Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology - Research Publications

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1994
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    CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders-An Australian Clinical Practice Statement from the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre.
    Bhabha, FK ; McCormack, C ; Campbell, BA ; Lade, S ; Buelens, O ; Van Der Weyden, C ; Prince, HM (Wiley, 2023-05)
    The CD30-postive lymphoproliferative disorders, including lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, account for up to 30% of all cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) and are the second most common form of CTCLs after mycosis fungoides. Both conditions differ in their clinical presentations; however, they share the expression of the CD30 antigen as a common immunophenotypic hallmark. There is a wide spectrum of management options depending on factors such as extent of disease, staging and treatment tolerability. This Clinical Practice Statement is reflective of the current clinical practice in Australia.
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    Supporting healthcare professionals to offer reproductive genetic carrier screening: a behaviour change theory approach
    Best, S ; Long, JC ; Fehlberg, Z ; Archibald, AD ; Braithwaite, J (CSIRO Publishing, 2023)
    Background: As reproductive genetic carrier screening (RGCS) becomes more widely accessible, ensuring uptake by primary healthcare professionals (HCPs) is essential to equitable service provision. This study aimed to identify and prioritise implementation strategies to reduce barriers and support HCPs to routinely offer RGCS in Australia. Methods: HCPs (n = 990) involved in a large national research study, offering couples-based RGCS, were surveyed at three time points: prior to offering RGCS through the study (Survey 1: Barriers); 8+ weeks after offering to their patients (Survey 2: Possible supports); and towards the end of the study (Survey 3: Prioritised supports). HCPs were from primary care (e.g. general practice, midwifery) and tertiary care (e.g. fertility, genetics) settings. Results were analysed via a novel approach of using behaviour change theory (Capability, Opportunity and Motivation – COM.B) to align theory to practice. Results: Survey 1 (n = 599) identified four barrier themes: time constraints, lack of HCP knowledge and skill, patient receptivity, and HCP’s perceived value of RGCS. Survey 2 (n = 358) identified 31 supports that could facilitate HCPs offering RGCS. Survey 3 (n = 390) was analysed separately by speciality and clinic location. Prioritised supports for primary care HCPs were ‘regular continuing professional development activities’ and ‘a comprehensive website to direct patients for information’. There was general accordance with the perceived importance of the supports, although some difference in relation to funding between professional groups and clinic locations. Conclusion: This study identified a range of supports acceptable to HCPs across specialties and geographic locations that policymakers may use to direct efforts to ensure the roll out of RGCS is equitable across Australia.
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    NDR kinase tricornered genetically interacts with Ccm3 and metabolic enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster tracheal development
    Hudson, J ; Paul, S ; Veraksa, A ; Ghabrial, A ; Harvey, KF ; Poon, C ; Arbeitman, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2023-01-19)
    The Germinal Center Kinase III (GckIII) pathway is a Hippo-like kinase module defined by sequential activation of Ste20 kinases Thousand and One (Tao) and GckIII, followed by nuclear dbf2-related (NDR) kinase Tricornered (Trc). We previously uncovered a role for the GckIII pathway in Drosophila melanogaster tracheal (respiratory) tube morphology. The trachea form a network of branched epithelial tubes essential for oxygen transport, and are structurally analogous to branched tubular organs in vertebrates, such as the vascular system. In the absence of GckIII pathway function, aberrant dilations form in tracheal tubes characterized by mislocalized junctional and apical proteins, suggesting that the pathway is important in maintaining tube integrity in development. Here, we observed a genetic interaction between trc and Cerebral cavernous malformations 3 (Ccm3), the Drosophila ortholog of a human vascular disease gene, supporting our hypothesis that the GckIII pathway functions downstream of Ccm3 in trachea, and potentially in the vertebrate cerebral vasculature. However, how GckIII pathway signaling is regulated and the mechanisms that underpin its function in tracheal development are unknown. We undertook biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that interact with Trc, the most downstream GckIII pathway kinase. We found that known GckIII and NDR scaffold proteins are likely to control GckIII pathway signaling in tracheal development, consistent with their conserved roles in Hippo-like modules. Furthermore, we show genetic interactions between trc and multiple enzymes in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, suggesting a potential function of the GckIII pathway in integrating cellular energy requirements with maintenance of tube integrity.
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    Older age should not be a barrier to testing for somatic variants in homologous recombination DNA repair-related genes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma
    Pitiyarachchi, O ; Lee, YC ; Sim, H-W ; Srirangan, S ; Mapagu, C ; Kirk, J ; Harnett, PR ; Balleine, RL ; Bowtell, DDL ; Samimi, G ; Brand, AH ; Marsh, DJ ; Beale, P ; Anderson, L ; Bouantoun, N ; Provan, P ; Ramus, SJ ; DeFazio, A ; Friedlander, M ; INOVATe, I (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2023-02-18)
    BACKGROUND: Somatic pathogenic variants (PVs) in homologous recombination DNA repair (HR)-related genes found in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC) are not well-characterised in older patients (≥70 years). This may reflect low testing rates in older patients. METHODS: Data from 1210 HGSC patients in AACR Project GENIE and 324 patients in an independent dataset INOVATe were analysed. Cases where somatic variants could be distinguished from germline variants were included, and analysis was restricted to those with a somatic TP53 variant, to ensure cases were HGSC. RESULTS: Of 1210 patients in GENIE, 27% (n = 325) were aged ≥70 years at testing. Patients with somatic-only PVs in BRCA2 were older compared with BRCA1 (median 71 vs 60 years, p = 0.002). Median age for 21 patients with somatic-only PVs in 11 other HR-related genes ranged from 40 to 67 years. In older patients, 7% (n = 22) had somatic BRCA1/2 PVs, and 1% (n = 2) had PVs other HR-related genes; this rate was not significantly different to younger patients (<70 years), 7% (n = 62) BRCA1/2 and 2% (n = 19) other HR-related genes (p = 0.36). The overall frequency of somatic BRCA1/2 PVs was similar in INOVATe (n = 25; 7.7%) and somatic-only BRCA2 PVs were again found in older patients compared with BRCA1 (median age: at testing, 70 vs 63 years; at diagnosis, 68 vs 60 years). CONCLUSIONS: The overall frequency of somatic-only PVs in HR-related genes was similar in older and younger patients with HGSC, highlighting the importance of somatic testing irrespective of age. Limiting somatic testing by age may exclude patients who could benefit from maintenance poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.
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    Insights into Cancer Immunotherapies: Recent Breakthroughs, Opportunities, and Challenges
    Pappas, EG ; Kershaw, MH ; Slaney, CY (MDPI, 2023-02-01)
    This Special Issue reminds us that, although incredible developments have occurred in the field of cancer immunotherapy, there is still plenty of room for improvement [...].
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    Prospective comprehensive profiling of immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients on zanubrutinib therapy.
    Nguyen, THO ; Lim, C ; Lasica, M ; Whitechurch, A ; Tennakoon, S ; Saunders, NR ; Allen, LF ; Rowntree, LC ; Chua, BY ; Kedzierski, L ; Tan, H-X ; Wheatley, AK ; Kent, SJ ; Karapanagiotidis, T ; Nicholson, S ; Williamson, DA ; Slavin, MA ; Tam, CS ; Kedzierska, K ; Teh, BW (Wiley, 2023-02)
    Zanubrutinib-treated and treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia were recruited in this prospective study to comprehensively profile humoral and cellular immune responses to COVID-19 vaccination. Overall, 45 patients (median 72 years old) were recruited; the majority were male (71%), had CLL (76%) and were on zanubrutinib (78%). Seroconversion rates were 65% and 77% following two and three doses, respectively. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell response rates increased with third dose. In zanubrutinib-treated patients, 86% developed either a humoral or cellular response. Patients on zanubrutinib developed substantial immune responses following two COVID-19 vaccine doses, which further improved following a third dose.
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    RIPK3 controls MAIT cell accumulation during development but not during infection
    Patton, T ; Zhao, Z ; Lim, XY ; Eddy, E ; Wang, H ; Nelson, AG ; Ennis, B ; Eckle, SBG ; Souter, MNT ; Pediongco, TJ ; Koay, H-F ; Zhang, J-G ; Djajawi, TM ; Louis, C ; Lalaoui, N ; Jacquelot, N ; Lew, AM ; Pellicci, DG ; McCluskey, J ; Zhan, Y ; Chen, Z ; Lawlor, KE ; Corbett, AJ (SPRINGERNATURE, 2023-02-11)
    Cell death mechanisms in T lymphocytes vary according to their developmental stage, cell subset and activation status. The cell death control mechanisms of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a specialized T cell population, are largely unknown. Here we report that MAIT cells express key necroptotic machinery; receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein, in abundance. Despite this, we discovered that the loss of RIPK3, but not necroptotic effector MLKL or apoptotic caspase-8, specifically increased MAIT cell abundance at steady-state in the thymus, spleen, liver and lungs, in a cell-intrinsic manner. In contrast, over the course of infection with Francisella tularensis, RIPK3 deficiency did not impact the magnitude of the expansion nor contraction of MAIT cell pools. These findings suggest that, distinct from conventional T cells, the accumulation of MAIT cells is restrained by RIPK3 signalling, likely prior to thymic egress, in a manner independent of canonical apoptotic and necroptotic cell death pathways.
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    Somatic inactivation of breast cancer predisposition genes in tumors associated with pathogenic germline variants
    Lim, BWX ; Li, N ; Mahale, S ; McInerny, SM ; Zethoven, M ; Rowley, SM ; Huynh, J ; Wang, T ; Lee, JEA ; Friedman, M ; Devereux, L ; Scott, RJ ; Sloan, EK ; James, PA ; Campbell, IG (OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2022-10-31)
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancers (BCs) that arise in individuals heterozygous for a germline pathogenic variant in a susceptibility gene, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51C, have been shown to exhibit biallelic loss in the respective genes and be associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and distinctive somatic mutational signatures. Tumor sequencing thus presents an orthogonal approach to assess the role of candidate genes in BC development. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on paired normal-breast tumor DNA from 124 carriers of germline loss-of-function (LoF) or missense variant carriers in 15 known and candidate BC predisposition genes identified in the BEACCON case-control study. Biallelic inactivation and association with tumor genome features including mutational signatures and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score were investigated. RESULTS: BARD1-carrying TNBC (4 of 5) displayed biallelic loss and associated high HRD scores and mutational signature 3, as did a RAD51D-carrying TNBC and ovarian cancer. Biallelic loss was less frequent in BRIP1 BCs (4 of 13) and had low HRD scores. In contrast to other established BC genes, BCs from carriers of CHEK2 LoF (6 of 17) or missense (2 of 20) variant had low rates of biallelic loss. Exploratory analysis of BC from carriers of LoF variants in candidate genes such as BLM, FANCM, PARP2, and RAD50 found little evidence of biallelic inactivation. CONCLUSIONS: BARD1 and RAD51D behave as classic BRCA-like predisposition genes with biallelic inactivation, but this was not observed for any of the candidate genes. However, as demonstrated for CHEK2, the absence of biallelic inactivation does not provide definitive evidence against the gene's involvement in BC predisposition.
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    A phase 1 clinical trial of the repurposable acetyllysine mimetic, n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma
    Shortt, J ; Galettis, PY ; Cheah, CY ; Davis, J ; Ludford-Menting, MK ; Link, EKH ; Martin, JH ; Koldej, R ; Ritchie, D (BMC, 2023-01-28)
    BACKGROUND: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an epigenetically active chemical fragment and organic solvent with numerous applications including use as a drug-delivery vehicle. Previously considered biologically inert, NMP demonstrates immunomodulatory and anti-myeloma properties that are partly explained by acetyllysine mimetic properties and non-specific bromodomain inhibition. We therefore evaluated orally administered NMP in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial to establish its maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RR-MM). Secondary endpoints were safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), overall response rate and immunological biomarkers of activity. RESULTS: Thirteen patients received NMP at starting doses between 50 and 400 mg daily. Intra-patient dose escalation occurred in five patients, with one attaining the ceiling protocolised dose of 1 g daily. Median number of monthly cycles commenced was three (range 1-20). Grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were reported in seven (54%; 95% CI 25-81%) patients. Most common AEs (> 30% of patients) of any grade were nausea and musculoskeletal pain. The only dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was diarrhoea in a patient receiving 200 mg NMP (overall DLT rate 8%; 95% CI 0-36%). Hence, the MTD was not defined. Median progression-free and overall survival were 57 (range 29-539) days and 33 (95% CI 9.7- > 44) months, respectively. The best response of stable disease (SD) was achieved in nine patients (69%; 95% CI 39-91%). PK analysis demonstrated proportional dose-concentrations up to 400 mg daily, with a more linear relationship above 500 mg. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 16.7 mg/L at the 800 mg dose were below those predicted to inhibit BET-bromodomains. Peripheral blood immune-profiling demonstrated maintenance of natural killer (NK) cells, and a gene expression signature suggestive of enhanced T, B and NK cell functions; a subject with prolonged exposure manifested sustained recovery of B and NK cells at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: NMP demonstrated potential disease stabilising and immunomodulatory activity at sub-BET inhibitory plasma concentrations and was well tolerated in RR-MM; an MTD was not determined up to a maximum dose of 1 g daily. Further dose-finding studies are required to optimise NMP dosing strategies for therapeutic intervention.
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    Increased FOXJ1 protein expression is associated with improved overall survival in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: an Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis Consortium Study
    Weir, A ; Kang, E-Y ; Meagher, NS ; Nelson, GS ; Ghatage, P ; Lee, C-H ; Riggan, MJ ; Gentry-Maharaj, A ; Ryan, A ; Singh, N ; Widschwendter, M ; Alsop, J ; Anglesio, MS ; Beckmann, MW ; Berger, J ; Bisinotto, C ; Boros, J ; Brand, AH ; Brenton, JD ; Brooks-Wilson, A ; Carney, ME ; Cunningham, JM ; Cushing-Haugen, KL ; Cybulski, C ; Elishaev, E ; Erber, R ; Fereday, S ; Fischer, A ; Paz-Ares, L ; Gayarre, J ; Gilks, BC ; Grube, M ; Harnett, PR ; Harris, HR ; Hartmann, A ; Hein, A ; Hendley, J ; Hernandez, BY ; Heublein, S ; Huang, Y ; Huzarski, T ; Jakubowska, A ; Jimenez-Linan, M ; Kennedy, CJ ; Kommoss, FKF ; Koziak, JM ; Kraemer, B ; Le, ND ; Lesnock, J ; Lester, J ; Lubinski, J ; Menkiszak, J ; Ney, B ; Olawaiye, A ; Orsulic, S ; Osorio, A ; Robles-Diaz, L ; Ruebner, M ; Shah, M ; Sharma, R ; Shvetsov, YB ; Steed, H ; Talhouk, A ; Taylor, SE ; Traficante, N ; Vierkant, RA ; Wang, C ; Wilkens, LR ; Winham, SJ ; Benitez, J ; Berchuck, A ; Bowtell, DD ; Candido dos Reis, FJ ; Cook, LS ; DeFazio, A ; Doherty, JA ; Fasching, PA ; Garcia, MJ ; Goode, EL ; Goodman, MT ; Gronwald, J ; Huntsman, DG ; Karlan, BY ; Kommoss, S ; Modugno, F ; Schildkraut, JM ; Sinn, H-P ; Staebler, A ; Kelemen, LE ; Ford, CE ; Menon, U ; Pharoah, PDP ; Koebel, M ; Ramus, SJ ; Bowtell, D ; DeFazio, A ; Traficante, N ; Fereday, S ; Brand, A ; Harnett, P ; Sharma, R (SPRINGERNATURE, 2023-01-26)
    BACKGROUND: Recently, we showed a >60% difference in 5-year survival for patients with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) when stratified by a 101-gene mRNA expression prognostic signature. Given the varied patient outcomes, this study aimed to translate prognostic mRNA markers into protein expression assays by immunohistochemistry and validate their survival association in HGSC. METHODS: Two prognostic genes, FOXJ1 and GMNN, were selected based on high-quality antibodies, correlation with protein expression and variation in immunohistochemical scores in a preliminary cohort (n = 134 and n = 80, respectively). Six thousand four hundred and thirty-four (FOXJ1) and 5470 (GMNN) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian neoplasms (4634 and 4185 HGSC, respectively) represented on tissue microarrays from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium underwent immunohistochemical staining and scoring, then univariate and multivariate survival analysis. RESULTS: Consistent with mRNA, FOXJ1 protein expression exhibited a linear, increasing association with improved overall survival in HGSC patients. Women with >50% expression had the most favourable outcomes (HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91, p < 0.0001). GMNN protein expression was not significantly associated with overall HSGC patient survival. However, HGSCs with >35% GMNN expression showed a trend for better outcomes, though this was not significant. CONCLUSION: We provide foundational evidence for the prognostic value of FOXJ1 in HGSC, validating the prior mRNA-based prognostic association by immunohistochemistry.