Medicine and Radiology - Research Publications

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    Retrospective audit of patients referred for further treatment following Mohs surgery for non-melanoma skin cancer
    Wee, E ; Goh, MS ; Estall, V ; Tiong, A ; Webb, A ; Mitchell, C ; Murray, W ; Tran, P ; McCormack, CJ ; Henderson, M ; Hiscutt, EL (WILEY, 2018-11-01)
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, subsequent management and outcomes of patients referred for further management following Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients referred to a quaternary cancer centre from 2000 to 2015. RESULTS: In total, 83 lesions in 82 patients were referred for further management; 52 (62%) were SCC and 80 (96%) were located in the head and neck. Reasons for referral included high-risk disease for consideration for adjuvant radiotherapy (37/83, 45%), inadequate resection (28/83, 34%) or recurrence following previous MMS (15/83, 17%). Fewer than 40% of the 69 referrals received from MMS surgeons included photos or an operative report and diagram. There was discordance in pathology opinion in 11 (13%) of cases. Histopathology from MMS was reviewed in eight cases and there was discordance with the in-hospital pathology opinion in six of these. In-hospital re-excision was performed in 19 cases and in five of these the pathology report on the paraffin-sectioned re-excised tissue was discordant with prior MMS assessment. Significantly, two cases were associated with a misinterpretation of lymphocytic infiltrate as residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). CONCLUSION: This study highlights some of the challenges and limitations of MMS. Early referral for multidisciplinary management is recommended when MMS resection margins are inadequate or uncertain, especially for high-risk SCC. We recommend that referrals be accompanied by histological material, as well as a detailed report with operative photos and diagrams. CLL can pose an intraoperative diagnostic challenge. Discrepancies in the interpretation of MMS slides present an opportunity for improvement, and our findings support the role of ongoing quality assurance programs.
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    Randomized and controlled study comparing patient controlled and radiologist controlled intra-procedural conscious sedation, using midazolam and fentanyl, for patients undergoing insertion of a central venous line.
    Clements, W ; Sneddon, D ; Kavnoudias, H ; Joseph, T ; Goh, GS ; Koukounaras, J ; Snow, T (Wiley, 2018-12)
    INTRODUCTION: Interventional Radiology procedures can provoke anxiety and may be painful. Current practice, Radiologist Controlled Sedation (RCS), involves titrating aliquots of midazolam and fentanyl to patient response but underdosing and overdosing may occur. This study tests a new method of titrating sedation/analgesia during the procedure, Patient Controlled Sedation (PCS), in which a combination of fentanyl and midazolam are administered using a patient-controlled analgesia pump. This allows the patient to self-control their sedation/analgesia during the procedure. METHODS: We performed a randomised control trial comparing the effects of pain, sedation, amnesia and overall patient satisfaction between PCS and RCS, by enrolling forty patients undergoing insertion of a tunnelled central line. RESULTS: Our results showed that PCS was safe, with no adverse events. PCS was effective in providing sedation, amnesia and overall pain relief comparable to RCS. There was no significant difference in dose given to patients using PCS or RCS. There was a tendency for patients in the PCS group to begin sedation later than those in the RCS group, but both were equally sedated during the procedure. We show that patients in the PCS group were very satisfied with the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: We show that PCS is non-inferior to RCS in terms of dosage given and degree of sedation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to show intra-procedural PCS in an Interventional Radiology setting using midazolam and fentanyl as a randomised comparative trial. It has wide applicability in a procedural setting for very low cost and with minimal additional training required.
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    Absence of renal phenotype in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
    Healy, L ; Nicholls, K ; Gibson, R ; Stella, D ; Bogwitz, M ; Taylor, J ; Walsh, M ; Donaldson, L ; Winship, I (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterised by abnormal blood vessel formation, producing telangiectasia and arteriovenous malformations in multiple organs. Information regarding possible renal involvement in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is limited. This study assessed renal structure and function in 11 patients with genetically confirmed diagnosis and known arteriovenous malformations in lung, liver, gastrointestinal tract or brain. All had significant current or past epistaxis. Despite the vascularity of the kidneys, we found no evidence of renal involvement. This observation warrants further consideration.
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    The many faces of lung adenocarcinoma: A pictorial essay
    Pascoe, HM ; Knipe, HC ; Pascoe, D ; Heinze, SB (WILEY, 2018-10-01)
    Lung adenocarcinoma has a spectrum of appearances on CT, many of which mimic non-malignant processes. The general radiologist has a major role in guiding the management of abnormalities detected on chest CT and an awareness of these appearances is vital. We describe the protean imaging manifestations of lung adenocarcinoma.
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    Prolonged balloon tamponade in the initial management of inferior vena cava injury following complicated filter retrieval, without the need for surgery
    Lee, JTL ; Goh, GS ; Joseph, T ; Koukounaras, J ; Phan, T ; Clements, W (WILEY, 2018-12-01)
    Advanced techniques have been described to remove embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters including the loop snare and modified loop snare (Hangman) techniques. Retrieval of embedded filters have been associated with higher rates of complications including IVC injury and stenosis. We report two challenging embedded retrievals complicated by IVC injury and haemorrhage. Haemostasis was successfully achieved with prolonged balloon tamponade, suggesting that injury to the IVC during filter retrieval may not need urgent surgery. However, both patients received short-term complications related to caval thrombosis and patients in this cohort should be closely observed after retrieval. These cases support rigorous attention to filter indication and follow-up.
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    Re: Parkes Weber syndrome: a case of right lower limb hypertrophy
    Penington, A ; Vrazas, J (WILEY, 2018-07-01)
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    A population-based cost-effectiveness study of early genetic testing in severe epilepsies of infancy
    Howell, KB ; Eggers, S ; Dalziel, K ; Riseley, J ; Mandelstam, S ; Myers, CT ; McMahon, JM ; Schneider, A ; Carvill, GL ; Mefford, HC ; Scheffer, IE ; Harvey, AS (WILEY, 2018-06-01)
    OBJECTIVE: The severe epilepsies of infancy (SEI) are a devastating group of disorders that pose a major care and economic burden on society; early diagnosis is critical for optimal management. This study sought to determine the incidence and etiologies of SEI, and model the yield and cost-effectiveness of early genetic testing. METHODS: A population-based study was undertaken of the incidence, etiologies, and cost-effectiveness of a whole exome sequencing-based gene panel (targeted WES) in infants with SEI born during 2011-2013, identified through electroencephalography (EEG) and neonatal databases. SEI was defined as seizure onset before age 18 months, frequent seizures, epileptiform EEG, and failure of ≥2 antiepileptic drugs. Medical records, investigations, MRIs, and EEGs were analyzed, and genetic testing was performed if no etiology was identified. Economic modeling was performed to determine yield and cost-effectiveness of investigation of infants with unknown etiology at epilepsy onset, incorporating targeted WES at different stages of the diagnostic pathway. RESULTS: Of 114 infants with SEI (incidence = 54/100 000 live births/y), the etiology was determined in 76 (67%): acquired brain injuries (n = 14), focal cortical dysplasias (n = 14), other brain malformations (n = 17), channelopathies (n = 11), chromosomal (n = 9), metabolic (n = 6), and other genetic (n = 5) disorders. Modeling showed that incorporating targeted WES increased diagnostic yield compared to investigation without targeted WES (48/86 vs 39/86). Early targeted WES had lower total cost ($677 081 U.S. dollars [USD] vs $738 136 USD) than late targeted WES. A pathway with early targeted WES and limited metabolic testing yielded 7 additional diagnoses compared to investigation without targeted WES (46/86 vs 39/86), with lower total cost ($455 597 USD vs $661 103 USD), lower cost per diagnosis ($9904 USD vs $16 951 USD), and a dominant cost-effectiveness ratio. SIGNIFICANCE: Severe epilepsies occur in 1 in 2000 infants, with the etiology identified in two-thirds, most commonly malformative. Early use of targeted WES yields more diagnoses at lower cost. Early genetic diagnosis will enable timely administration of precision medicines, once developed, with the potential to improve long-term outcome.
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    Uptake of adjuvant breast cancer treatments recommended by multi-disciplinary meetings
    Pattanasri, M ; Elder, K ; Nickson, C ; Cooke, S ; Machalek, D ; Rose, A ; Mou, A ; Collins, JP ; Park, A ; De Boer, R ; Phillips, C ; Pridmore, V ; Farrugia, H ; Mann, GB (WILEY, 2018-07-01)
    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant therapy for breast cancer is routinely discussed and recommended in multi-disciplinary meetings (MDMs). Current literature explores how treatments received by patients differ from national guidelines; however, it does not explore whether treatment is concordant with MDMs. This study provides an Australian perspective on the uptake of MDM recommendations and reasons for non-concordance. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer presented at The Royal Melbourne Hospital MDM in 2010 and 2014 to investigate the concordance between MDM recommendations and treatment received. RESULTS: The study group comprised 441 patients (161 from 2010 and 280 from 2014). A total of 375 patients were included in the analyses. Overall, 82% of patients had perfect concordance between recommended and received treatment for all modes of adjuvant therapy. Concordance to endocrine therapy was higher for invasive cancers than ductal carcinoma in situ (97% versus 81%, P < 0.0001). Concordance to radiotherapy was high and did not differ according to type of cancer or surgery (ranging from 88 to 91%). Concordance to chemotherapy recommendations was high overall (92%) and did not vary with nodal status. Women aged over 65 years were least likely to be recommended for adjuvant therapy but most likely to concordant with the recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of MDM-recommended treatments is high. There is a minority of patients in whom MDM recommendations are not followed, highlighting that there are extra steps between recommendations at an MDM and decisions with patients. More attention to this issue is appropriate, and the reasons for non-concordance warrant further study.
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    A retrospective cost analysis of angioplasty compared to bypass surgery for lower limb arterial disease in an Australian tertiary health service.
    Ngu, NL ; Lisik, J ; Varma, D ; Goh, GS (Wiley, 2018-06)
    INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and surgical bypass (BYP) are treatment options for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD). PTA and BYP have different clinical outcomes and cost implications. This paper aims to compare hospital-related costs of PTA and BYP for PAD of the lower limbs in an Australian health service. METHODS: A retrospective cost analysis using clinical and financial data from an urban, tertiary hospital was performed. Patient cohorts were matched to existing published studies and 3-year findings were calculated. Outcomes measured were mean initial admission cost; mean bed stay; mean complication rate; mean cost of re-intervention at 12 months and extrapolated mean cost at 3 years. RESULTS: The mean total admission costs for PTA compared to BYP were $8758 vs. $27,849 (P < 0.001). Patients undergoing BYP were admitted for 10.25 vs. 3.77 nights (P < 0.001). The complication rate was greater in the BYP group for infection only. Re-intervention was required by 13% of the PTA group and 16% of the BYP group, at a mean cost of $11,798 and $14,728, respectively (P = 0.453). The extrapolated total mean cost at 3 years was higher in the BYP group for patients with both intermittent claudication ($26,764 vs. $11,402) and critical limb ischaemia ($27,719 vs. $12,655). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, PTA is a favourable alternative to BYP for PAD of the lower limbs as it is less costly, does not result in a greater re-intervention rate at 1 year and has been previously demonstrated to have comparable clinical outcomes. Given the limitations of this retrospective analysis, a prospective cost-effectiveness analysis is recommended.
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    Selection criteria for endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: Are patients missing out?
    Maingard, J ; Churilov, L ; Mitchell, P ; Dowling, R ; Yan, B (WILEY, 2018-06-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Endovascular clot retrieval (ECR) following intravenous thrombolysis is superior to intravenous thrombolysis alone for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion. However, trial selection criteria may exclude potentially salvageable patients. We investigated the impact of published selection criteria on the different proportions of patients excluded and clinical outcome. METHODS: We included patients with anterior circulation stroke treated with ECR from a single centre. Selection criteria from five trials (REVASCAT, EXTEND IA, MR CLEAN, SWIFT PRIME, ESCAPE) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines were applied. We calculated the proportion of patient's ineligible for ECR according to different selection criteria. Clinical benefit and harm were quantified as the number of patients benefiting per 1 patient harmed (NB1H) for each of the 6 applied selection criteria. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were included. Mean age was 74 (SD 14) years, 60.1% were male, median baseline NIHSS was 17 (IQR 13-21). Patients were hypothetically excluded from ECR: REVASCAT 35.4%, EXTENDA IA 86%, SWIFT PRIME 86%, MR CLEAN 2.3%, ESCAPE 93.3% and ASA 29.2%. The NB1H for included and excluded patients respectively in decreasing order of magnitude: EXTEND IA >100 vs 3, ESCAPE >100 vs 3.4, SWIFT PRIME 10 vs 3.3, REVASCAT 4.4 vs 2.9, MR CLEAN 3.7 vs >100, and ASA 3.7 vs 3.9. CONCLUSION: We found that criteria from MR CLEAN, ASA and REVASCAT excluded the lowest proportion of patients with comparable NB1H. We believe that these criteria would be reasonable to be utilised for ECR selection.