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    Morphological predictors of BRCA1 germline mutations in young women with breast cancer
    Southey, MC ; Ramus, SJ ; Dowty, JG ; Smith, LD ; Tesoriero, AA ; Wong, EEM ; Dite, GS ; Jenkins, MA ; Byrnes, GB ; Winship, I ; Phillips, K-A ; Giles, GG ; Hopper, JL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2011-03-15)
    BACKGROUND: Knowing a young woman with newly diagnosed breast cancer has a germline BRCA1 mutation informs her clinical management and that of her relatives. We sought an optimal strategy for identifying carriers using family history, breast cancer morphology and hormone receptor status data. METHODS: We studied a population-based sample of 452 Australian women with invasive breast cancer diagnosed before age 40 years for whom we conducted extensive germline mutation testing (29 carried a BRCA1 mutation) and a systematic pathology review, and collected three-generational family history and tumour ER and PR status. Predictors of mutation status were identified using multiple logistic regression. Areas under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using five-fold stratified cross-validation. RESULTS: The probability of being a BRCA1 mutation carrier increased with number of selected histology features even after adjusting for family history and ER and PR status (P<0.0001). From the most parsimonious multivariate model, the odds ratio for being a carrier were: 9.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-47.0) for trabecular growth pattern (P=0.001); 7.8 (2.7-25.7) for mitotic index over 50 mitoses per 10 high-powered field (P=0.0003); and 2.7 (1.3-5.9) for each first-degree relative with breast cancer diagnosed before age 60 years (P=0.01).The area under the ROC curve was 0.87 (0.83-0.90). CONCLUSION: Pathology review, with attention to a few specific morphological features of invasive breast cancers, can identify almost all BRCA1 germline mutation carriers among women with early-onset breast cancer without taking into account family history.
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    Heterogeneity of breast cancer associations with five susceptibility loci by clinical and pathological characteristics
    Garcia-Closas, M ; Hall, P ; Nevanlinna, H ; Pooley, K ; Morrison, J ; Richesson, DA ; Bojesen, SE ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Axelsson, CK ; Arias, JI ; Milne, RL ; Ribas, G ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Benitez, J ; Zamora, P ; Brauch, H ; Justenhoven, C ; Hamann, U ; Ko, Y-D ; Bruening, T ; Haas, S ; Doerk, T ; Schuermann, P ; Hillemanns, P ; Bogdanova, N ; Bremer, M ; Karstens, JH ; Fagerholm, R ; Aaltonen, K ; Aittomaki, K ; Von Smitten, K ; Blomqvist, C ; Mannermaa, A ; Uusitupa, M ; Eskelinen, M ; Tengstrom, M ; Kosma, V-M ; Kataja, V ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Spurdle, AB ; Beesley, J ; Chen, X ; Devilee, P ; Van Asperen, CJ ; Jacobi, CE ; Tollenaar, RAEM ; Huijts, PEA ; Klijn, JGM ; Chang-Claude, J ; Kropp, S ; Slanger, T ; Flesch-Janys, D ; Mutschelknauss, E ; Salazar, R ; Wang-Gohrke, S ; Couch, F ; Goode, EL ; Olson, JE ; Vachon, C ; Fredericksen, ZS ; Giles, GG ; Baglietto, L ; Severi, G ; Hopper, JL ; English, DR ; Southey, MC ; Haiman, CA ; Henderson, BE ; Kolonel, LN ; Le Marchand, L ; Stram, DO ; Hunter, DJ ; Hankinson, SE ; Cox, DG ; Tamimi, R ; Kraft, P ; Sherman, ME ; Chanock, SJ ; Lissowska, J ; Brinton, LA ; Peplonska, B ; Klijn, JGM ; Hooning, MJ ; Meijers-Heijboer, H ; Collee, JM ; Van den Ouweland, A ; Uitterlinden, AG ; Liu, J ; Lin, LY ; Yuqing, L ; Humphreys, K ; Czene, K ; Cox, A ; Balasubramanian, SP ; Cross, SS ; Reed, MWR ; Blows, F ; Driver, K ; Dunning, A ; Tyrer, J ; Ponder, BAJ ; Sangrajrang, S ; Brennan, P ; Mckay, J ; Odefrey, F ; Gabrieau, V ; Sigurdson, A ; Doody, M ; Struewing, JP ; Alexander, B ; Easton, DF ; Pharoah, PD ; Leal, SM (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2008-04-01)
    A three-stage genome-wide association study recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five loci (fibroblast growth receptor 2 (FGFR2), trinucleotide repeat containing 9 (TNRC9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 K1 (MAP3K1), 8q24, and lymphocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1)) associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether the associations between these SNPs and breast cancer risk varied by clinically important tumor characteristics in up to 23,039 invasive breast cancer cases and 26,273 controls from 20 studies. We also evaluated their influence on overall survival in 13,527 cases from 13 studies. All participants were of European or Asian origin. rs2981582 in FGFR2 was more strongly related to ER-positive (per-allele OR (95%CI) = 1.31 (1.27-1.36)) than ER-negative (1.08 (1.03-1.14)) disease (P for heterogeneity = 10(-13)). This SNP was also more strongly related to PR-positive, low grade and node positive tumors (P = 10(-5), 10(-8), 0.013, respectively). The association for rs13281615 in 8q24 was stronger for ER-positive, PR-positive, and low grade tumors (P = 0.001, 0.011 and 10(-4), respectively). The differences in the associations between SNPs in FGFR2 and 8q24 and risk by ER and grade remained significant after permutation adjustment for multiple comparisons and after adjustment for other tumor characteristics. Three SNPs (rs2981582, rs3803662, and rs889312) showed weak but significant associations with ER-negative disease, the strongest association being for rs3803662 in TNRC9 (1.14 (1.09-1.21)). rs13281615 in 8q24 was associated with an improvement in survival after diagnosis (per-allele HR = 0.90 (0.83-0.97). The association was attenuated and non-significant after adjusting for known prognostic factors. Our findings show that common genetic variants influence the pathological subtype of breast cancer and provide further support for the hypothesis that ER-positive and ER-negative disease are biologically distinct. Understanding the etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer may ultimately result in improvements in prevention, early detection, and treatment.
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    The Breast Cancer Family Registry: an infrastructure for cooperative multinational, interdisciplinary and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer
    John, EM ; Hopper, JL ; Beck, JC ; Knight, JA ; Neuhausen, SL ; Senie, RT ; Ziogas, A ; Andrulis, IL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Boyd, N ; Buys, SS ; Daly, MB ; O'Malley, FP ; Santella, RM ; Southey, MC ; Venne, VL ; Venter, DJ ; West, DW ; Whittemore, AS ; Seminara, D (BMC, 2004-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: The etiology of familial breast cancer is complex and involves genetic and environmental factors such as hormonal and lifestyle factors. Understanding familial aggregation is a key to understanding the causes of breast cancer and to facilitating the development of effective prevention and therapy. To address urgent research questions and to expedite the translation of research results to the clinical setting, the National Cancer Institute (USA) supported in 1995 the establishment of a novel research infrastructure, the Breast Cancer Family Registry, a collaboration of six academic and research institutions and their medical affiliates in the USA, Canada, and Australia. METHODS: The sites have developed core family history and epidemiology questionnaires, data dictionaries, and common protocols for biospecimen collection and processing and pathology review. An Informatics Center has been established to collate, manage, and distribute core data. RESULTS: As of September 2003, 9116 population-based and 2834 clinic-based families have been enrolled, including 2346 families from minority populations. Epidemiology questionnaire data are available for 6779 affected probands (with a personal history of breast cancer), 4116 unaffected probands, and 16,526 relatives with or without a personal history of breast or ovarian cancer. The biospecimen repository contains blood or mouthwash samples for 6316 affected probands, 2966 unaffected probands, and 10,763 relatives, and tumor tissue samples for 4293 individuals. CONCLUSION: This resource is available to internal and external researchers for collaborative, interdisciplinary, and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer. Detailed information can be found at the URL http://www.cfr.epi.uci.edu/.
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    Risk factors for breast cancer in young women by oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status
    McCredie, MRE ; Dite, GS ; Southey, MC ; Venter, DJ ; Giles, GG ; Hopper, JL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2003-11-03)
    We used data from 765 cases and 564 controls in the population-based Australian Breast Cancer Family Study to investigate whether, in women under the age of 40, the profile of risk factors differed between breast cancer subtypes defined by joint oestrogen and progesterone receptor status. As hypothesised, no significant differences were found.
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    The intronic G13964C variant in p53 is not a high-risk mutation in familial breast cancer in Australia
    Marsh, A ; Spurdle, AB ; Turner, BC ; Fereday, S ; Thorne, H ; Pupo, GM ; Mann, GJ ; Hopper, JL ; Sambrook, JF ; Chenevix-Trench, G (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2001-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 50% of breast cancer families with more than four affected cases, whereas exonic mutations in p53, PTEN, CHK2 and ATM may account for a very small proportion. It was recently reported that an intronic variant of p53--G13964C--occurred in three out of 42 (7.1%) 'hereditary' breast cancer patients, but not in any of 171 'sporadic' breast cancer control individuals (P = 0.0003). If this relatively frequent occurrence of G13964C in familial breast cancer and absence in control individuals were confirmed, then this would suggest that the G13964C variant plays a role in breast cancer susceptibility. METHOD: We genotyped 71 familial breast cancer patients and 143 control individuals for the G13964C variant using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: Three (4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0-8.9%) G13964C heterozygotes were identified. The variant was also identified in 5 out of 143 (3.5%; 95% CI 0.6-6.4%) control individuals without breast cancer or a family history of breast cancer, however, which is no different to the proportion found in familial cases (P = 0.9). CONCLUSION: The present study would have had 80% power to detect an odds ratio of 4.4, and we therefore conclude that the G13946C polymorphism is not a 'high-risk' mutation for familial breast cancer.
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    Whole Exome Sequencing Suggests Much of Non-BRCA1/BRCA2 Familial Breast Cancer Is Due to Moderate and Low Penetrance Susceptibility Alleles
    Javier Gracia-Aznarez, F ; Fernandez, V ; Pita, G ; Peterlongo, P ; Dominguez, O ; de la Hoya, M ; Duran, M ; Osorio, A ; Moreno, L ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Manuel Rosa-Rosa, J ; Sinilnikova, O ; Mazoyer, S ; Hopper, J ; Lazaro, C ; Southey, M ; Odefrey, F ; Manoukian, S ; Catucci, I ; Caldes, T ; Lynch, HT ; Hilbers, FSM ; van Asperen, CJ ; Vasen, HFA ; Goldgar, D ; Radice, P ; Devilee, P ; Benitez, J ; Toland, AE (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-08)
    The identification of the two most prevalent susceptibility genes in breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, was the beginning of a sustained effort to uncover new genes explaining the missing heritability in this disease. Today, additional high, moderate and low penetrance genes have been identified in breast cancer, such as P53, PTEN, STK11, PALB2 or ATM, globally accounting for around 35 percent of the familial cases. In the present study we used massively parallel sequencing to analyze 7 BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families, each having at least 6 affected women with breast cancer (between 6 and 10) diagnosed under the age of 60 across generations. After extensive filtering, Sanger sequencing validation and co-segregation studies, variants were prioritized through either control-population studies, including up to 750 healthy individuals, or case-control assays comprising approximately 5300 samples. As a result, a known moderate susceptibility indel variant (CHEK2 1100delC) and a catalogue of 11 rare variants presenting signs of association with breast cancer were identified. All the affected genes are involved in important cellular mechanisms like DNA repair, cell proliferation and survival or cell cycle regulation. This study highlights the need to investigate the role of rare variants in familial cancer development by means of novel high throughput analysis strategies optimized for genetically heterogeneous scenarios. Even considering the intrinsic limitations of exome resequencing studies, our findings support the hypothesis that the majority of non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families might be explained by the action of moderate and/or low penetrance susceptibility alleles.
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    A PALB2 mutation associated with high risk of breast cancer
    Southey, MC ; Teo, ZL ; Dowty, JG ; Odefrey, FA ; Park, DJ ; Tischkowitz, M ; Sabbaghian, N ; Apicella, C ; Byrnes, GB ; Winship, I ; Baglietto, L ; Giles, GG ; Goldgar, DE ; Foulkes, WD ; Hopper, JL (BMC, 2010-01-01)
    NTRODUCTION: As a group, women who carry germline mutations in partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 susceptibility protein (PALB2) are at increased risk of breast cancer. Little is known about by how much or whether risk differs by mutation or family history, owing to the paucity of studies of cases unselected for family history. METHODS: We screened 1,403 case probands for PALB2 mutations in a population-based study of Australian women with invasive breast cancer stratified by age at onset. The age-specific risk of breast cancer was estimated from the cancer histories of first- and second-degree relatives of mutation-carrying probands using a modified segregation analysis that included a polygenic modifier and was conditioned on the carrier case proband. Further screening for PALB2 c.3113G > A (W1038X) was conducted for 779 families with multiple cases of breast cancer ascertained through family cancer clinics in Australia and New Zealand and 764 population-based controls. RESULTS: We found five independent case probands in the population-based sample with the protein-truncating mutation PALB2 c.3113G > A (W1038X); 2 of 695 were diagnosed before age 40 years and 3 of 708 were diagnosed when between ages 40 and 59 years. Both of the two early-onset carrier case probands had very strong family histories of breast cancer. Further testing found that the mutation segregated with breast cancer in these families. No c.3113G > A (W1038X) carriers were found in 764 population-based unaffected controls. The hazard ratio was estimated to be 30.1 (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5 to 120; P < 0.0001), and the corresponding cumulative risk estimates were 49% (95% CI, 15 to 93) to age 50 and 91% (95% CI, 44 to 100) to age 70. We found another eight families carrying this mutation in 779 families with multiple cases of breast cancer ascertained through family cancer clinics. CONCLUSIONS: The PALB2 c.3113G > A mutation appears to be associated with substantial risks of breast cancer that are of clinical relevance.
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    Contribution of large genomic BRCA1 alterations to early-onset breast cancer selected for family history and tumour morphology: a report from The Breast Cancer Family Registry
    Smith, LD ; Tesoriero, AA ; Wong, EM ; Ramus, SJ ; O'Malley, FP ; Mulligan, AM ; Terry, MB ; Senie, RT ; Santella, RM ; John, EM ; Andrulis, IL ; Ozcelik, H ; Daly, MB ; Godwin, AK ; Buys, SS ; Fox, S ; Goldgar, DE ; Giles, GG ; Hopper, JL ; Southey, MC (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2011-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Selecting women affected with breast cancer who are most likely to carry a germline mutation in BRCA1 and applying the most appropriate test methodology remains challenging for cancer genetics services. We sought to test the value of selecting women for BRCA1 mutation testing on the basis of family history and/or breast tumour morphology criteria as well as the value of testing for large genomic alterations in BRCA1. METHODS: We studied women participating in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), recruited via population-based sampling, who had been diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years who had a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer (n = 187) and/or a first primary breast tumour with morphological features consistent with carrying a BRCA1 germline mutation (n = 133; 37 met both criteria). An additional 184 women diagnosed before the age of 40 years who had a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer and who were not known to carry a germline BRCA1 mutation were selected from among women who had been recruited into the BCFR from clinical genetics services. These 467 women had been screened for BRCA1 germline mutations, and we expanded this testing to include a screen for large genomic BRCA1 alterations using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification. RESULTS: Twelve large genomic BRCA1 alterations were identified, including 10 (4%) of the 283 women selected from among the population-based sample. In total, 18 (12%), 18 (19%) and 16 (43%) BRCA1 mutations were identified in the population-based groups selected on the basis of family history only (n = 150), the group selected on the basis of tumour morphology only (n = 96) and meeting both criteria (n = 37), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Large genomic alterations accounted for 19% of all BRCA1 mutations identified. This study emphasises the value of combining information about family history, age at diagnosis and tumour morphology when selecting women for germline BRCA1 mutation testing as well as including a screen for large genomic alterations.
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    RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer
    Pelttari, LM ; Khan, S ; Vuorela, M ; Kiiski, JI ; Vilske, S ; Nevanlinna, V ; Ranta, S ; Schleutker, J ; Winqvist, R ; Kallioniemi, A ; Doerk, T ; Bogdanova, NV ; Figueroa, J ; Pharoah, PDP ; Schmidt, MK ; Dunning, AM ; Garcia-Closas, M ; Bolla, MK ; Dennis, J ; Michailidou, K ; Wang, Q ; Hopper, JL ; Southey, MC ; Rosenberg, EH ; Fasching, PA ; Beckmann, MW ; Peto, J ; dos-Santos-Silva, I ; Sawyer, EJ ; Tomlinson, I ; Burwinkel, B ; Surowy, H ; Guenel, P ; Truong, T ; Bojesen, SE ; Nordestgaard, BG ; Benitez, J ; Gonzalez-Neira, A ; Neuhausen, SL ; Anton-Culver, H ; Brenner, H ; Arndt, V ; Meindl, A ; Schmutzler, RK ; Brauch, H ; Bruening, T ; Lindblom, A ; Margolin, S ; Mannermaa, A ; Hartikainen, JM ; Chenevix-Trench, G ; Van Dyck, L ; Janssen, H ; Chang-Claude, J ; Rudolph, A ; Radice, P ; Peterlongo, P ; Hallberg, E ; Olson, JE ; Giles, GG ; Milne, RL ; Haiman, CA ; Schumacher, F ; Simard, J ; Dumont, M ; Kristensen, V ; Borresen-Dale, A-L ; Zheng, W ; Beeghly-Fadiel, A ; Grip, M ; Andrulis, IL ; Glendon, G ; Devilee, P ; Seynaeve, C ; Hooning, MJ ; Collee, M ; Cox, A ; Cross, SS ; Shah, M ; Luben, RN ; Hamann, U ; Torres, D ; Jakubowska, A ; Lubinski, J ; Couch, FJ ; Yannoukakos, D ; Orr, N ; Swerdlow, A ; Darabi, H ; Li, J ; Czene, K ; Hall, P ; Easton, DF ; Mattson, J ; Blomqvist, C ; Aittomaki, K ; Nevanlinna, H ; Brusgaard, K (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016-05-05)
    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.
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    Somatic mutations of the coding microsatellites within the beta-2-microglobulin gene in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers and adenomas
    Clendenning, M ; Huang, A ; Jayasekara, H ; Lorans, M ; Preston, S ; O'Callaghan, N ; Pope, BJ ; Macrae, FA ; Winship, IM ; Milne, RL ; Giles, GG ; English, DR ; Hopper, JL ; Win, AK ; Jenkins, MA ; Southey, MC ; Rosty, C ; Buchanan, DD (SPRINGER, 2018-01-01)
    In colorectal cancers (CRCs) with tumour mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, genes involved in the host immune response that contain microsatellites in their coding regions, including beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), can acquire mutations that may alter the immune response, tumour progression and prognosis. We screened the coding microsatellites within B2M for somatic mutations in MMR-deficient CRCs and adenomas to determine associations with tumour subtypes, clinicopathological features and survival. Incident MMR-deficient CRCs from Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study participants (n = 144) and 63 adenomas from 41 MMR gene mutation carriers from the ACCFR were screened for somatic mutations within five coding microsatellites of B2M. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival by B2M mutation status were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age at CRC diagnosis, sex, AJCC stage and grade. B2M mutations occurred in 30 (20.8%) of the 144 MMR-deficient CRCs (29% of the MLH1-methylated, 17% of the Lynch syndrome and 9% of the suspected Lynch CRCs). No B2M mutations were identified in the 63 adenomas tested. B2M mutations differed by site, stage, grade and lymphocytic infiltration although none reached statistical significance (p > 0.05). The HR for overall survival for B2M mutated CRC was 0.65 (95% CI 0.29-1.48) compared with B2M wild-type. We observed differences in B2M mutation status in MMR-deficient CRC by tumour subtypes, site, stage, grade, immune infiltrate and for overall survival that warrant further investigation in larger studies before B2M mutation status can be considered to have clinical utility.