School of Languages and Linguistics - Research Publications

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    On the transcreation, format and actionability of healthcare translations
    Sengupta, M ; Pym, A ; Hao, Y ; Hajek, J ; Karidakis, M ; Woodward-Kron, R ; Amorati, R (UNIV WESTERN SYDNEY, INTERPRETING & TRANSLATION RESEARCH GROUP, 2024)
    In public-health crises, members of multilingual communities must be able to access, understand, trust and act upon behaviour-change messaging. The role of translators is therefore critical, not only for the relaying of information but also in the transcreation of texts, understood as adaptation to suit the characteristics of an intended audience. Failure to use transcreation may produce messaging that is culturally inappropriate and thus ineffective. This study analyses healthcare resources created by governments in Australia with a view to identifying formatting and other visual features that would benefit from transcreation. A mixed-method approach combined numerical evaluation of four documents using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT) and a bottom-up thematic analysis of the way the same texts were discussed by 58 members of a broad range of ethnocultural and linguistic groups in Victoria, Australia. The findings point to a need to go beyond the linguistic aspects of the translation and take into account the discourse organisation, layout, images and cultural appropriateness of health messaging. The implications of applying the PEMAT criteria are not only that start texts will become more accessible and better able to facilitate understanding-based trust relations, but also that translators are well placed to participate in the transcreations that may be required in the various target languages.
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    The New Protectionism: Risk Aversion and Access to Indigenous Heritage Records
    Thieberger, N ; Aird, M ; Bracknell, C ; Gibson, J ; Harris, A ; Langton, M ; Sculthorpe, G ; Simpson, J (Australian Society of Archivists, 2024)
    This article discusses the problems encountered in accessing archival Indigenous language records, both by Indigenous people looking for information on their own languages and by non-Indigenous researchers supporting language work. It is motivated by Indigenous people not being able to access materials in archives, libraries, and museums that they need for heritage reasons, for personal reasons, or for revitalisation of language or cultural performance. For some of the authors, the experience of using Nyingarn, which aims to make manuscript language material available for re-use today, has been dispiriting, with what we term the ‘new protectionism’ preventing use of these materials.
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    Are schematic diagrams valid visual representations of concepts? Evidence from mental imagery in online processing of English prepositions
    Wang, M ; Zhao, H (Cambridge University Press, 2024)
    Embodied imagery hypothesis proposes the activation of perceptual-motor systems during language processing. Previous studies primarily used concrete visual stimuli to investigate mental imagery in language processing by native speakers (NSs) and second language (L2) learners, but few studies employed schematic diagrams. The study aims to investigate mental imagery in processing prepositional phrases by English NSs and L2 learners. Using image-schematic diagrams as primes, we examine whether any mental imagery effect is modulated by target preposition (over, in), the abstractness of meaning (spatial, extended), and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 1,040 ms, 2,040 ms). A total of 79 adult L2 learners and 100 NSs of English completed diagram–picture matching and semantic priming phrasal decision tasks. Results revealed interference effects on L2 processing of over phrases and under 2,040 ms SOA, but no such effects were observed in the NS group. The selective interference effects in L2 suggest different mental imagery patterns between L1 and L2 processing, and processing schematic diagram primes requires high cognitive demands, potentially leading to difficulties in integrating visual and linguistic information and making grammaticality judgments. The findings partially validate schematic diagrams as visual representations of concepts and suggest the need for further examination of schematic diagrams with varying degrees of complexity.
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    On the end of translation studies as we know it
    Pym, A (Humanities Commons, 2024)
    Despite recent debates about the origins of translation studies, it is far more important and indeed urgent to consider how the discipline might fade away and eventually disappear. Here I consider a scenario of demise, some possible causes, and actions to take.
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    Nyingarn: Supporting Australian Indigenous languages from textual sources1
    Thieberger, N ; Lewincamp, S ; Rosa, ML (IEEE, 2023-01-01)
    For many Indigenous languages there are few records, and the earliest written sources are witnesses of the language as spoken before major changes that were typically brought about by colonial expansion. In Australia, as a result of settler aggression, removal of Indigenous children, and displacement of the original inhabitants from their land, many Indigenous languages are no longer spoken. In this situation, the earliest sources that record aspects of these languages become all the more valuable as resources for relearning the languages. However, as paper documents in a single repository, they can be difficult to access and to use. We report on our project to take such manuscripts, convert them to text, and to create a platform in which they can be found and used. We have written a new platform taking advantage of current technology as we found nothing that was suitable in existing systems. We allow for various input formats for the text and store it and images as Research Object Crates (RO-Crates). We use Amazon Textract for Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of text in images and accept pre-existing transcriptions in CSV and TEI formats (and Word documents converted to TEI). We successfully use an existing crowdsourcing platform to have documents transcribed. Initial preparation is done in a workspace, with TEI as the encoding system. Finalised documents are pushed to a repository for exploration via geographic maps or text searching, and can then be downloaded in various formats for re-use. Once texts are prepared in this way, we can submit them to an algorithm to detect non-English items and tag that text as being in the Indigenous languages. The platform is live and currently has 400 manuscripts submitted to it: https://nyingarn.net.
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    Fatal flaws? Investigating the effects of machine translation errors on audience reception in the audiovisual context
    Qiu, J ; Pym, A (Taylor & Francis, 2024-03-13)
    This study reports on an experiment where machine translation errors in subtitling are evaluated from the perspective of nine viewers who did not know the source language and seven viewers who were studying the source language. Screen recordings, think-aloud protocols, comprehension tests, and interviews were employed to explore participants’ responses and reactions to erroneous subtitles and to investigate how specific errors impacted comprehension and immersion in the viewing experience. The analysis identifies which errors were most noticed and to what extent those errors affected viewers’ trust in the subtitles. Errors causing significant misunderstanding and distrust are initially considered ‘fatal’, as they may halt viewer immersion and prompt disengagement from the audiovisual product. However, the findings highlight a remarkable tolerance of the uncertainty that results from errors, as viewers filter out misinformation or draw on other sources of information to construe and rectify their interpretations. This tolerance is explained in terms of a general trade-off with the enjoyment of the viewing experience, which varies in accordance with the viewer’s knowledge of the source language.
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    Explorations des théories de la traduction
    Pym, A (Intercultural Studies Group, 2024)
    Traduction par Hélène Jaccomard de la troisième édition du livre Exploring Translation Theories (2023) portant sur les paradigmes contemporains de la théorie occidentale de la traduction. Cette vue d'ensemble couvre les principales théories d'équivalence, de types de solution, d'objectifs, d'approches scientifiques, d'incertitude, d'automatisation et de traduction culturelle. Entièrement révisée, cette troisième édition ajoute la couverture des théories russes et ukrainiennes, des avancées en matière de traduction automatique et de la recherche sur les processus cognitifs des traducteurs.
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    Abel Posse y Miguel Serrano: dos visiones desde América Latina sobre los orígenes del nazismo
    Holas Allimant, I ; Esposto, R ; Magras, R (Editorial Biblos, 2023)
    Tras la huella estelar dejada por la obra de Roberto Bolaño (2666, La literatura nazi en América), la temática nazi ha cobrado nueva importancia en la literatura latinoamericana de las últimas décadas. La violencia y el terror han acompañado a la narrativa latinoamericana durante siglos y el interés popular por la temática nazi en la narrativa latinoamericana parece conformar un eje relativamente nuevo en la exploración de estos temas. Sin embargo, las novelas Los demonios ocultos (1987) y El viajero de Agartha (1989) de Abel Posse se adelantan a este fenómeno, que se ha visto acompañado por un creciente interés crítico por la relación entre el nazismo y la cultura argentina , por varias décadas. Como si se tratase de una sincronicidad junguiana , durante el mismo período en el que Posse escribe estas novelas, en el país colindante, en el Chile del otro lado de la cordillera, Miguel Serrano está creando una obra extensa, una nueva mitología para la empresa nazi, enunciada desde el más profundo sur andino. Este escrito explora las sincronicidades latentes entre la búsqueda novelada de Abel Posse en Los demonios ocultos y El viajero de Agartha y la obra de Miguel Serrano, quien fue uno de los arquitectos del nuevo hitlerismo esotérico y del paganismo nazi internacional que, curiosamente, se ha extendido desde América del Sur al mundo. Esta ponencia defenderá la tesis de que, en lugar de destacar una mirada fetichista y pseudo-orientalista sobre el tema (desde la crítica externa esta ha sido la mirada habitual al tema del nazismo en América Latina), al indagar en las corrientes ocultas del esoterismo nazi y al explorar la presencia nazi en América Latina, las novelas de Posse buscan revelar los fundamentos religiosos, filosóficos y existenciales del nazismo y, de paso, explorar temas relacionados con la modernidad y la identidad latinoamericana.
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    Plegados: Bolaño, la contracultura y "la sombra de Lovecraft dormitando en un rincón" y sobre la operación de la poesía o poema arrugado. Superponga uno sobre otro y vea qué pasa: ¿Qué ve?
    Holas, I ; Holas, S ; Alfaro, C ; Acero, N (Universidad de Playa Ancha; Editorial Puntángeles; Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2023)
    Con una propuesta fresca y arriesgada, ¿Qué hay detrás de la ventana? Letra/Imagen/Música/Arte x Roberto Bolaño apela a los sentidos con escritos, fotografías, melodías, ilustraciones y visualidades interactivas (pop up, códigos QR) que desafían al lector con una estética dinámica. Un concierto de escritores, artistas, músicos, guionistas, editores y académicos se reúnen como lectores entusiastas y homenajean la obra de Roberto Bolaño, festejando los setenta años de su nacimiento, veinticinco años de la publicación de su libro clave, Los detectives salvajes, y conmemorando los veinte años de su muerte. Una mixtura de formas se vinculan como nunca antes, distintas expresiones artísticas a base de su obra. El conjunto de voces de todo el orbe es variado y disímil en formato y perspectiva, con fraternidad y admiración, también con parodias y discusiones que posicionan a Roberto Bolaño como un escritor de talla mundial.
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    Gender and its metaphors in Bigas Luna's posthumous film Segon origin
    Martinez-Exposito, A (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2023-04-03)
    The classic of children’s literature in Catalan has been translated into several languages and has been adapted for radio, television and cinema. The prematurely deceased director Bigas Luna showed interest in adapting it to the cinema in the eighties, but the project did not succeed until two decades later. The relationship established between Alba and Dídac, both in Pedrolo’s novel and in the film by Bigas, has usually been interpreted as a sexual awakening with multiple metaphorical resonances. This article re-examines the metaphorical configurations of gender dynamics in the film, an aspect in which Bigas Luna’s authorial voice is not limited to adapting Pedrolo’s story, but also manages to rewrite important facets of the characters. While most of these facets can be traced back to Bigas Luna’s previous films, Second Origin can be read as an attempt to recalibrate gender identity as an epiphenomenon of cultural, territorial, and national identities.