Surgery (RMH) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Error rates in a clinical data repository: lessons from the transition to electronic data transfer - a descriptive study
    Hong, MKH ; Yao, HHI ; Pedersen, JS ; Peters, JS ; Costello, AJ ; Murphy, DG ; Hovens, CM ; Corcoran, NM (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2013)
    OBJECTIVE: Data errors are a well-documented part of clinical datasets as is their potential to confound downstream analysis. In this study, we explore the reliability of manually transcribed data across different pathology fields in a prostate cancer database and also measure error rates attributable to the source data. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Specialist urology service at a single centre in metropolitan Victoria in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Between 2004 and 2011, 1471 patients underwent radical prostatectomy at our institution. In a large proportion of these cases, clinicopathological variables were recorded by manual data-entry. In 2011, we obtained electronic versions of the same printed pathology reports for our cohort. The data were electronically imported in parallel to any existing manual entry record enabling direct comparison between them. OUTCOME MEASURES: Error rates of manually entered data compared with electronically imported data across clinicopathological fields. RESULTS: 421 patients had at least 10 comparable pathology fields between the electronic import and manual records and were selected for study. 320 patients had concordant data between manually entered and electronically populated fields in a median of 12 pathology fields (range 10-13), indicating an outright accuracy in manually entered pathology data in 76% of patients. Across all fields, the error rate was 2.8%, while individual field error ranges from 0.5% to 6.4%. Fields in text formats were significantly more error-prone than those with direct measurements or involving numerical figures (p<0.001). 971 cases were available for review of error within the source data, with figures of 0.1-0.9%. CONCLUSIONS: While the overall rate of error was low in manually entered data, individual pathology fields were variably prone to error. High-quality pathology data can be obtained for both prospective and retrospective parts of our data repository and the electronic checking of source pathology data for error is feasible.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Curated MicroRNAs in Urine and Blood Fail to Validate as Predictive Biomarkers for High-Risk Prostate Cancer
    Sapre, N ; Hong, MKH ; Macintyre, G ; Lewis, H ; Kowalczyk, A ; Costello, AJ ; Corcoran, NM ; Hovens, CM ; Medeiros, R (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-04-04)
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if microRNA profiling of urine and plasma at radical prostatectomy can distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of microRNAs was profiled in the plasma of 70 patients and the urine of 33 patients collected prior to radical prostatectomy. Expression of microRNAs was correlated to the clinical endpoints at a follow-up time of 3.9 years to identify microRNAs that may predict clinical response after radical prostatectomy. A machine learning approach was applied to test the predictive ability of all microRNAs profiled in urine, plasma, and a combination of both, and global performance assessed using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Validation of urinary expression of miRNAs was performed on a further independent cohort of 36 patients. RESULTS: The best predictor in plasma using eight miRs yielded only moderate predictive performance (AUC = 0.62). The best predictor of high-risk disease was achieved using miR-16, miR-21 and miR-222 measured in urine (AUC = 0.75). This combination of three microRNAs in urine was a better predictor of high-risk disease than any individual microRNA. Using a different methodology we found that this set of miRNAs was unable to predict high-volume, high-grade disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial findings suggested that plasma and urinary profiling of microRNAs at radical prostatectomy may allow prognostication of prostate cancer behaviour. However we found that the microRNA expression signature failed to validate in an independent cohort of patients using a different platform for PCR. This highlights the need for independent validation patient cohorts and suggests that urinary microRNA signatures at radical prostatectomy may not be a robust way to predict the course of clinical disease after definitive treatment for prostate cancer.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Prostate cancer cell-intrinsic interferon signaling regulates dormancy and metastatic outgrowth in bone
    Owen, KL ; Gearing, LJ ; Zanker, DJ ; Brockwell, NK ; Khoo, WH ; Roden, DL ; Cmero, M ; Mangiola, S ; Hong, MK ; Spurling, AJ ; McDonald, M ; Chan, C-L ; Pasam, A ; Lyons, RJ ; Duivenvoorden, HM ; Ryan, A ; Butler, LM ; Mariadason, JM ; Phan, TG ; Hayes, VM ; Sandhu, S ; Swarbrick, A ; Corcoran, NM ; Hertzog, PJ ; Croucher, P ; Hovens, C ; Parker, BS (WILEY, 2020-06-04)
    The latency associated with bone metastasis emergence in castrate-resistant prostate cancer is attributed to dormancy, a state in which cancer cells persist prior to overt lesion formation. Using single-cell transcriptomics and ex vivo profiling, we have uncovered the critical role of tumor-intrinsic immune signaling in the retention of cancer cell dormancy. We demonstrate that loss of tumor-intrinsic type I IFN occurs in proliferating prostate cancer cells in bone. This loss suppresses tumor immunogenicity and therapeutic response and promotes bone cell activation to drive cancer progression. Restoration of tumor-intrinsic IFN signaling by HDAC inhibition increased tumor cell visibility, promoted long-term antitumor immunity, and blocked cancer growth in bone. Key findings were validated in patients, including loss of tumor-intrinsic IFN signaling and immunogenicity in bone metastases compared to primary tumors. Data herein provide a rationale as to why current immunotherapeutics fail in bone-metastatic prostate cancer, and provide a new therapeutic strategy to overcome the inefficacy of immune-based therapies in solid cancers.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of prostate cancer metastases yields samples suitable for genomics and personalised oncology
    Hong, MKH ; Sapre, N ; Phal, PM ; Macintyre, G ; Chin, X ; Pedersen, JS ; Ryan, A ; Kerger, M ; Costello, AJ ; Corcoran, NM ; Hovens, CM (SPRINGER, 2014-02)
    Personalised oncology through mutational profiling of cancers requires the procurement of fresh frozen tumour samples for genomics applications. While primary cancers are often surgically excised and therefore yield such tissue, metastases in the setting of a known cancer diagnosis are not routinely sampled prior to systemic therapy. Our study aimed to determine the suitability of extracted nucleic acids for genomics applications using distant metastatic prostate cancer samples obtained via percutaneous or surgical biopsy. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer were recruited for image-guided biopsy of metastases. Patients undergoing surgical procedures for the complications of metastases were also recruited. Tissue samples were flash frozen and cryosectioned for histological examination. DNA and RNA were simultaneously extracted and genomic DNA hybridised onto SNP arrays for genome-wide copy number analysis. 37 samples of metastatic tissue from seven patients with prostate cancer were obtained. Five of these underwent image-guided biopsies whilst two had therapeutic surgical procedures performed. 22 biopsy samples were obtained across the image-guided biopsy patients with 80 % of samples being successfully processed for downstream analysis. Nucleic acid yield from these samples were satisfactory for genomics applications. Copy number analysis revealed a median estimated tumour purity of 53 % and all samples showed chromosomal abnormalities suggestive of malignancy. The procurement of osseous metastatic prostate cancer from live patients, including the use of image-guided biopsy, is safe and feasible. Sufficient tissue can be obtained in a manner such that extracted nucleic acids are suitable for genomics research.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Comparing nodal versus bony metastatic spread using tumour phylogenies
    Mangiola, S ; Hong, MKH ; Cmero, M ; Kurganovs, N ; Ryan, A ; Costello, AJ ; Corcoran, NM ; Macintyre, G ; Hovens, CM (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016-09-22)
    The role of lymph node metastases in distant prostate cancer dissemination and lethality is ill defined. Patients with metastases restricted to lymph nodes have a better prognosis than those with distant metastatic spread, suggesting the possibility of distinct aetiologies. To explore this, we traced patterns of cancer dissemination using tumour phylogenies inferred from genome-wide copy-number profiling of 48 samples across 3 patients with lymph node metastatic disease and 3 patients with osseous metastatic disease. Our results show that metastatic cells in regional lymph nodes originate from evolutionary advanced extraprostatic tumour cells rather than less advanced central tumour cell populations. In contrast, osseous metastases do not exhibit such a constrained developmental lineage, arising from either intra or extraprostatic tumour cell populations, at early and late stages in the evolution of the primary. Collectively, this comparison suggests that lymph node metastases may not be an intermediate developmental step for distant osseous metastases, but rather represent a distinct metastatic lineage.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tracking the origins and drivers of subclonal metastatic expansion in prostate cancer
    Hong, MKH ; Macintyre, G ; Wedge, DC ; Van Loo, P ; Patel, K ; Lunke, S ; Alexandrov, LB ; Sloggett, C ; Cmero, M ; Marass, F ; Tsui, D ; Mangiola, S ; Lonie, A ; Naeem, H ; Sapre, N ; Phal, PM ; Kurganovs, N ; Chin, X ; Kerger, M ; Warren, AY ; Neal, D ; Gnanapragasam, V ; Rosenfeld, N ; Pedersen, JS ; Ryan, A ; Haviv, I ; Costello, AJ ; Corcoran, NM ; Hovens, CM (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-04)
    Tumour heterogeneity in primary prostate cancer is a well-established phenomenon. However, how the subclonal diversity of tumours changes during metastasis and progression to lethality is poorly understood. Here we reveal the precise direction of metastatic spread across four lethal prostate cancer patients using whole-genome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing of longitudinally collected primary and metastatic tumours. We find one case of metastatic spread to the surgical bed causing local recurrence, and another case of cross-metastatic site seeding combining with dynamic remoulding of subclonal mixtures in response to therapy. By ultra-deep sequencing end-stage blood, we detect both metastatic and primary tumour clones, even years after removal of the prostate. Analysis of mutations associated with metastasis reveals an enrichment of TP53 mutations, and additional sequencing of metastases from 19 patients demonstrates that acquisition of TP53 mutations is linked with the expansion of subclones with metastatic potential which we can detect in the blood.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Reducing the risk of false discovery enabling identification of biologically significant genome-wide methylation status using the HumanMethylation450 array
    Naeem, H ; Wong, NC ; Chatterton, Z ; Hong, MKH ; Pedersen, JS ; Corcoran, NM ; Hovens, CM ; Macintyre, G (BMC, 2014-01-22)
    BACKGROUND: The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450K) measures the DNA methylation of 485,512 CpGs in the human genome. The technology relies on hybridization of genomic fragments to probes on the chip. However, certain genomic factors may compromise the ability to measure methylation using the array such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertions and deletions (INDELs), repetitive DNA, and regions with reduced genomic complexity. Currently, there is no clear method or pipeline for determining which of the probes on the HM450K bead array should be retained for subsequent analysis in light of these issues. RESULTS: We comprehensively assessed the effects of SNPs, INDELs, repeats and bisulfite induced reduced genomic complexity by comparing HM450K bead array results with whole genome bisulfite sequencing. We determined which CpG probes provided accurate or noisy signals. From this, we derived a set of high-quality probes that provide unadulterated measurements of DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our method significantly reduces the risk of false discoveries when using the HM450K bead array, while maximising the power of the array to detect methylation status genome-wide. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of our method through extraction of biologically relevant epigenetic changes in prostate cancer.
  • Item