Surgery (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

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    PEDAL protocol: a prospective single-arm paired comparison of multiparametric MRI and 18F-DCPFyl PSMA PET/CT to diagnose prostate cancer
    Tran, V ; Hong, A ; Sutherland, T ; Taubman, K ; Lee, S-F ; Lenaghan, D ; Sethi, K ; Corcoran, NM ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Woo, H ; Tarlinton, L ; Bolton, D ; Spelman, T ; Thomas, L ; Booth, R ; Hegarty, J ; Perry, E ; Wong, L-M (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-09-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) has emerged as valuable imaging to assessing metastatic disease in prostate malignancy. However, there has been limited studies exploring the utility PSMA-PET as primary imaging assessing for index lesions prior to biopsy. The primary objective of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18-fluorine PSMA (18F DCFPyL PSMA) PET scans to multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to detect primary prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PEDAL trial is a multicentre, prospective, single-arm, paired comparison, non-randomised phase III trial in subjects considered for diagnostic prostate biopsy. Subjects who are eligible for a diagnostic mpMRI prostate will undergo additional same-day 18 F DCFPyl PSMA PET/CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Software coregistration of the mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT images will be performed. The reporting of the mpMRI prostate, PSMA-PET/CT and PSMA PET/MRI coregistration will be performed blinded. The diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT alone, and in combination with mpMRI, to detect prostate cancer will be assessed. Histopathology at prostate biopsy will be used as the reference standard. Sample size calculations estimate that 240 subjects will need to be recruited to demonstrate 20% superiority of PSMA-PET/CT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the combination of mpMRI prostate and PSMA PET/CT compared with targeted and systematic prostate biopsy will be evaluated. It is hypothesised that PSMA PET/CT combined with mpMRI prostate will have improved diagnostic accuracy compared with mpMRI prostate alone for detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naïve men, resulting in a significant impact on patient management. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the independent Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed medical journals with eligible investigators will significantly contribute. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000261910.
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    Tumor immune microenvironment of primary prostate cancer with and without germline mutations in homologous recombination repair genes
    Trigos, AS ; Pasam, A ; Banks, P ; Wallace, R ; Guo, C ; Keam, S ; Thorne, H ; Mitchell, C ; Lade, S ; Clouston, D ; Hakansson, A ; Liu, Y ; Blyth, B ; Murphy, D ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Bolton, D ; Moon, D ; Darcy, P ; Haupt, Y ; Williams, SG ; Castro, E ; Olmos, D ; Goode, D ; Neeson, P ; Sandhu, S (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-06-01)
    BACKGROUND: Aberrations in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes are emerging as important biomarkers for personalized treatment in prostate cancer (PCa). HRR deficiency (HRD) could affect the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), potentially contributing to differential responses to poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Spatial distribution of immune cells in a range of cancers identifies novel disease subtypes and is related to prognosis. In this study we aimed to determine the differences in the TIME of PCa with and without germline (g) HRR mutations. METHODS: We performed gene expression analysis, multiplex immunohistochemistry of T and B cells and quantitative spatial analysis of PCa samples from 36 patients with gHRD and 26 patients with sporadic PCa. Samples were archival tumor tissue from radical prostatectomies with the exception of one biopsy. Results were validated in several independent cohorts. RESULTS: Although the composition of the T cell and B cells was similar in the tumor areas of gHRD-mutated and sporadic tumors, the spatial profiles differed between these cohorts. We describe two T-cell spatial profiles across primary PCa, a clustered immune spatial (CIS) profile characterized by dense clusters of CD4+ T cells closely interacting with PD-L1+ cells, and a free immune spatial (FIS) profile of CD8+ cells in close proximity to tumor cells. gHRD tumors had a more T-cell inflamed microenvironment than sporadic tumors. The CIS profile was mainly observed in sporadic tumors, whereas a FIS profile was enriched in gHRD tumors. A FIS profile was associated with lower Gleason scores, smaller tumors and longer time to biochemical recurrence and metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: gHRD-mutated tumors have a distinct immune microenvironment compared with sporadic tumors. Spatial profiling of T-cells provides additional information beyond T-cell density and is associated with time to biochemical recurrence, time to metastasis, tumor size and Gleason scores.
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    PSMA PET-CT Imaging Predicts Treatment Progression in Men with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer-A Prospective Study of Men with 3 Year Follow Up
    Ong, S ; Pascoe, C ; Kelly, BD ; Ballok, Z ; Webb, D ; Bolton, D ; Murphy, D ; Sengupta, S ; Bowden, P ; Lawrentschuk, N (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a novel imaging modality used to stage recurrent prostate cancer. It has the potential to improve prognostication and ultimately guide the timing of treatment for men with recurrent prostate cancer. This study aims to assess the clinical impact of PSMA PET-CT by analyzing its predictive value of treatment progression after 3 years of follow-up. In this prospective cohort study of 100 men, patients received a PSMA PET-CT for restaging of their disease which was used by a multi-disciplinary team to make a treatment decision. The primary endpoint was treatment progression. This was defined as the addition or change of any treatment modalities such as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 36 months (IQR 24-40 months). No treatment progression was found in 72 (75%) men and therefore 24 (25%) patients were found to have treatment progression. In men with a negative PSMA PET-CT result, 5/33 (15.1%) had treatment progression and 28/33 (84.8%) had no treatment progression. In conclusion, clinical decisions made with PSMA PET-CT results led to 75% of men having no treatment progression at 3 years of follow-up. In men with negative PSMA PET-CT results, this increased to 85% of men.
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    Cribriform pattern disease over-represented in pelvic lymph node metastases identified on 68GA PSMA-PET/CT.
    Bolton, D ; Hong, A ; Papa, N ; Perera, M ; Kelly, B ; Duncan, C ; Clouston, D ; Lawrentschuk, N (Wiley, 2022-09)
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether any specific histologic subtype of prostate cancer was preferentially represented in pelvic lymph node metastases identified on 68GA-PSMA-PET/CT. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of 66 men with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer was evaluated with 68GA-PSMA-PET/CT. Where disease was confined to pelvic lymph nodes, patients were offered salvage extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Twenty patients ultimately proceeded to extended bilateral template pelvic lymph node dissection. Lymph node positivity and the histologic subtype of apparent cancer were assessed, as was PSA response to this intervention. RESULTS: Mean PSA at time of PSMA scanning for patients undergoing lymphadenectomy was 2.49 (n = 20, range 0.21-12.0). In 16 of 20 patients, there was evidence of metastatic cribriform pattern prostate cancer in excised nodes (100% cribriform pattern in 11/16). Only four of 20 patients had no evidence of this histologic subtype of disease. PSA response was not related to the presence or proportional amount of cribriform pattern disease identified. CONCLUSIONS: Cribriform pattern adenocarcinoma appears to be the histologic subtype preferentially identified in pelvic lymph nodes on 68GA-PSMA-PET/CT. The use of PSMA-PET may be particularly valuable in staging of primary or biochemically recurrent prostate cancer in patients with cribriform pattern disease detected on initial biopsy or radical prostatectomy. Further research is required to further confirm the observed association.
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    3D printed patient-specific prostate cancer models to guide nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a systematic review
    Coles-Black, J ; Ong, S ; Teh, J ; Kearns, P ; Ischia, J ; Bolton, D ; Lawrentschuk, N (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-03-29)
    Precise knowledge of each patient's index cancer and surrounding anatomy is required for nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (NS-RARP). Complementary to this, 3D printing has proven its utility in improving the visualisation of complex anatomy. This is the first systematic review to critically assess the potential of 3D printed patient-specific prostate cancer models in improving visualisation and the practice of NS-RARP. A literature search of PubMed and OVID Medline databases was performed using the terms "3D Printing", "Robot Assisted Radical Prostatectomy" and related index terms as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Eight articles were included; six were identified via database searches, to which a further two articles were located via a snowballing approach. Eight papers were identified for review. There were five prospective single centre studies, one case series, one technical report and one letter to the editor. Of these articles, five publications (62.5%) reported on the utility of 3D printed models for NS-RARP planning. Two publications (25%) utilised 3D printed prostate models for simulation and training, and two publications (25%) used the models for patient engagement. Despite the nascency of the field, 3D printed models are emerging in the uro-oncological literature as a useful tool in visualising complex anatomy. This has proven useful in NS-RARP for preoperative planning, simulation and patient engagement. However, best practice guidelines, the future regulatory landscape, and health economic considerations need to be addressed before this synergy of new technologies is ready for the mainstream.
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    Review of the use of prophylactic drain tubes post-robotic radical prostatectomy: Dogma or decent practice?
    Nzenza, TC ; Ngweso, S ; Eapen, R ; Rajarubendra, N ; Bolton, D ; Murphy, D ; Lawrentschuk, N (Wiley, 2020-09)
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the necessity of routine prophylactic drain tube use following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHOD: We performed a literature review using the Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with no restriction of language from January 1900 to January 2020. The following terms we used in the literature search: prostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, robot assisted, drainage, and drain tube. RESULTS: We identified six studies that examined the use of routine prophylactic drain tubes following RARP. One of these studies was a randomized study that included 189 patients, with 97 in the pelvic drain (PD) arm and 92 in the no pelvic drain (ND) arm. This non-inferiority showed an early (90-day) complication rate of 17.4% in the ND arm versus 26.8% in the PD arm (P < .001). Another non-inferiority randomized control trial (RCT) showed a complication rate of 28.9% in the PD group versus 20.4% in the ND group (P = .254). Similarly, the other studies found no benefit of routine use of prophylactic drain tube after RARP. CONCLUSION: Drain tubes play a role during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, however, following a review of the current available literature, they can be safely omitted and we suggest that clinicians may be selective in their use.
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    Use of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron-emission tomography/CT in response assessment following upfront chemohormonal therapy in metastatic prostate cancer
    Anton, A ; Kamel Hasan, O ; Ballok, Z ; Bowden, P ; Costello, AJ ; Harewood, L ; Corcoran, NM ; Dundee, P ; Peters, JS ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Troy, A ; Webb, D ; Chan, Y ; See, A ; Siva, S ; Murphy, D ; Hofman, MS ; Tran, B (WILEY, 2020-08-04)
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    Detection and localisation of primary prostate cancer using (68)gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy specimen pathology
    Kalapara, AA ; Nzenza, T ; Pan, HYC ; Ballok, Z ; Ramdave, S ; O'Sullivan, R ; Ryan, A ; Cherk, M ; Hofman, MS ; Konety, BR ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Bolton, D ; Murphy, DG ; Grummet, JP ; Frydenberg, M (WILEY, 2020-07-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of 68 gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT) with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in detecting and localising primary prostate cancer when compared with radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of men who underwent 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI for primary prostate cancer before RP across four centres between 2015 and 2018. Patients undergoing imaging for recurrent disease or before non-surgical treatment were excluded. We defined pathological index tumour as the lesion with highest International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Group (GG) on RP specimen pathology. Our primary outcomes were rates of accurate detection and localisation of RP specimen pathology index tumour using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT or mpMRI. We defined tumour detection as imaging lesion corresponding with RP specimen tumour on any imaging plane, and localisation as imaging lesion matching RP specimen index tumour in all sagittal, axial, and coronal planes. Secondary outcomes included localisation of clinically significant and transition zone (TZ) index tumours. We defined clinically significant disease as GG 3-5. We used descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U-test to define and compare demographic and pathological characteristics between detected, missed and localised tumours using either imaging modality. We used the McNemar test to compare detection and localisation rates using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. RESULTS: In all, 205 men were included in our analysis, including 133 with clinically significant disease. There was no significant difference between 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI in the detection of any tumour (94% vs 95%, P > 0.9). There was also no significant difference between localisation of all index tumours (91% vs 89%, P = 0.47), clinically significant index tumours (96% vs 91%, P = 0.15) or TZ tumours (85% vs 80%, P > 0.9) using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. Limitations include retrospective study design and non-central review of imaging and pathology. CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in the detection or localisation of primary prostate cancer between 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI. Further prospective studies are required to evaluate a combined PET/MRI model in minimising tumours missed by either modality.
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    Declining use of radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy despite more robotics: National population data over 15 years
    Roberts, MJ ; Papa, N ; Perera, M ; Joshi, A ; Scott, S ; Bolton, D ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Yaxley, J (WILEY, 2020-04-01)
    AIM: To describe national surgical patterns of prostate cancer (PCa) care considering radical prostatectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy and consideration of robotic-assisted techniques. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of publicly accessible Medicare claims data was performed for the period 2001-2016 and included patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy relative to total and PCa-specific populations among men aged 45-84 years. Proportion of cases performed robotically was considered. RESULTS: Total procedures performed increased from 2001, peaked in 2009 and subsequently decreased until 2016. Since 2009, the age-specific rate of surgery in men aged 75-84 increased by 2.3-fold, whereas the rates for men aged 55-64 and 45-54 reduced by 44% and 55%, respectively. Rates of concurrent pelvic lymphadenectomy fell until 2009 with subsequent stabilization (ratio 1.05-1.14) through to 2016. Significant regional practice patterns were observed, as was an increasing trend toward a robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach, comprising more than 80% of radical prostatectomies in 2016. CONCLUSION: Since the peak in 2009, radical prostatectomy is performed less in men <65 years and more in men ≥65 years. An increasing proportion of cases omit concurrent pelvic lymphadenectomy and are performed robotically.
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    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the long-term outcomes of ileal conduit and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion
    Browne, E ; Lawrentschuk, N ; Jack, GS ; Davis, NF (CANADIAN UROLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, 2021-01-01)
    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the long-term durability, incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction outcomes in ileal conduit (IC) and orthotopic neobladder (ONB). METHODS: A systematic electronic literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus using MeSH and free-text search terms "Urinary diversion" AND "Ileal conduit" AND "Neobladder." The search concluded June 19, 2018. Inclusion criteria were those patients who had a cystectomy and required urinary diversion by either IC or neobladder. RESULTS: In total, 32 publications met the inclusion criteria. Data were available on 46 787 patients (n=36 719 for IC and n=10 068 for ONB). Meta-analyses showed that IC urinary diversions performed less favorably than ONB in terms of re-operation rates, Clavien-Dindo complications, and mortality rates; odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.76 (1.24, 2.50), p<0.01; 1.16 (1.09, 1.22), p<0.01; and 6.29 (5.30, 7.48), p<0.01, respectively. IC urinary diversion performed better than ONB in relation to urinary tract infection rates and ureteric stricture rates, OR and 95% CI 0.67 (0.58, 0.77), p<0.01; and 0.70 (0.55, 0.89), p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that there is no significantly increased morbidity with ONB compared to IC. Selection of either urinary diversion technique should be based on factors such as tumor stage, comorbidities, surgical experience, and patient acceptance of postoperative sequalae.