dickins, RA ; Cuddihy, AR ; Del Rosario, M ; Reinhard, C ; O'Connell, MJ ; Bowtell, DDL (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2002-12)
    Overexpression studies have suggested that Siah1 proteins may act as effectors of p53-mediated cellular responses and as regulators of mitotic progression. We have tested these hypotheses using Siah gene knockout mice. Siah1a and Siah1b were not induced by activation of endogenous p53 in tissues, primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or thymocytes. Furthermore, primary MEFs lacking Siah1a, Siah1b, Siah2, or both Siah2 and Siah1a displayed normal cell cycle progression, proliferation, p53-mediated senescence, and G(1) phase cell cycle arrest. Primary thymocytes deficient for Siah1a, Siah2, or both Siah2 and Siah1a, E1A-transformed MEFs lacking Siah1a, Siah1b, or Siah2, and Siah1b-null ES cells all underwent normal p53-mediated apoptosis. Finally, inhibition of Siah1b expression in Siah2 Siah1a double-mutant cells failed to inhibit cell division, p53-mediated induction of p21 expression, or cell cycle arrest. Our loss-of-function experiments do not support a general role for Siah genes in p53-mediated responses or mitosis.
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    Generation and analysis of Siah2 mutant mice
    Frew, IJ ; Hammond, VE ; Dickins, RA ; Quinn, JMW ; Walkley, CR ; Sims, NA ; Schnall, R ; Della, NG ; Holloway, AJ ; Digby, MR ; Janes, PW ; Tarlinton, DM ; Purton, LE ; Gillespie, MT ; Bowtell, DDL (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2003-12)
    Siah proteins function as E3 ubiquitin ligase enzymes to target the degradation of diverse protein substrates. To characterize the physiological roles of Siah2, we have generated and analyzed Siah2 mutant mice. In contrast to Siah1a knockout mice, which are growth retarded and exhibit defects in spermatogenesis, Siah2 mutant mice are fertile and largely phenotypically normal. While previous studies implicate Siah2 in the regulation of TRAF2, Vav1, OBF-1, and DCC, we find that a variety of responses mediated by these proteins are unaffected by loss of Siah2. However, we have identified an expansion of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of Siah2 mutant mice. Consistent with this, we show that Siah2 mutant bone marrow produces more osteoclasts in vitro than wild-type bone marrow. The observation that combined Siah2 and Siah1a mutation causes embryonic and neonatal lethality demonstrates that the highly homologous Siah proteins have partially overlapping functions in vivo.
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    The ubiquitin ligase component Siah1a is required for completion of meiosis I in male mice
    Dickins, RA ; Frew, IJ ; House, CM ; O'Bryan, MK ; Holloway, AJ ; Haviv, I ; Traficante, N ; de Kretser, DM ; Bowtell, DDL (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2002-04)
    The mammalian Siah genes encode highly conserved proteins containing a RING domain. As components of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, Siah proteins facilitate the ubiquitination and degradation of diverse protein partners including beta-catenin, N-CoR, and DCC. We used gene targeting in mice to analyze the function of Siah1a during mammalian development and reveal novel roles in growth, viability, and fertility. Mutant animals have normal weights at term but are postnatally growth retarded, despite normal levels of pituitary growth hormone. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from mutant animals grow normally. Most animals die before weaning, and few survive beyond 3 months. Serum gonadotropin levels are normal in Siah1a mutant mice; however, females are subfertile and males are sterile due to a block in spermatogenesis. Although spermatocytes in mutant mice display normal meiotic prophase and meiosis I spindle formation, they accumulate at metaphase to telophase of meiosis I and subsequently undergo apoptosis. The requirement of Siah1a for normal progression beyond metaphase I suggests that Siah1a may be part of a novel E3 complex acting late in the first meiotic division.
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    Evolution of core archetypal phenotypes in progressive high grade serous ovarian cancer
    Nath, A ; Cosgrove, PA ; Mirsafian, H ; Christie, EL ; Pflieger, L ; Copeland, B ; Majumdar, S ; Cristea, MC ; Han, ES ; Lee, SJ ; Wang, EW ; Fereday, S ; Traficante, N ; Salgia, R ; Werner, T ; Cohen, AL ; Moos, P ; Chang, JT ; Bowtell, DDL ; Bild, AH (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2021-05-24)
    The evolution of resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells following chemotherapy is only partially understood. To understand the selection of factors driving heterogeneity before and through adaptation to treatment, we profile single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) transcriptomes of HGSOC tumors collected longitudinally during therapy. We analyze scRNA-seq data from two independent patient cohorts to reveal that HGSOC is driven by three archetypal phenotypes, defined as oncogenic states that describe the majority of the transcriptome variation. Using a multi-task learning approach to identify the biological tasks of each archetype, we identify metabolism and proliferation, cellular defense response, and DNA repair signaling as consistent cell states found across patients. Our analysis demonstrates a shift in favor of the metabolism and proliferation archetype versus cellular defense response archetype in cancer cells that received multiple lines of treatment. While archetypes are not consistently associated with specific whole-genome driver mutations, they are closely associated with subclonal populations at the single-cell level, indicating that subclones within a tumor often specialize in unique biological tasks. Our study reveals the core archetypes found in progressive HGSOC and shows consistent enrichment of subclones with the metabolism and proliferation archetype as resistance is acquired to multiple lines of therapy.
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    REZOLVE (ANZGOG-1101): A phase 2 trial of intraperitoneal bevacizumab to treat symptomatic ascites in patients with chemotherapy-resistant, epithelial ovarian cancer
    Sjoquist, KM ; Espinoza, D ; Mileshkin, L ; Ananda, S ; Shannon, C ; Yip, S ; Goh, J ; Bowtell, D ; Harrison, M ; Friedlander, ML (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-05)
    BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of intraperitoneal bevacizumab (IP-bev) in delaying re-accumulation of malignant ascites in women with chemotherapy-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CR-EOC) who have ceased chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes were safety and quality of life. METHODS: Women with CR-EOC and malignant ascites that reaccumulated within 28 days of their last paracentesis (P-1) were administered IP-bev 5 mg/kg following their first therapeutic paracentesis on study (P0). Additional doses of IP-bev were allowed at each subsequent paracentesis (P1, P2, etc) provided the interval from the last dose was 42 days or greater (median time from first to second therapeutic ascitic drainage). RESULTS: 24 participants (median age 67 years [range 38-86]; median 4.5 lines prior systemic treatment [range 1-12]; ECOG performance status of 0 in 1, 1 in 8, and 2-3 in 15) were recruited. The doses of IP-bev administered were 1 in 13 participants, 2 in 5, 3 in 2, 4 in 1, and 5 in 1. The proportion with a TTP of >42 days using competing risk analysis was 77% (95% CI 58-92). Median time from P0 to P1 or death was 48 days (range 8-248). Median paracentesis-free interval (P0-P1 or death) was 4.29-fold (95% CI 2.4-5.8) higher following a first dose of IP-bev compared with the time between paracenteses prior to study entry (P-1-P0). CONCLUSION: IP-bev was safe, active, and warrants further study as a palliative intervention for recurrent ascites in CR-EOC patients receiving best supportive care.
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    Differential expression of selected histone modifier genes in human solid cancers
    Ozdag, H ; Teschendorff, AE ; Ahmed, AA ; Hyland, SJ ; Blenkiron, C ; Bobrow, L ; Veerakumarasivam, A ; Burtt, G ; Subkhankulova, T ; Arends, MJ ; Collins, VP ; Bowtell, D ; Kouzarides, T ; Brenton, JD ; Caldas, C (BMC, 2006-04-25)
    BACKGROUND: Post-translational modification of histones resulting in chromatin remodelling plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report characteristic patterns of expression of 12 members of 3 classes of chromatin modifier genes in 6 different cancer types: histone acetyltransferases (HATs)- EP300, CREBBP, and PCAF; histone deacetylases (HDACs)- HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7A, and SIRT1; and histone methyltransferases (HMTs)- SUV39H1and SUV39H2. Expression of each gene in 225 samples (135 primary tumours, 47 cancer cell lines, and 43 normal tissues) was analysedby QRT-PCR, normalized with 8 housekeeping genes, and given as a ratio by comparison with a universal reference RNA. RESULTS: This involved a total of 13,000 PCR assays allowing for rigorous analysis by fitting a linear regression model to the data. Mutation analysis of HDAC1, HDAC2, SUV39H1, and SUV39H2 revealed only two out of 181 cancer samples (both cell lines) with significant coding-sequence alterations. Supervised analysis and Independent Component Analysis showed that expression of many of these genes was able to discriminate tumour samples from their normal counterparts. Clustering based on the normalized expression ratios of the 12 genes also showed that most samples were grouped according to tissue type. Using a linear discriminant classifier and internal cross-validation revealed that with as few as 5 of the 12 genes, SIRT1, CREBBP, HDAC7A, HDAC5 and PCAF, most samples were correctly assigned. CONCLUSION: The expression patterns of HATs, HDACs, and HMTs suggest these genes are important in neoplastic transformation and have characteristic patterns of expression depending on tissue of origin, with implications for potential clinical application.
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    Cbl associates with Pyk2 and Src to regulate Src kinase activity, αvβ3 integrin-mediated signaling, cell adhesion, and osteoclast motility
    Sanjay, A ; Houghton, A ; Neff, L ; DiDomenico, E ; Bardelay, C ; Antoine, E ; Levy, J ; Gailit, J ; Bowtell, D ; Horne, WC ; Baron, R (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2001-01-08)
    The signaling events downstream of integrins that regulate cell attachment and motility are only partially understood. Using osteoclasts and transfected 293 cells, we find that a molecular complex comprising Src, Pyk2, and Cbl functions to regulate cell adhesion and motility. The activation of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) induces the [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402, its association with Src SH2, Src activation, and the Src SH3-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Furthermore, the PTB domain of Cbl is shown to bind to phosphorylated Tyr-416 in the activation loop of Src, the autophosphorylation site of Src, inhibiting Src kinase activity and integrin-mediated adhesion. Finally, we show that deletion of c Src or c-Cbl leads to a decrease in osteoclast migration. Thus, binding of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin induces the formation of a Pyk2/Src/Cbl complex in which Cbl is a key regulator of Src kinase activity and of cell adhesion and migration. These findings may explain the osteopetrotic phenotype in the Src(-/-) mice.
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    A mouse with a loss-of-function mutation in the c-Cbl TKB domain shows perturbed thymocyte signaling without enhancing the activity of the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase
    Thien, CBF ; Scaife, RM ; Papadimitriou, JM ; Murphy, MA ; Bowtell, DDL ; Langdon, WY (ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS, 2003-02-17)
    The unique tyrosine kinase binding (TKB) domain of Cbl targets phosphorylated tyrosines on activated protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs); this targeting is considered essential for Cbl proteins to negatively regulate PTKs. Here, a loss-of-function mutation (G304E) in the c-Cbl TKB domain, first identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, was introduced into a mouse and its effects in thymocytes and T cells were studied. In marked contrast to the c-Cbl knockout mouse, we found no evidence of enhanced activity of the ZAP-70 PTK in thymocytes from the TKB domain mutant mouse. This finding contradicts the accepted mechanism of c-Cbl-mediated negative regulation, which requires TKB domain targeting of phosphotyrosine 292 in ZAP-70. However, the TKB domain mutant mouse does show aspects of enhanced signaling that parallel those of the c-Cbl knockout mouse, but these involve the constitutive activation of Rac and not enhanced PTK activity. Furthermore, the enhanced signaling in CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes appears to be compensated by the selective down-regulation of CD3 on mature thymocytes and peripheral T cells from both strains of mutant c-Cbl mice.