Surgery (RMH) - Research Publications

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    Perinatal outcomes of women with gestational breast cancer in Australia and New Zealand: A prospective population-based study
    Sullivan, E ; Safi, N ; Li, Z ; Remond, M ; Chen, TYT ; Javid, N ; Dickinson, JE ; Ives, A ; Hammarberg, K ; Anazodo, A ; Boyle, F ; Fisher, J ; Halliday, L ; Duncombe, G ; McLintock, C ; Wang, AY ; Saunders, C (WILEY, 2022-04-26)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology, clinical management, and outcomes of women with gestational breast cancer (GBC). METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted in Australia and New Zealand between 2013 and 2014 using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). Women who gave birth with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer during pregnancy were included. Data were collected on demographic and pregnancy factors, GBC diagnosis, obstetric and cancer management, and perinatal outcomes. The main outcome measures were preterm birth, maternal complications, breastfeeding, and death. RESULTS: Forty women with GBC (incidence 7.5/100 000 women giving birth) gave birth to 40 live-born babies. Thirty-three (82.5%) women had breast symptoms at diagnosis. Of 27 women diagnosed before 30 weeks' gestation, 85% had breast surgery and 67% had systemic therapy during pregnancy. In contrast, all 13 women diagnosed from 30 weeks had their cancer management delayed until postdelivery. There were 17 preterm deliveries; 15 were planned. Postpartum complications included the following: hemorrhage (n = 4), laparotomy (n = 1), and thrombocytopenia (n = 1). There was one late maternal death. Eighteen (45.0%) women initiated breastfeeding, including 12 of 23 women who had antenatal breast surgery. There were no perinatal deaths or congenital malformations, but 42.5% of babies were preterm, and 32.5% were admitted for higher-level neonatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational breast cancer diagnosed before 30 weeks' gestation was associated with surgical and systemic cancer care during pregnancy and planned preterm birth. In contrast, cancer treatment was deferred to postdelivery for women diagnosed from 30 weeks, reflecting the complexity of managing expectant mothers with GBC in multidisciplinary care settings.
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    Joan Heath interviews Suzanne Cory and Joan Steitz: a female perspective of science in the swinging '60s
    Heath, J ; Cory, S ; Steitz, J (COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD, 2022-05-01)
    Prompted by the occasion of International Women's Day, Joan Heath and DMM reunited Professors Suzanne Cory and Joan Steitz via Zoom to discuss their extraordinary careers and joint experiences in science. They also delve into past and present challenges for women in science, and discuss the role of scientists in a post-pandemic world.
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    Guidelines of guidelines: focal therapy for prostate cancer, is it time for consensus?
    Ong, S ; Chen, K ; Grummet, J ; Yaxley, J ; Scheltema, MJ ; Stricker, P ; Tay, KJ ; Lawrentschuk, N (WILEY, 2022-09-27)
    OBJECTIVE: To provide a summary and discussion of international guidelines, position statements and consensus statements in relation to focal therapy (FT) for prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: The European Association of Urology-European Association of Nuclear Medicine-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology-European Society of Urogential Radiology-International Society of Urological Pathology-International Society of Geriatric Oncology and American Urological Association-American Society for Radiation Oncology-Society of Urologic Oncology guidelines were interrogated for recommendations for FT. PubMed and Ovid Medline were searched for consensus statements. Only studies in English since 2015 were included. Reference lists of the included articles were also interrogated and a manual search for studies was also performed. RESULTS: Our results showed a lack of long-term randomised data for FT. International Urological guidelines emphasised the need for more high-quality clinical trials with robust oncological and toxicity outcomes. Consensus and positions statements were heterogenous. CONCLUSION: A globally accepted guideline for FT planning, technique and follow-up are still yet to be determined. Well-designed studies with long-term follow-up and robust clinical and toxicity endpoints are needed to improve our understanding of FT and create uniform guidelines to streamline management and follow-up.
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    Quality and safety indicators for home care recipients in Australia: development and cross-sectional analyses
    Caughey, GE ; Lang, CE ; Bray, SCE ; Sluggett, JK ; Whitehead, C ; Visvanathan, R ; Evans, K ; Corlis, M ; Cornell, V ; Barker, AL ; Wesselingh, S ; Inacio, MC (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-08-01)
    Objectives To develop and examine the prevalence of quality and safety indicators to monitor care of older Australians receiving home care packages (HCPs), a government-funded aged care programme to support individuals to live at home independently. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Home care recipients, Australia. Participants 90 650 older individuals (aged ≥65 years old and ≥50 years old for people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent) who received a HCP between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2016 nationally were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The Registry of Senior Australians developed 15 quality and safety indicators: antipsychotic use, high sedative load, chronic opioid use, antimicrobial use, premature mortality, home medicines reviews, chronic disease management plan, wait-time for HCP, falls, fractures, medication-related adverse events, weight loss/malnutrition, delirium/dementia-related hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) presentations and pressure injuries. Risk adjusted prevalence (%, 95% CI) and geographical area (statistical level 3) variation during 2016 were examined. Results In 2016, a total of 102 590 HCP episodes were included for 90 650 individuals, with 66.9% (n=68 598) level 1–2 HCP episodes (ie, for basic care needs) and 33.1% (n=33 992) level 3–4 HCP (ie, higher care needs). The most prevalent indicators included: antibiotic use (52.4%, 95% CI 52.0 to 52.7), chronic disease management plans (38.1%, 95% CI 37.8 to 38.4), high sedative load (29.1%, 95% CI 28.8 to 29.4) and ED presentations (26.4%, 95% CI 25.9 to 26.9). HCP median wait time was 134 days (IQR 41–406). Geographical variation was highest in chronic disease management plans and ED presentations (20.7% of areas outside expected range). Conclusion A comprehensive outcome monitoring system to monitor the quality and safety of care and variation for HCP recipients was developed. It provides a pragmatic, efficient and low burden tool to support evidence-based quality and safety improvement initiatives for the aged care sector.
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    Breast surgery: a narrative review
    Saunders, CM (WILEY, 2022-08-21)
    Breast cancer is the commonest human cancer globally and one in seven Australian women will develop it in their lifetime. Surgery is the mainstay of management both for women who are at high risk of breast cancer and for those who have been diagnosed. Increased understanding of how to predict who is most at risk of breast cancer is leading to the possibility of risk-based screening, allowing better and more targeted early detection for women at high risk, and contrast imaging techniques are proving more accurate in diagnosing and staging cancer. The evolution of surgical practice includes the widespread use of oncoplastic surgery, allowing better cosmetic and oncological outcomes; reconstructive surgical advances, using free flap techniques; and sequencing of systemic and local therapies to better tailor treatments to the patient's cancer and improve outcomes. Recognition of side effects of breast cancer treatment have led to improvement in the management of conditions such as chronic pain and lymphoedema, as well as addressing the psychosocial, body image and sexual complications caused by the cancer and its treatment.
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    Socioeconomic disadvantage and its impact on colorectal cancer in Australia: a scoping review
    Tham, NL ; Skandarajah, A ; Hayes, IP (WILEY, 2022-10-03)
    BACKGROUND: Social disparities in cancer survival have been demonstrated in Australia despite a universal healthcare insurance system. Colorectal cancer is common, and reasons for survival disparities related to socioeconomic status need to be investigated and addressed. The aim is to evaluate the current Australian literature concerning the impact of socioeconomic status on colorectal cancer survival and stage at presentation. METHODS: A systematic search of PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Clarivate Web of Science databases from January 2010 to March 2022 was performed. Studies investigating the impact of socioeconomic status on colorectal stage at presentation or survival in Australia were included. Data were extracted on author, year of publication, state or territory of origin, patient population, other exposure variables, outcomes and findings and adjustments made. RESULTS: Of the 14 articles included, the patient populations examined varied in size from 207 to 100 000+ cases. Evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poorer survival was demonstrated in eight of 12 studies. Evidence of effect on late stage at presentation was demonstrated in two of seven studies. Area-level measures were commonly used to assess socioeconomic status, with varying indices utilized. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence that socioeconomic status is associated with late-stage at presentation. More studies provide evidence of an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and poorer survival, especially larger studies utilizing less clinically-detailed cancer registry data. Further investigation is required to analyse why socioeconomic disadvantage may be associated with poorer survival.
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    PEDAL protocol: a prospective single-arm paired comparison of multiparametric MRI and 18F-DCPFyl PSMA PET/CT to diagnose prostate cancer
    Tran, V ; Hong, A ; Sutherland, T ; Taubman, K ; Lee, S-F ; Lenaghan, D ; Sethi, K ; Corcoran, NM ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Woo, H ; Tarlinton, L ; Bolton, D ; Spelman, T ; Thomas, L ; Booth, R ; Hegarty, J ; Perry, E ; Wong, L-M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) has emerged as valuable imaging to assessing metastatic disease in prostate malignancy. However, there has been limited studies exploring the utility PSMA-PET as primary imaging assessing for index lesions prior to biopsy. The primary objective of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18-fluorine PSMA (18F DCFPyL PSMA) PET scans to multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to detect primary prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PEDAL trial is a multicentre, prospective, single-arm, paired comparison, non-randomised phase III trial in subjects considered for diagnostic prostate biopsy. Subjects who are eligible for a diagnostic mpMRI prostate will undergo additional same-day 18 F DCFPyl PSMA PET/CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Software coregistration of the mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT images will be performed. The reporting of the mpMRI prostate, PSMA-PET/CT and PSMA PET/MRI coregistration will be performed blinded. The diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT alone, and in combination with mpMRI, to detect prostate cancer will be assessed. Histopathology at prostate biopsy will be used as the reference standard. Sample size calculations estimate that 240 subjects will need to be recruited to demonstrate 20% superiority of PSMA-PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combination of mpMRI prostate and PSMA PET/CT compared with targeted and systematic prostate biopsy will be evaluated. It is hypothesised that PSMA PET/CT combined with mpMRI prostate will have improved diagnostic accuracy compared with mpMRI prostate alone for detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men, resulting in a significant impact on patient management. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the independent Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals with eligible investigators will significantly contribute. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000261910.
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    Enhancing therapeutic anti-cancer responses by combining immune checkpoint and tyrosine kinase inhibition.
    Daly, RJ ; Scott, AM ; Klein, O ; Ernst, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-09-29)
    Over the past decade, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has been established as the standard of care for many types of cancer, but the strategies employed have continued to evolve. Recently, much clinical focus has been on combining targeted therapies with ICI for the purpose of manipulating the immune setpoint. The latter concept describes the equilibrium between factors that promote and those that suppress anti-cancer immunity. Besides tumor mutational load and other cancer cell-intrinsic determinants, the immune setpoint is also governed by the cells of the tumor microenvironment and how they are coerced by cancer cells to support the survival and growth of the tumor. These regulatory mechanisms provide therapeutic opportunities to intervene and reduce immune suppression via application of small molecule inhibitors and antibody-based therapies against (receptor) tyrosine kinases and thereby improve the response to ICIs. This article reviews how tyrosine kinase signaling in the tumor microenvironment can promote immune suppression and highlights how therapeutic strategies directed against specific tyrosine kinases can be used to lower the immune setpoint and elicit more effective anti-tumor immunity.
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    Quantitative Micro-Elastography Enables In Vivo Detection of Residual Cancer in the Surgical Cavity during Breast-Conserving Surgery.
    Gong, P ; Chin, SL ; Allen, WM ; Ballal, H ; Anstie, JD ; Chin, L ; Ismail, HM ; Zilkens, R ; Lakhiani, DD ; McCarthy, M ; Fang, Q ; Firth, D ; Newman, K ; Thomas, C ; Li, J ; Sanderson, RW ; Foo, KY ; Yeomans, C ; Dessauvagie, BF ; Latham, B ; Saunders, CM ; Kennedy, BF (American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), 2022-11-02)
    Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is commonly used for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Following BCS, approximately 20% to 30% of patients require reexcision because postoperative histopathology identifies cancer in the surgical margins of the excised specimen. Quantitative micro-elastography (QME) is an imaging technique that maps microscale tissue stiffness and has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy (96%) in detecting cancer in specimens excised during surgery. However, current QME methods, in common with most proposed intraoperative solutions, cannot image cancer directly in the patient, making their translation to clinical use challenging. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to determine whether a handheld QME probe, designed to interrogate the surgical cavity, can detect residual cancer directly in the breast cavity in vivo during BCS. In a first-in-human study, 21 BCS patients were scanned in vivo with the QME probe by five surgeons. For validation, protocols were developed to coregister in vivo QME with postoperative histopathology of the resected tissue to assess the capability of QME to identify residual cancer. In four cavity aspects presenting cancer and 21 cavity aspects presenting benign tissue, QME detected elevated stiffness in all four cancer cases, in contrast to low stiffness observed in 19 of the 21 benign cases. The results indicate that in vivo QME can identify residual cancer by directly imaging the surgical cavity, potentially providing a reliable intraoperative solution that can enable more complete cancer excision during BCS. SIGNIFICANCE: Optical imaging of microscale tissue stiffness enables the detection of residual breast cancer directly in the surgical cavity during breast-conserving surgery, which could potentially contribute to more complete cancer excision.
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    Azygos and right superior intercostal vein injury secondary to blunt trauma: a case report
    Yaftian, N ; Dunne, B ; Antippa, P (The Korean Society of Traumatology, )