Surgery (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

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    Patient safety in community-based mental healthcare: A systematic scoping review
    Averill, P ; Vincent, C ; Reen, G ; Sevdalis, N ; Henderson, C (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2022-06)
    Introduction There is limited existing research about patient safety issues in mental healthcare. A lack of evidence is particularly pronounced in relation to safety in community-based mental health services, where the majority of care is provided. To date, reviews of mental health patient safety literature have focused primarily on inpatient care settings. Objectives This systematic scoping review will aim to identify and synthesise literature about the types of patient safety problems in adult community-based mental health settings, the causes of these problems, and evaluated safety interventions in this care context. Methods A systematic search was conducted on 19th June 2020 and refreshed on 23rd October 2021, across five databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Health Management Information Consortium, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The search strategy focused on three key elements: ‘mental health’, ‘patient safety’ and ‘community-based mental health services’. Retrieved articles were screened at title, abstract and subject heading level, followed by full-text screen of longlisted articles. Results In this presentation, the findings of this systematic scoping review will be described, based on synthesised literature about safety incidents, broader care delivery problems, their causes, and evaluated patient safety interventions to address these issues. Conclusions This study will offer learning opportunities about the safety problems, contributory factors, and safety interventions in adult community-based mental health services, as described in the evidence base. Review findings will also help to ascertain gaps in existing research, which should be addressed in future studies. Disclosure NS is the director of London Safety and Training Solutions Ltd, which offers training in patient safety, implementation solutions and human factors to healthcare organisations and the pharmaceutical industry. The other authors have no competing interests.
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    Cancer multidisciplinary team meetings: impact of logistical challenges on communication and decision-making.
    Soukup, T ; Lamb, BW ; Morbi, A ; Shah, NJ ; Bali, A ; Asher, V ; Gandamihardja, T ; Giordano, P ; Darzi, A ; Sevdalis, N ; Green, JSA (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-07-07)
    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) are widely used in cancer care. Recent research points to logistical challenges impeding MDT decision-making and dissatisfaction among members. This study sought to identify different types of logistical issues and how they impacted team processes. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional observational study. Three cancer MDTs (breast, colorectal, and gynaecological) were recruited from UK hospitals. Validated observational instruments were used to measure decision-making (Metrics of Observational Decision-making, MDT-MODe), communication (Bales' Interaction Process Analysis, Bales' IPA), and case complexity (Measure of Case Discussion Complexity, MeDiC), including logistical challenges (Measure of Case Discussion Complexity, MeDiC), across 822 case discussions from 30 videoed meetings. Descriptive analysis and paired samples t tests were used to identify and compare frequency of different types of logistical challenges, along with partial correlations, controlling for clinical complexity of cases, to understand how such issues related to the MDT decision-making and communication. RESULTS: A significantly higher frequency of administrative and process issues (affecting 30 per cent of cases) was seen compared with the frequency of equipment issues (affecting 5 per cent of cases; P < 0.001) and the frequency of the attendance issues (affecting 16 per cent of cases; P < 0.001). The frequency of the attendance issues was significantly higher than the frequency of equipment issues (P < 0.001). Partial correlation analysis revealed that administrative and process issues, including attendance, were negatively correlated with quality of information (r = -0.15, P < 0.001; r = -0.11, P < 0.001), and equipment issues with the quality of contribution to meeting discussion (r = -0.14, P < 0.001). More questioning and answering by MDT members was evident with the administrative and process issues (r = 0.21, P < 0.001; r = 0.19, P < 0.001). Some differences were observed in teams' socioemotional reactions to the administrative and process issues with the gynaecological MDT showing positive correlation with positive socioemotional reactions (r = 0.20, P < 0.001), and the breast cancer MDT with negative socioemotional reactions (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Administrative and process issues were the most frequent logistical challenges for the studied teams. Where diagnostic results were unavailable, and inadequate patient details provided, the quality of decision-making was reduced.
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    Online singing interventions for postnatal depression in times of social isolation: a feasibility study protocol for the SHAPER-PNDO single-arm trial.
    Bind, RH ; Estevao, C ; Fancourt, D ; Hazelgrove, K ; Sawyer, K ; Rebecchini, L ; Miller, C ; Dazzan, P ; Sevdalis, N ; Woods, A ; Crane, N ; Manoharan, M ; Burton, A ; Dye, H ; Osborn, T ; Greenwood, L ; Bakolis, I ; Lopez, MB ; Davis, R ; Perkins, R ; Pariante, CM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-07-18)
    BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression (PND) affects 13% of new mothers, with numbers rising during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite this prevalence, many women have difficulty with or hesitancy towards accessing pharmacological and/or psychological interventions. Group-based mother-baby activities, however, have a good uptake, with singing improving maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The recent lockdowns highlight the importance of adapting activities to an online platform that is wide-reaching and accessible. AIMS: The SHAPER-PNDO study will primarily analyse the feasibility of a 6-week online singing intervention, Melodies for Mums (M4M), for mothers with PND who are experiencing barriers to treatment. The secondary aim of the SHAPER-PNDO study will be to analyse the clinical efficacy of the 6-week M4M intervention for symptoms of postnatal depression. METHODS: A total of 120 mothers and their babies will be recruited for this single-arm study. All dyads will attend 6 weekly online singing sessions, facilitated by Breathe Arts Health Research. Assessments will be conducted on Zoom at baseline and week 6, with follow-ups at weeks 16 and 32, and will contain interviews for demographics, mental health, and social circumstances, and biological samples will be taken for stress markers. Qualitative interviews will be undertaken to understand the experiences of women attending the sessions and the facilitators delivering them. Finally, data will be collected on recruitment, study uptake and attendance of the programme, participant retention, and acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: The SHAPER-PNDO study will focus on the feasibility, alongside the clinical efficacy, of an online delivery of M4M, available to all mothers with PND. We hope to provide a more accessible, effective treatment option for mothers with PND that can be available both during and outside of the pandemic for mothers who would otherwise struggle to attend in-person sessions, as well as to prepare for a subsequent hybrid RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04857593 . Registered retrospectively on 22 April 2021. The first participants were recruited on 27 January 2021, and the trial is ongoing.
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    Protocol for a feasibility study and process evaluation of a psychosocially modelled diabetes education programme for young people with type 1 diabetes: the Youth Empowerment Skills (YES) programme.
    Kariyawasam, D ; Soukup, T ; Parsons, J ; Sevdalis, N ; Baldellou Lopez, M ; Forde, R ; Ismail, K ; Jones, M ; Ford-Adams, M ; Yemane, N ; Pender, S ; Thomas, S ; Murrells, T ; Silverstien, A ; Forbes, A (BMJ, 2022-06-09)
    INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a challenging period for young people with type 1 diabetes, associated with worsening glycaemia and care disengagement. Educational interventions in this period tend to focus on diabetes-specific skills, with less emphasis on the psychosocial challenges associated with diabetes experienced by young people. To address this limitation, we codesigned with young people a psychosocially modelled programme of diabetes education, named 'Youth Empowerment Skills' (YES). The programme aims to facilitate a positive adaptation to life with diabetes and engagement with diabetes care through peer-based learning, immersive simulations and support from an outreach youth worker. Here, we present a protocol for a feasibility study of the YES programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study was designed following the Medical Research Council Complex Intervention Evaluation Framework to: test the feasibility (acceptance, implementability, recruitment and completion) of the YES programme; and estimate its efficacy in relation to metabolic and psychosocial outcomes. The study will take place in diabetes centres serving socioculturally diverse populations. We will conduct a feasibility randomised controlled trial (waiting-list design) with integrated process evaluation. Fifty young people with type 1 diabetes (aged 14-19 years) will be randomly allocated to either the YES intervention or a waiting-list control. Randomisation acceptability will be assessed with provision for a preference allocation. Outcomes will be evaluated at 6 months, at which point the waiting list participants will be exposed to the YES programme with further follow-up to 12 months. A simultaneous process evaluation will use a mixed-methods approach collecting qualitative and quantitative data. Study findings will be used to optimise the intervention components, outcome measures and recruitment methods to inform a subsequent definitive trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has ethical approval from the UK Health Research Authority (approval IRAS project ID: 279877). Findings will be disseminated in multiple formats for lay and professional audiences. PROTOCOL DATE AND VERSION: 7 April 2021, V.1.1. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04670198.
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    Serious incidents in testicular torsion management in England, 2007-2019: optimizing individual and training factors are the key to improved outcomes.
    Menzies-Wilson, R ; Folkard, SS ; Sevdalis, N ; Green, JSA (Wiley, 2022-02)
    OBJECTIVES: To establish the healthcare factors that contribute to testicular torsion adverse events (orchidectomies) and 'near misses'. The secondary objective was to identify areas suitable for impactful quality improvement initiatives to be undertaken by National Health Service (NHS) healthcare providers nationally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective record review and analysis, carried out in four phases. We applied the well-validated London Protocol patient safety incident analysis framework to all eligible serious incidents related to testicular torsion submitted by English NHS Trusts over a 12-year period to the Strategic Executive Information System database. Clinical reviewers established the incident population (Phase 1), were trained and piloted the feasibility of using the London Protocol (Phase 2), applied the protocol and themed the identified contributing factors linked to adverse events (orchidectomies) and near-misses (Phase 3), and reviewed the evidence for improvement interventions (Phase 4). RESULTS: Our search returned 992 serious incidents, of which 732 were eligible for study inclusion and analysis. Of those, 137 resulted in orchidectomies, equivalent to one serious incident resulting in orchidectomy per month, and 595 were near misses. Factors contributing to all incidents were: individual staff/training (38%); team (18%); work environment (16%); task and technology (14%); and institutional context (13%). Subgroup analysis of incidents resulting in orchidectomies vs near misses demonstrated a different pattern of factors, with individual staff/training factors significantly more prominent: individual/training (88%); work environment (8%); and task and technology (1%). No evidenced improvement interventions were found in the literature. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to our knowledge to systematically analyse and classify factors that are associated with loss of a testicle and related near-miss incidents in patients presenting with testicular torsion. In England, a significant number of orchidectomies occur annually as a consequence of healthcare serious incidents. In order to improve outcomes, we propose clinical support to aid the diagnosis of torsion, improved national clinical guidelines, development of specific standard operating procedures and (in the longer term) more exposure of trainees and medical students to urology to improve the testicular salvage rate.
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    Implementing collaborative care for major depression in a cancer center: An observational study using mixed-methods.
    Walker, J ; Hobbs, H ; Wanat, M ; Solomons, L ; Richardson, A ; Sevdalis, N ; Magill, N ; Sharpe, M (Elsevier BV, 2022-05)
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the implementation of a collaborative care (CC) screening and treatment program for major depression in people with cancer, found to be effective in clinical trials, into routine outpatient care of a cancer center. METHOD: A mixed-methods observational study guided by the RE-AIM implementation framework using quantitative and qualitative data collected over five years. RESULTS: Program set-up took three years and required more involvement of CC experts than anticipated. Barriers to implementation were uncertainty about whether oncology or psychiatry owned the program and the hospital's organizational complexity. Selecting and training CC team members was a major task. 90% (14,412/16,074) of patients participated in depression screening and 61% (136/224) of those offered treatment attended at least one session. Depression outcomes were similar to trial benchmarks (61%; 78/127 patients had a treatment response). After two years the program obtained long-term funding. Facilitators of implementation were strong trial evidence, effective integration into cancer care and ongoing clinical and managerial support. CONCLUSION: A CC program for major depression, designed for the cancer setting, can be successfully implemented into routine care, but requires time, persistence and involvement of CC experts. Once operating it can be an effective and valued component of medical care.
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    A user-centered approach to developing a new tool measuring the behavioural and social drivers of vaccination.
    Wiley, KE ; Levy, D ; Shapiro, GK ; Dube, E ; SteelFisher, GK ; Sevdalis, N ; Ganter-Restrepo, F ; Menning, L ; Leask, J (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-08)
    BACKGROUND: Children around the world remain under-vaccinated for many reasons. To develop effective vaccine delivery programmes and monitor intervention impact, vaccine programme implementers need to understand reasons for under-vaccination within their local context. The World Health Organization (WHO) Working Group on the Behavioural and Social Drivers of Vaccination (BeSD) is developing standardised tools for assessing childhood vaccine acceptance and uptake that can be used across regions and countries. The tools will include: (1) a validated survey; (2) qualitative interview guides; and (3) corresponding user guidance. We report a user-centred needs assessment of key end-users of the BeSD tools. METHODS: Twenty qualitative interviews (Apr-Aug 2019) with purposively sampled vaccine programme managers, partners and stakeholders from UNICEF and WHO country and regional offices. The interviews assessed current systems, practices and challenges in data utilisation and reflections on how the BeSD tools might be optimised. Framework analysis was used to code the interviews. RESULTS: Regarding current practices, participants described a variety of settings, data systems, and frequencies of vaccination attitude measurement. They reported that the majority of data used is quantitative, and there is appetite for increased use of qualitative data. Capacity for conducting studies on social/behavioural drivers of vaccination was high in some jurisdictions and needed in others. Issues include barriers to collecting such data and variability in sources. Reflecting on the tools, participants described the need to explore the attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in addition to parents and caregivers. Participants were supportive of the proposed mixed-methods structure of the tools and training in their usage, and highlighted the need for balance between tool standardisation and flexibility to adapt locally. CONCLUSIONS: A user-centred approach in developing the BeSD tools has given valuable direction to their design, bringing the use of behavioural and social data to the heart of programme planning.
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    Team functioning across different tumour types: Insights from a Swiss cancer center using qualitative and quantitative methods.
    Hitz, F ; Ribi, K ; Grote, G ; Kolbe, M ; Schmitz, C ; Lamb, BW ; Ruhstaller, T ; Berchtold, P ; Sevdalis, N (Wiley, 2022-08)
    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary care is pivotal in cancer centres and the interaction of all cancer disease specialists in decision making processes is state-of-the-art. AIM: To describe differences of MDTMs by tumour type. METHODS: Twelve multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) with participation of different cancer disease specialists at a tertiary hospital were assessed by an exploratory sequential mixed method approach with interviews, observations and a survey to address the following five topics: organisational structure and supporting technology; leadership; teamwork; decision-making, perceived value and motivation. Thirteen persons with different tumour specialities and levels of seniority were interviewed. The 12 MDTMs were observed twice by uninvolved persons and evaluated by the participating physicians with a survey. RESULTS: There were no systematic differences between MDTMs for different tumour types with the exception of the non-disease specific type MDTM, which was the only one for which the organisational structure was not driven by an electronic tool. However, several factors could be identified that generally influenced the functioning of the MDTMs. In particular, the quality of decision-making was highly dependent on the availability of case-based information and the presence of relevant cancer disease specialists. Leadership and teamwork were rated as important and were comparable across the MDTM. Team participants' motivation and perceived value of MDTMs was high across all meetings. CONCLUSION: MDTM at a single institution did not demonstrate disease specific characteristics. An effective MDTM, irrespective of the tumour type, can be successfully structured by technical means and a chairperson coordinating the interaction of cancer disease specialists to improve the decision-making process.
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    A critical review of measures of childhood vaccine confidence.
    Shapiro, GK ; Kaufman, J ; Brewer, NT ; Wiley, K ; Menning, L ; Leask, J ; BeSD Working Group, (Elsevier BV, 2021-08)
    The World Health Organization and global partners sought to identify existing measures of confidence in childhood vaccines, as part of a broader effort to measure the range of behavioural and social drivers of vaccination. We identified 14 confidence measures applicable to childhood vaccination in general, all published between 2010 and 2019. The measures examined 1-5 constructs and included a mean of 12 items. Validation studies commonly examined factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and criterion-related validity. Fewer studies examined convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, or used cognitive interviewing. Most measures were developed and validated only in high-income countries. These findings highlight the need for a childhood vaccine confidence measure validated for use in diverse global contexts.
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    Establishing a perioperative medicine for older people undergoing surgery service for general surgical patients at a district general hospital.
    de Las Casas, R ; Meilak, C ; Whittle, A ; Partridge, J ; Adamek, J ; Sadler, E ; Sevdalis, N ; Dhesi, J (Royal College of Physicians, 2021-11)
    INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition of the need for perioperative medicine services for older surgical patients. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimisation methodology has been successfully used to improve perioperative outcomes at tertiary centres. This paper describes translation of an established model of geriatrician-led perioperative care to a district general hospital (DGH) setting. METHODS: A mixed methods quality improvement programme was used and included stakeholder co-design, identification of core components, definition of mechanisms for change, and measurement of impact through qualitative and quantitative approaches. RESULTS: Within 18 months, a substantive perioperative service for older people was established at a DGH, funded by the surgical directorate. Key outcomes included reduction in length of stay and 30-day readmission and positive staff and patient experience. DISCUSSION: This study is in keeping with improvement science literature demonstrating the importance of a mixed-methods approach in translating an evidenced-based intervention into another setting, maintaining fidelity and replicating results.