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ItemImbalanced gp130-dependent signaling in macrophages alters macrophage colony-stimulating factor responsiveness via regulation of c-fms expressionJenkins, BJ ; Grail, D ; Inglese, M ; Quilici, C ; Bozinovski, S ; Wong, P ; Ernst, M (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2004-02-01)The mechanisms by which interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokines, which utilize the common receptor signaling subunit gp130, influence monocyte/macrophage development remain unclear. Here we have utilized macrophages devoid of either gp130-dependent STAT1/3 (gp130(Delta STAT/Delta STAT)) or extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (gp130(Y757F/Y757F)) activation to assess the individual contribution of each pathway to macrophage formation. While the inhibition by IL-6 of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced colony formation observed in gp130(wt/wt) mice was abolished in gp130(Delta STAT/Delta STAT) mice, inhibition of macrophage colony formation was enhanced in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) mice. In gp130(Delta STAT/Delta STAT) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), both IL-6- and M-CSF-induced ERK1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation was enhanced. By contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to M-CSF was reduced in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) BMMs, and the pattern of ERK1/2 activation in gp130 mutant BMMs correlated with their opposing responsiveness to M-CSF-induced proliferation. When compared to the level of expression in gp130(wt/wt) BMMs, c-fms expression was elevated in gp130(Delta STAT/Delta STAT) BMMs but reduced in gp130(Y757F/Y757F) BMMs. Finally, an ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed M-CSF-induced BMM proliferation, and this result corresponded to a reduction in c-fms expression. Collectively, these results provide a functional and causal correlation between gp130-dependent ERK MAP kinase signaling and c-fms gene activation, a finding that provides a potential mechanism underlying the inhibition of M-CSF-dependent macrophage development by IL-6 family cytokines in mice.
ItemLyn-deficient mice develop severe, persistent asthma: Lyn is a critical negative regulator of Th2 immunityBeavitt, SJE ; Harder, KW ; Kemp, JM ; Jones, J ; Quilici, C ; Casagranda, F ; Lam, E ; Turner, D ; Brennan, S ; Sly, PD ; Tarlinton, DM ; Anderson, GP ; Hibbs, ML (AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS, 2005-08-01)The etiology of asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, remains obscure, although T cells appear to be central disease mediators. Lyn tyrosine kinase has been implicated as both a facilitator and inhibitor of signaling pathways that play a role in allergic inflammation, although its role in asthma is unclear because Lyn is not expressed in T cells. We show in the present study that Lyn-/- mice develop a severe, persistent inflammatory asthma-like syndrome with lung eosinophilia, mast cell hyperdegranulation, intensified bronchospasm, hyper IgE, and Th2-polarizing dendritic cells. Dendritic cells from Lyn-/- mice have a more immature phenotype, exhibit defective inhibitory signaling pathways, produce less IL-12, and can transfer disease when adoptively transferred into wild-type recipients. Our results show that Lyn regulates the intensity and duration of multiple asthmatic traits and indicate that Lyn is an important negative regulator of Th2 immune responses.