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ItemP21-activated kinase 1 promotes colorectal cancer survival by up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alphaLiu, KH ; Nhi, H ; Patel, O ; Shulkes, A ; Baldwin, G ; He, H (ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2013-10-28)P21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1) enhances colorectal cancer (CRC) progression by stimulating Wnt/β-catenin and Ras oncogene, which promote CRC survival via stimulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). The aim of this study was to assess the mechanism involved in the stimulation by PAK1 of CRC survival. PAK1 promoted CRC cell survival by up-regulation of HIF-1α. PAK1 was over-expressed and hyper-activated in tumors of ApcΔ(14/+) mice, which was correlated with over-expression of HIF-1α and β-catenin. Inhibition of PAK1 decreased tumor growth and the expression of HIF-1α and β-catenin in tumors of ApcΔ(14/+) mice, and suppressed xenograft tumor survival in SCID mice. These findings indicate that PAK1 stimulates CRC survival by up-regulation of HIF-1α.
ItemThe C-terminal flanking peptide of progastrin induces gastric cell apoptosis and stimulates colonic cell division in vivoMarshall, KM ; Patel, O ; Bramante, G ; Laval, M ; Yim, M ; Baldwin, GS ; Shulkes, A (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2013-08-01)Progastrin (PG) is processed into a number of smaller peptides including amidated gastrin (Gamide), non-amidated glycine-extended gastrin (Ggly) and the C-terminal flanking peptide (CTFP). Several groups have reported that PG, Gamide and Ggly are biologically active in vitro and in vivo, and are involved in the development of gastrointestinal cancers. CTFP is bioactive in vitro but little is known of its effects in vivo. This study investigated the bioactivity of CTFP in vivo in normal tissues using gastrin deficient (GASKO) mice and in two mouse models of cancer (SCID mice bearing xenograft tumors expressing normal or knocked-down levels of gastrin and a mouse model of hepatic metastasis). As with Ggly, CTFP treatment stimulated colonic proliferation in GASKO mice compared to control. CTFP also significantly increased apoptosis in the gastric mucosa of male GASKO mice. CTFP did not appear to effect xenograft growth or the incidence of liver metastases. This is the first demonstration that CTFP has specific biological activity in vivo in the colon and stomach.