Melbourne Conservatorium of Music - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 59
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Positive Psychology in Therapeutic Songwriting for People Living with Late-Life Depression-An Intervention Protocol
    Eickholt, J ; Baker, FA ; Clark, IN (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    (1) Background: An increasing number of people are living with late-life depression, yet non-pharmacological treatments to help manage symptoms are limited. Two interventions, positive psychology and music therapeutic songwriting, have independently led to decreased depressive symptoms and an improved wellbeing in older people over 65 years old. (2) Methods: This article describes the development of a therapeutic songwriting program for people living with late-life depression. Knowledge from positive psychology and therapeutic songwriting was combined to maximize the potential benefits. (3) Results: The intervention program has ten weekly 45 min sessions that incorporate elements from positive psychology into therapeutic songwriting. Using a three-song approach encompassing ongoing musical practices, different positive psychology interventions were incorporated to support the experiences associated with a flourishing life. The intervention protocol for older people presented here is distinct from previous deficit-orientated approaches in that it shifts the focus to positive experiences, resources, and the individual's ability to decrease their own depressive symptoms and improve their wellbeing. (4) Discussion: This protocol presenting a therapeutic songwriting program meets the need to develop new non-pharmacological treatment options. However, further studies are needed to examine the feasibility and impact of the intervention program on late-life depression and wellbeing in older people.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Music Interventions and Delirium in Adults: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
    Golubovic, J ; Neerland, BE ; Aune, D ; Baker, FA (MDPI, 2022-05-01)
    Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome represented by an acute disturbance in attention, awareness and cognition, highly prevalent in older, and critically ill patients, and associated with poor outcomes. This review synthesized existing evidence on the effectiveness of music interventions on delirium in adults, and music interventions (MIs), psychometric assessments and outcome measures used. We searched MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, Clinical Trials and CENTRAL for quantitative designs comparing any MIs to standard care or another intervention. From 1150 studies 12 met the inclusion criteria, and 6 were included in the meta-analysis. Narrative synthesis showed that most studies focused on prevention, few assessed delirium severity, with the majority of studies reporting beneficial effects. The summary relative risk for incident delirium comparing music vs. no music in postsurgical and critically ill older patients was 0.52 (95% confidential interval (CI): 0.20-1.35, I2 = 79.1%, heterogeneity <0.0001) for the random effects model and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34-0.66) using the fixed effects model. Music listening interventions were more commonly applied than music therapy delivered by credentialed music therapists, and delirium assessments methods were heterogeneous, including both standardized tools and systematic observations. Better designed studies are needed addressing effectiveness of MIs in specific patient subgroups, exploring the correlations between intervention-types/dosages and delirium symptoms.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Music and Psychology & Social Connections Program: Protocol for a Novel Intervention for Dyads Affected by Younger-Onset Dementia
    Loi, SM ; Flynn, L ; Cadwallader, C ; Stretton-Smith, P ; Bryant, C ; Baker, FA (MDPI, 2022-04-01)
    Psychosocial interventions targeting the specific needs of people affected by younger-onset dementia are lacking. Younger-onset dementia refers to dementia where symptom onset occurs at less than 65 years old. Because of its occurrence in middle age, the impact on spouses is particularly marked and dyadic-based interventions are recommended. Music And Psychology & Social Connections (MAPS) is a novel online intervention, informed by the theory of adaptive coping by Bannon et al. (2021) for dyads affected by younger-onset dementia. MAPS combines therapeutic songwriting, cognitive behaviour therapy, and a private social networking group that focuses on the dyads. This will be a randomised controlled trial with a waitlist control. The primary aims are to assess whether MAPS improves depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms in caregivers, with secondary aims to assess whether MAPS improves depressive symptoms in people with younger-onset dementia. The trial also aims to assess dyadic social connectedness; caregiver coping skills; and neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with younger-onset dementia. We will recruit 60 dyads to participate in a group-based weekly online program for 8 weeks facilitated by a credentialed music therapist and psychologist. Sessions 1 and 8 will include both caregivers and people with younger-onset dementia and Sessions 2–7 will involve separate group sessions for caregivers and those with dementia. There will be focus groups for qualitative feedback. Due to its online administration, MAPS has the potential to reach many dyads affected by younger-onset dementia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    CREATIVE ARTS INTERVENTIONS IN ADDRESSING DEPRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Sajnani, N ; Dunphy, K ; Baker, F ; Dumaresq, E ; Caroll-Haskins, K ; Eickholt, J ; Ercole, M ; Kaimal, G (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2021-01-01)
    Abstract Depression experienced by older adults is proving an increasing global health burden, with rates as high as 27% in the USA. This is likely to increase in coming years as the number and proportion of older adults in the global population rises. Therefore, it is imperative that the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention and treatment of depression are understood. Creative arts interventions, including art, dance movement, drama, and music, are utilized internationally to reduce depressive symptoms in older adults and promote wellbeing. This includes interventions led by trained arts therapists as well as other health and arts professionals. This presentation will include a report of findings from a recent systematic review of the outcomes of four creative arts modalities (art, dance movement, drama, and music) with particular attention paid to processes of change documented in each modality.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Loneliness and Behavioral Changes During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Cudjoe, T ; Li, Q ; Drazich, B ; Hladek, M ; Samuel, L ; latkin, C ; Boyd, C (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-12-17)
    Abstract Concerns for the health impact of loneliness, a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, have risen amid the COVID-19 pandemic. However, relationships between loneliness and behavioral changes remains unclear. Utilizing data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study COVID-19 Supplement, we examine the cross-sectional relationship between loneliness and self-reported increase in each of the following behaviors during the pandemic (n=2,924): walking, vigorous activity, eating, use of alcohol and tobacco, watching television and sleeping. Adjusting for age, race, education, activity of daily living limitations, and chronic conditions, loneliness was significantly associated with a higher odds of more eating (odds ratio- OR: 1.42, confidence intervals-CI: 1.24,1.62), sleeping (OR: 1.35, CI: 1.18,1.56), and watching television (OR: 1.45, CI: 1.30,1.61). These results indicate that during stressful times like our current pandemic, loneliness may lead to morbidity and mortality through sedentary behaviors.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Editorial: The Psychological and Physiological Benefits of the Arts
    Karkou, V ; Sajnani, N ; Orkibi, H ; Groarke, JM ; Czamanski-Cohen, J ; Panero, ME ; Drake, J ; Jola, C ; Baker, FA (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-03-08)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Clinical effectiveness of music interventions for dementia and depression in elderly care (MIDDEL): Australian cohort of an international pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial
    Baker, FA ; Lee, Y-EC ; Sousa, TV ; Stretton-Smith, PA ; Tamplin, J ; Sveinsdottir, V ; Geretsegger, M ; Wake, JD ; Assmus, J ; Gold, C (ELSEVIER, 2022-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: Dementia and depression are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions among older adults living in care homes and are associated with individual distress and rising societal costs. Effective, scalable, and feasible interventions are needed. Music interventions have shown promising effects, but the current evidence base is inconclusive. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of two different music interventions on the depressive symptoms of people with dementia living in residential aged care. METHODS: We implemented a 2 × 2 factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial to determine whether group music therapy (GMT) is more effective than no GMT with standard care, or recreational choir singing (RCS) is more effective than no RCS with standard care, for reducing depressive symptoms and other secondary outcomes in people with dementia with mild to severe depressive symptoms living in residential aged care. Care home units with at least ten residents were allocated to GMT, RCS, GMT plus RCS, or standard care, using a computer-generated list with block randomisation (block size four). The protocolised interventions were delivered by music therapists (GMT) and community musicians (RCS). The primary outcome was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score at 6 months, assessed by a masked assessor and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed-effects models, which examined the effects of GMT versus no-GMT and RCS versus no-RCS, as well as interaction effects of GMT and RCS. We report on the Australian cohort of an international trial. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03496675, and anzctr.org.au, ACTRN12618000156280. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2018, and Feb 18, 2020, we approached 12 RAC facilities with 26 eligible care home units and, excluding six units who could not be enrolled due to COVID-19 lockdowns, we screened 818 residents. Between July 18, 2018, and Nov 26, 2019, 20 care home units were randomised (318 residents). Recruitment ceased on March 17, 2020, due to COVID-19. The primary endpoint, available from 20 care home units (214 residents), suggested beneficial effects of RCS (mean difference -4·25, 95% CI -7·89 to -0·62; p=0·0221) but not GMT (mean difference -0·44, -4·32 to 3·43; p=0·8224). No related serious adverse events occurred. INTERPRETATION: Our study supports implementing recreational choir singing as a clinically relevant therapeutic intervention in reducing depressive symptoms for people with dementia in the Australian care home context. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    How Singing can Help People With Dementia and Their Family Care-Partners: A Mixed Studies Systematic Review With Narrative Synthesis, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Integration
    Thompson, Z ; Baker, FA ; Tamplin, J ; Clark, IN (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-10-11)
    Background: Recent research on the efficacy of music-based interventions for people with dementia have focused on specific outcomes and methods, and singing has been noted as a particularly beneficial activity. However, due to heterogeneity of research methods, there is a need to synthesise the findings of both quantitative and qualitative research in order to better understand both the impact and potential mechanisms of singing for people in this population. Method: This systematic review included quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies, and analysed these using a systematic mixed-studies synthesis (with a results-based convergent approach). Quantitative and qualitative data were initially synthesised using a narrative synthesis and thematic synthesis method, respectively, before a final meta-integration method was used to synthesise common themes across the two data forms. Results: Electronic and hand search strategies revealed 1,815 relevant studies, 40 of which met the full eligibility criteria. Narrative synthesis of quantitative data revealed six key outcome areas (quality of life; psychological well-being; cognition; engagement; activities of daily living; care-partner well-being), and thematic synthesis of qualitative data generated seven themes relating to the impact and mechanisms of singing (pragmatic elements; social benefits; mood; identity; memory; flow-on effects; and relationships). Meta-integration identified four key areas relating to the impact and mechanisms of singing for people with dementia and care-partners: psychological well-being, quality of life, cognition, and care-partner well-being. Conclusion: Results from the syntheses suggest that singing can positively impact the lives of people with dementia and their care-partners, although due to heterogeneity of study design and outcome measures, it is difficult to draw conclusions based on quantitative data alone. Qualitative data provides further context and insights from participant perspectives, and when integrated with quantitative data, contextual factors that may influence the benefits that participants experience from singing are revealed.
  • Item
    No Preview Available
    Using group therapeutic songwriting to support the dyadic relationship between people living with dementia and their family caregivers: Perspectives from music therapists
    McMahon, K ; Baker, F ; Stretton-Smith, P ; Clark, I (Australian Music Therapy Association, 2021)
    This study explored how music therapists may use group therapeutic songwriting (TSW) to support the dyadic relationships between people living with dementia and their family caregivers. Three registered music therapists (RMTs) with relevant clinical and/or research experience participated in semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis of the interview data found five key concepts that may contribute to how music therapists use group TSW to support the dyadic relationship: supporting identity in context; responsiveness to diverse needs and wishes; the importance of the group; the creative process; and human rights. Findings contribute understandings about creative and supportive ways of working with people living with dementia and their family caregivers to promote relationship quality, quality of life and wellbeing. This study highlights the complexity and need for flexibility in facilitating group TSW and contributes insights into how the personal values of music therapists may influence how they work with people living with dementia and family caregivers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Therapeutic music interventions with people with dementia living in residential aged care: Perspectives of residents, family members and care home staff from a cluster randomised controlled trial
    Lee, Y-EC ; Stretton-Smith, PA ; Tamplin, J ; Sousa, TV ; Baker, FA (WILEY, 2022-01-13)
    BACKGROUND: Despite growing support for the benefits of music interventions in dementia care, the perspectives of people with dementia, their families and carers are often missing from the research. This study explored multiple perspectives and first-person experiences of group music interventions delivered within a large cluster randomised controlled trial examining the effectiveness of group music therapy (GMT) and recreational choir singing (RCS) with people with dementia living in residential-aged care (RAC) settings. METHODS: Focus group and individual interviews with residents with dementia (n = 4), family members (n = 5) and care home staff (n = 15) were conducted following completion of the 6-month GMT and/or RCS intervention and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Three main themes were identified as follows: (1) direct and indirect intrapersonal benefits, (2) direct and indirect interpersonal benefits and (3) therapeutic music interventions versus entertainment. GMT and RCS supported residents' mood, enjoyment, engagement and connectedness to self and others within and post-sessions, with flow-on effects to family members, care staff and the care home environment. Participants differentiated GMT and RCS from other forms of music engagement in the RAC facilities and described feelings of post-programme loss, highlighting ongoing meaning in active therapeutic music interventions. CONCLUSION: This research highlights the need for increased access to sustainable and meaningful activities, such as purposefully designed therapeutic music interventions in RAC. Improving knowledge about the distinct benefits of therapeutic music interventions compared with other forms of music engagement in RAC may assist nursing staff to make appropriate treatment planning decisions regarding therapeutic music programmes to meet the complex needs of residents with dementia.