School of Physics - Research Publications

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    Testing for a Random Walk Structure in the Frequency Evolution of a Tone in Noise.
    Abramson, S ; Moran, W ; Evans, R ; Melatos, A (MDPI AG, 2022-08-15)
    Inference and hypothesis testing are typically constructed on the basis that a specific model holds for the data. To determine the veracity of conclusions drawn from such data analyses, one must be able to identify the presence of the assumed structure within the data. In this paper, a model verification test is developed for the presence of a random walk-like structure in the variations in the frequency of complex-valued sinusoidal signals measured in additive Gaussian noise. This test evaluates the joint inference of the random walk hypothesis tests found in economics literature that seek random walk behaviours in time series data, with an additional test to account for how the random walk behaves in frequency space.
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    Megahertz pulse trains enable multi-hit serial femtosecond crystallography experiments at X-ray free electron lasers.
    Holmes, S ; Kirkwood, HJ ; Bean, R ; Giewekemeyer, K ; Martin, AV ; Hadian-Jazi, M ; Wiedorn, MO ; Oberthür, D ; Marman, H ; Adriano, L ; Al-Qudami, N ; Bajt, S ; Barák, I ; Bari, S ; Bielecki, J ; Brockhauser, S ; Coleman, MA ; Cruz-Mazo, F ; Danilevski, C ; Dörner, K ; Gañán-Calvo, AM ; Graceffa, R ; Fanghor, H ; Heymann, M ; Frank, M ; Kaukher, A ; Kim, Y ; Kobe, B ; Knoška, J ; Laurus, T ; Letrun, R ; Maia, L ; Messerschmidt, M ; Metz, M ; Michelat, T ; Mills, G ; Molodtsov, S ; Monteiro, DCF ; Morgan, AJ ; Münnich, A ; Peña Murillo, GE ; Previtali, G ; Round, A ; Sato, T ; Schubert, R ; Schulz, J ; Shelby, M ; Seuring, C ; Sellberg, JA ; Sikorski, M ; Silenzi, A ; Stern, S ; Sztuk-Dambietz, J ; Szuba, J ; Trebbin, M ; Vagovic, P ; Ve, T ; Weinhausen, B ; Wrona, K ; Xavier, PL ; Xu, C ; Yefanov, O ; Nugent, KA ; Chapman, HN ; Mancuso, AP ; Barty, A ; Abbey, B ; Darmanin, C (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-11)
    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) II are extremely intense sources of X-rays capable of generating Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX) data at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates. Previous work has shown that it is possible to use consecutive X-ray pulses to collect diffraction patterns from individual crystals. Here, we exploit the MHz pulse structure of the European XFEL to obtain two complete datasets from the same lysozyme crystal, first hit and the second hit, before it exits the beam. The two datasets, separated by <1 µs, yield up to 2.1 Å resolution structures. Comparisons between the two structures reveal no indications of radiation damage or significant changes within the active site, consistent with the calculated dose estimates. This demonstrates MHz SFX can be used as a tool for tracking sub-microsecond structural changes in individual single crystals, a technique we refer to as multi-hit SFX.
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    Reconfigurable hyperbolic polaritonics with correlated oxide metasurfaces
    Aghamiri, NA ; Hu, G ; Fali, A ; Zhang, Z ; Li, J ; Balendhran, S ; Walia, S ; Sriram, S ; Edgar, JH ; Ramanathan, S ; Alu, A ; Abate, Y (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2022-08-03)
    Polaritons enable subwavelength confinement and highly anisotropic flows of light over a wide spectral range, holding the promise for applications in modern nanophotonic and optoelectronic devices. However, to fully realize their practical application potential, facile methods enabling nanoscale active control of polaritons are needed. Here, we introduce a hybrid polaritonic-oxide heterostructure platform consisting of van der Waals crystals, such as hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) or alpha-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3), transferred on nanoscale oxygen vacancy patterns on the surface of prototypical correlated perovskite oxide, samarium nickel oxide, SmNiO3 (SNO). Using a combination of scanning probe microscopy and infrared nanoimaging techniques, we demonstrate nanoscale reconfigurability of complex hyperbolic phonon polaritons patterned at the nanoscale with high resolution. Hydrogenation and temperature modulation allow spatially localized conductivity modulation of SNO nanoscale patterns, enabling robust real-time modulation and nanoscale reconfiguration of hyperbolic polaritons. Our work paves the way towards nanoscale programmable metasurface engineering for reconfigurable nanophotonic applications.
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    Electrical control of quantum emitters in a Van der Waals heterostructure (vol 11, 186, 2022)
    White, SJU ; Yang, T ; Dontschuk, N ; Li, C ; Xu, Z-Q ; Kianinia, M ; Stacey, A ; Toth, M ; Aharonovich, I (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-07-18)
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    Emerging Prospects of Nanozymes for Antibacterial and Anticancer Applications
    Chakraborty, N ; Gandhi, S ; Verma, R ; Roy, I (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    The ability of some nanoparticles to mimic the activity of certain enzymes paves the way for several attractive biomedical applications which bolster the already impressive arsenal of nanomaterials to combat deadly diseases. A key feature of such 'nanozymes' is the duplication of activities of enzymes or classes of enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, oxidase, and peroxidase which are known to modulate the oxidative balance of treated cells for facilitating a particular biological process such as cellular apoptosis. Several nanoparticles that include those of metals, metal oxides/sulfides, metal-organic frameworks, carbon-based materials, etc., have shown the ability to behave as one or more of such enzymes. As compared to natural enzymes, these artificial nanozymes are safer, less expensive, and more stable. Moreover, their catalytic activity can be tuned by changing their size, shape, surface properties, etc. In addition, they can also be engineered to demonstrate additional features, such as photoactivated hyperthermia, or be loaded with active agents for multimodal action. Several researchers have explored the nanozyme-mediated oxidative modulation for therapeutic purposes, often in combination with other diagnostic and/or therapeutic modalities, using a single probe. It has been observed that such synergistic action can effectively by-pass the various defense mechanisms adapted by rogue cells such as hypoxia, evasion of immuno-recognition, drug-rejection, etc. The emerging prospects of using several such nanoparticle platforms for the treatment of bacterial infections/diseases and cancer, along with various related challenges and opportunities, are discussed in this review.
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    Technology to improve reliable access to oxygen in Western Uganda: study protocol for a phased implementation trial in neonatal and paediatric wards
    Bagayana, S ; Subhi, R ; Moore, G ; Mugerwa, J ; Peake, D ; Nakintu, E ; Murokora, D ; Rassool, R ; Sklar, M ; Graham, H ; Sobott, B (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2022-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Oxygen is an essential medicine for children and adults. The current systems for its delivery can be expensive and unreliable in settings where oxygen is most needed. FREO2 Foundation Australia has developed an integrated oxygen system, driven by a mains-powered oxygen concentrator, with the ability to switch automatically between low-pressure oxygen storage device and cylinder oxygen in power interruptions. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of expanding this system to 20 community and district hospitals and level IV facilities in Western Uganda. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a phased implementation with preintervention and postintervention comparison of outcomes. Standardised baseline data collection and needs assessment will be conducted, followed by implementation of the FREO2 Oxygen System in combination with pulse oximetry in 1-2 facilities per month over a 16-month period, with a total 23-month data collection period. The primary outcome will be the proportion of hypoxaemic children receiving oxygen pre and post oxygen system. Secondary outcomes will assess clinical, economic and technical aspects. Pre and post oxygen system primary and secondary outcomes will be compared using regression models and standard tests of significance. Useability will be quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in terms of acceptability, feasibility and appropriateness, using standardised implementation outcome measure tools. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUREC 1/7) and the University of Melbourne (2021-14489-13654-2). Outcomes will be presented to the involved facilities, and to representatives of the Ministry of Health, Uganda. Broader dissemination will include publication in peer-reviewed journals and academic conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621000241831.
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    Electrical control of quantum emitters in a Van der Waals heterostructure
    White, SJU ; Yang, T ; Dontschuk, N ; Li, C ; Xu, Z-Q ; Kianinia, M ; Stacey, A ; Toth, M ; Aharonovich, I (SPRINGERNATURE, 2022-06-20)
    Controlling and manipulating individual quantum systems in solids underpins the growing interest in the development of scalable quantum technologies. Recently, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has garnered significant attention in quantum photonic applications due to its ability to host optically stable quantum emitters. However, the large bandgap of hBN and the lack of efficient doping inhibits electrical triggering and limits opportunities to study the electrical control of emitters. Here, we show an approach to electrically modulate quantum emitters in an hBN-graphene van der Waals heterostructure. We show that quantum emitters in hBN can be reversibly activated and modulated by applying a bias across the device. Notably, a significant number of quantum emitters are intrinsically dark and become optically active at non-zero voltages. To explain the results, we provide a heuristic electrostatic model of this unique behavior. Finally, employing these devices we demonstrate a nearly-coherent source with linewidths of ~160 MHz. Our results enhance the potential of hBN for tunable solid-state quantum emitters for the growing field of quantum information science.
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    Diamond Supercapacitors: Towards Durable, Safe, and Biocompatible Aqueous-Based Energy Storage.
    Chambers, A ; Prawer, S ; Ahnood, A ; Zhan, H (Frontiers Media SA, 2022)
    Durable and safe energy storage is required for the next generation of miniature bioelectronic devices, in which aqueous electrolytes are preferred due to the advantages in safety, low cost, and high conductivity. While rechargeable aqueous batteries are among the primary choices with relatively low power requirements, their lifetime is generally limited to a few thousand charging/discharging cycles as the electrode material can degrade due to electrochemical reactions. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) possess increased cycling stability and power density, although with as-yet lower energy density, due to quick electrical adsorption and desorption of ions without involving chemical reactions. However, in aqueous solution, chemical reactions which cause electrode degradation and produce hazardous species can occur when the voltage is increased beyond its operation window to improve the energy density. Diamond is a durable and biocompatible electrode material for supercapacitors, while at the same time provides a larger voltage window in biological environments. For applications requiring higher energy density, diamond-based pseudocapacitors (PCs) have also been developed, which combine EDLCs with fast electrochemical reactions. Here we inspect the properties of diamond-related materials and discuss their advantages and disadvantages when used as EDLC and PC materials. We argue that further optimization of the diamond surface chemistry and morphology, guided by computational modelling of the interface, can lead to supercapacitors with enhanced performance. We envisage that such diamond-based supercapacitors could be used in a wide range of applications and in particular those requiring high performance in biomedical applications.
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    Magnetic-field-dependent stimulated emission from nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
    Hahl, FA ; Lindner, L ; Vidal, X ; Luo, T ; Ohshima, T ; Onoda, S ; Ishii, S ; Zaitsev, AM ; Capelli, M ; Gibson, BC ; Greentree, AD ; Jeske, J (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2022-06-03)
    Negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are promising magnetic field quantum sensors. Laser threshold magnetometry theory predicts improved NV center ensemble sensitivity via increased signal strength and magnetic field contrast. Here, we experimentally demonstrate laser threshold magnetometry. We use a macroscopic high-finesse laser cavity containing a highly NV-doped and low absorbing diamond gain medium that is pumped at 532 nm and resonantly seeded at 710 nm. This enables a 64% signal power amplification by stimulated emission. We test the magnetic field dependency of the amplification and thus demonstrate magnetic field-dependent stimulated emission from an NV center ensemble. This emission shows an ultrahigh contrast of 33% and a maximum output power in the milliwatt regime. The coherent readout of NV centers pave the way for novel cavity and laser applications of quantum defects and diamond NV magnetic field sensors with substantially improved sensitivity for the health, research, and mining sectors.
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    Chemistry beyond the Hartree-Fock energy via quantum computed moments.
    Jones, MA ; Vallury, HJ ; Hill, CD ; Hollenberg, LCL (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-05-28)
    Quantum computers hold promise to circumvent the limitations of conventional computing for difficult molecular problems. However, the accumulation of quantum logic errors on real devices represents a major challenge, particularly in the pursuit of chemical accuracy requiring the inclusion of electronic correlation effects. In this work we implement the quantum computed moments (QCM) approach for hydrogen chain molecular systems up to H[Formula: see text]. On a superconducting quantum processor, Hamiltonian moments, [Formula: see text] are computed with respect to the Hartree-Fock state, which are then employed in Lanczos expansion theory to determine an estimate for the ground-state energy which incorporates electronic correlations and manifestly improves on the direct energy measurement. Post-processing purification of the raw QCM data takes the estimate below the Hartree-Fock energy to within 99.9% of the exact electronic ground-state energy for the largest system studied, H[Formula: see text]. Calculated dissociation curves indicate precision at about 10mH for this system and as low as 0.1mH for molecular hydrogen, H[Formula: see text], over a range of bond lengths. In the context of stringent precision requirements for chemical problems, these results provide strong evidence for the error suppression capability of the QCM method, particularly when coupled with post-processing error mitigation. While calculations based on the Hartree-Fock state are tractable to classical computation, these results represent a first step towards implementing the QCM method in a quantum chemical trial circuit. Greater emphasis on more efficient representations of the Hamiltonian and classical preprocessing steps may enable the solution of larger systems on near-term quantum processors.