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ItemMetabolic patterns and seizure outcomes following anterior temporal lobectomyCahill, V ; Sinclair, B ; Malpas, CB ; McIntosh, AM ; Chen, Z ; Vivash, LE ; O'Shea, MF ; Wilson, SJ ; Desmond, PM ; Berlangieri, SU ; Hicks, RJ ; Rowe, CC ; Morokoff, AP ; King, JA ; Fabinyi, GC ; Kaye, AH ; Kwan, P ; Berkovic, SF ; O'Brien, TJ (WILEY, 2019-02-01)OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between the interictal metabolic patterns, the extent of resection of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 FDG-PET) hypometabolism, and seizure outcomes in patients with unilateral drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) following anterior temporal lobe (TL) resection. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with hippocampal sclerosis or normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, concordant 18 FDG-PET hypometabolism, and at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up were included in this 2-center study. The hypometabolic regions in each patient were identified with reference to 20 healthy controls (p < 0.005). The resected TL volume and the volume of resected TL PET hypometabolism (TLH) were calculated from the pre- and postoperative MRI scans coregistered with interictal 18 FDG-PET. RESULTS: Striking differences in metabolic patterns were observed depending on the lateralization of the epileptogenic TL. The extent of the ipsilateral TLH was significantly greater in left MTLE patients (p < 0.001), whereas right MTLE patients had significantly higher rates of contralateral (CTL) TLH (p = 0.016). In right MTLE patients, CTL hypometabolism was the strongest predictor of an unfavorable seizure outcome, associated with a 5-fold increase in the likelihood of seizure recurrence (odds ratio [OR] = 4.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-22.39, p = 0.04). In left MTLE patients, greater extent of resection of ipsilateral TLH was associated with lower rates of seizure recurrence (p = 0.004) in univariate analysis; however, its predictive value did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.90-1.02, p = 0.19). INTERPRETATION: The difference in metabolic patterns depending on the lateralization of MTLE may represent distinct epileptic networks in patients with right versus left MTLE, and can guide preoperative counseling and surgical planning. Ann Neurol 2019; 1-10 ANN NEUROL 2019;85:241-250.
ItemValue of MRI in medicine: More than just another test?van Beek, EJR ; Kuhl, C ; Anzai, Y ; Desmond, P ; Ehman, RL ; Gong, Q ; Gold, G ; Gulani, V ; Hall-Craggs, M ; Leiner, T ; Lim, CCT ; Pipe, JG ; Reeder, S ; Reinhold, C ; Smits, M ; Sodickson, DK ; Tempany, C ; Vargas, HA ; Wang, M (WILEY, 2019-06-01)There is increasing scrutiny from healthcare organizations towards the utility and associated costs of imaging. MRI has traditionally been used as a high-end modality, and although shown extremely important for many types of clinical scenarios, it has been suggested as too expensive by some. This editorial will try and explain how value should be addressed and gives some insights and practical examples of how value of MRI can be increased. It requires a global effort to increase accessibility, value for money, and impact on patient management. We hope this editorial sheds some light and gives some indications of where the field may wish to address some of its research to proactively demonstrate the value of MRI. Level of Evidence: 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:e14-e25.
ItemWhite Matter Degeneration after Ischemic Stroke: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging StudyVisser, MM ; Yassi, N ; Campbell, BCV ; Desmond, PM ; Davis, SM ; Spratt, N ; Parsons, M ; Bivard, A (WILEY, 2019-01-01)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Degeneration of gray matter and subcortical structures after ischemic stroke has been well described. However, little is known about white matter degeneration after stroke. It is unclear whether white matter degeneration occurs throughout the whole brain, or whether patterns of degeneration occur more in specific brain areas. METHODS: We prospectively collected National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with acute ischemic stroke within the first week after onset (baseline), and at 1 and 3 months. DTI was processed to produce maps of fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficients, and axial and radial diffusivity. DTI parameters in specified regions-of-interest corresponding to items on the NIHSS were calculated and changes over time were assessed using linear mixed-effect modeling. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were included in the study. Mean age (SD) was 71 (11.7) years, and median (IQR) baseline NIHSS 9 (5-13.3). Changes over time were observed in both visual cortices, contralesional primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and superior temporal gyrus (P < .05). Changes in the ipsilesional motor cortex and inferior parietal lobule were only seen in patients with scores on the respective NIHSS-items (P < .05). No significant changes in global white matter diffusivity parameters were identified (P > .05). CONCLUSION: White matter changes after stroke may be localized rather than a global phenomenon.
ItemSaccadic Eye Movement Characteristics in Adult Niemann-Pick Type C Disease: Relationships with Disease Severity and Brain Structural MeasuresAbel, LA ; Bowman, EA ; Velakoulis, D ; Fahey, MC ; Desmond, P ; Macfarlane, MD ; Looi, JCL ; Adamson, CL ; Walterfang, M ; Martinez-Conde, S (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2012-11-30)Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. A parameter related to horizontal saccadic peak velocity was one of the primary outcome measures in the clinical trial assessing miglustat as a treatment for NPC. Neuropathology is widespread in NPC, however, and could be expected to affect other saccadic parameters. We compared horizontal saccadic velocity, latency, gain, antisaccade error percentage and self-paced saccade generation in 9 adult NPC patients to data from 10 age-matched controls. These saccadic measures were correlated with appropriate MRI-derived brain structural measures (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal eye fields, supplemental eye fields, parietal eye fields, pons, midbrain and cerebellar vermis) and with measures of disease severity and duration. The best discriminators between groups were reflexive saccade gain and the two volitional saccade measures. Gain was also the strongest correlate with disease severity and duration. Most of the saccadic measures showed strongly significant correlations with neurophysiologically appropriate brain regions. While our patient sample is small, the apparent specificity of these relationships suggests that as new diagnostic methods and treatments become available for NPC, a broader range of saccadic measures may be useful tools for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy.