Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

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    Breastmilk influences development and composition of the oral microbiome
    Butler, CA ; Adams, GG ; Blum, J ; Byrne, SJ ; Carpenter, L ; Gussy, MG ; Calache, H ; Catmull, D ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-12-31)
    Background: Human microbiomes assemble in an ordered, reproducible manner yet there is limited information about early colonisation and development of bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to breastmilk on assembly of the infant oral microbiome during the first 20 months of life. Methods: The oral microbiomes of 39 infants, 13 who were never breastfed and 26 who were breastfed for more than 10 months, from the longitudinal VicGeneration birth cohort study, were determined at four ages. In total, 519 bacterial taxa were identified and quantified in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results: There were significant differences in the development of the oral microbiomes of never breastfed and breastfed infants. Bacterial diversity was significantly higher in never breastfed infants at 2 months, due largely to an increased abundance of Veillonella and species from the Bacteroidetes phylum compared with breastfed infants. Conclusion: These differences likely reflect breastmilk playing a prebiotic role in selection of early-colonising, health-associated oral bacteria, such as the Streptococcus mitis group. The microbiomes of both groups became more heterogenous following the introduction of solid foods.
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    Diabetes and Oral Health (DiabOH): The Perspectives of Primary Healthcare Providers in the Management of Diabetes and Periodontitis in China and Comparison with Those in Australia
    Yun, A ; Luo, Y ; Calache, H ; Wang, Y ; Darby, I ; Lau, P (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Diabetes and periodontal disease are highly prevalent conditions around the world with a bilateral causative relationship. Research suggests that interprofessional collaboration can improve care delivery and treatment outcomes. However, there continues to be little interprofessional management of these diseases. DiabOH research aims to develop an interprofessional diabetes and oral health care model for primary health care that would be globally applicable. Community medical practitioners (CMPs), community health nurses (CNs), and dentists in Shanghai were recruited to participate in online quantitative surveys. Response data of 76 CMPs, CNs, and dentists was analysed for descriptive statistics and compared with Australian data. Health professionals in China reported that, while screening for diabetes and periodontitis, increasing patient referral and improving interprofessional collaboration would be feasible, these were not within their scope of practice. Oral health screening was rarely conducted by CMPs or CNs, while dentists were not comfortable discussing diabetes with patients. Most participants believed that better collaboration would benefit patients. Chinese professionals concurred that interprofessional collaboration is vital for the improved management of diabetes and periodontitis. These views were similar in Melbourne, except that Shanghai health professionals held increased confidence in managing patients with diabetes and were more welcoming to increased oral health training.
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    Social practice theory: An innovative approach to considering preschool children's poor oral health
    Durey, A ; Gibson, BJ ; Ward, PR ; Calache, H ; Slack-Smith, L (WILEY, 2021-05-13)
    Oral disease in early childhood is highly prevalent and costly and impacts on the child and family with significant societal costs. Current approaches have largely failed to improve young children's oral health. This paper proposes a different approach to conceptualize poor oral health in preschool children (0-5 years) using social practices. Social practice theory offers an innovative perspective to understanding oral health by shifting emphasis away from the individual and onto how practical, social and material arrangements around the oral health of preschool children exist, change or become embedded in the social structures they inhabit. This novel approach contributes to the growing theoretical understanding in this area and has the potential to offer insights into the problem and ways it might be addressed.
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    Collaborative Oral Health Care
    Mamerto, ML ; Calache, H ; Ivanovic, A ; Bettega, A ; Martin, RE ; McKee, S (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2021-01-01)
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    Evaluation of an intervention to promote minimally invasive dentistry (MID) in an Australian community dental agency-A pilot study
    Nguyen, TM ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Calache, H (WILEY, 2021-06-02)
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an intervention consisting of a 1-day continuing professional development (CPD) education programme on the International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™ ), and monthly performance feedback, and to promote minimally invasive dentistry (MID) for children aged under 12 years in an Australian community dental agency. The a priori hypotheses assumed the intervention would increase preventive services, and treatment demand was met. METHODS: A quasi non-randomized controlled trial with convenience sampling method was adopted. Fourteen dental practitioners received the intervention. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis in Australian children was used to determine the treatment demand and used as the performance benchmark. Ten types of preventive and non-preventive dental services were examined. A Difference-in-Differences (DiD) of 12-month pre- (baseline) and post-intervention analysis was performed. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated increases in topical fluoride application and dietary analysis and advice services. The standard care group had increases in oral prophylaxis or scale and clean, topical fluoride application and oral hygiene instructions (p-value <0.05). The DiD analysis confirmed the above findings in the intervention group, while other preventive services declined. In the intervention group, the performance benchmark for oral prophylaxis or scale and clean and oral hygiene instructions was met at baseline and post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few preventive services had already met the performance benchmark. The intervention was associated with varied changes to preventive and non-preventive dental services. More robust study design addressing the study limitations and validating the performance benchmark is required.
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    Association between craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder: Western Australian population-based study.
    Junaid, M ; Slack-Smith, L ; Wong, K ; Bourke, J ; Baynam, G ; Calache, H ; Leonard, H (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-29)
    BACKGROUND: Accurate knowledge of the relationship between craniofacial anomalies (CFA), intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is essential to improve services and outcomes. The aim is to describe the association between CFA, ID and ASD using linked population data. METHODS: All births (1983-2005; n = 566,225) including CFA births (comprising orofacial clefts, craniosynostosis, craniofacial microsomia and mandibulofacial dysostosis) surviving to 5 years were identified from the birth, death, birth defects and midwives population data sets. Linked data from these data sets were followed for a minimum of 5 years from birth until 2010 in the intellectual disability database to identify ID and ASD. These associations were examined using a modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of ID and ASD was higher among CFA (especially with additional anomalies) than those without [prevalence ratio 5.27, 95% CI 4.44, 6.25]. It was higher among CFA than those with other gastrointestinal and urogenital anomalies but lower than nervous system and chromosomal anomalies. Children with CFA and severe ID had a higher proportion of nervous system anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate increased ID and ASD among CFA but lower than nervous system and chromosomal anomalies. This population evidence can improve early identification of ID/ASD among CFA and support service planning. IMPACT: Our study found about one in ten children born with craniofacial anomalies (CFA) are later identified with intellectual disability (ID). Prevalence of ID among CFA was higher than those with other gastrointestinal, urogenital, and musculoskeletal birth defects but lower than those with the nervous system and chromosomal abnormalities. Most children with craniofacial anomalies have a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability with an unknown aetiology. On average, intellectual disability is identified 2 years later for children born with non-syndromic craniofacial anomalies than those with syndromic conditions. Our findings can improve the early identification of ID/ASD among CFA and support service planning.
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    An overview of methodological approaches in systematic reviews.
    Veginadu, P ; Calache, H ; Gussy, M ; Pandian, A ; Masood, M (Wiley, 2022-03)
    AIM: The aim of this overview is to identify and collate evidence from existing published systematic review (SR) articles evaluating various methodological approaches used at each stage of an SR. METHODS: The search was conducted in five electronic databases from inception to November 2020 and updated in February 2022: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and APA PsycINFO. Title and abstract screening were performed in two stages by one reviewer, supported by a second reviewer. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by two reviewers independently. The quality of the included SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 checklist. RESULTS: The search retrieved 41,556 unique citations, of which 9 SRs were deemed eligible for inclusion in final synthesis. Included SRs evaluated 24 unique methodological approaches used for defining the review scope and eligibility, literature search, screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal in the SR process. Limited evidence supports the following (a) searching multiple resources (electronic databases, handsearching, and reference lists) to identify relevant literature; (b) excluding non-English, gray, and unpublished literature, and (c) use of text-mining approaches during title and abstract screening. CONCLUSION: The overview identified limited SR-level evidence on various methodological approaches currently employed during five of the seven fundamental steps in the SR process, as well as some methodological modifications currently used in expedited SRs. Overall, findings of this overview highlight the dearth of published SRs focused on SR methodologies and this warrants future work in this area.
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    Mentoring of oral health professionals is crucial to improving access to care for people with special needs.
    Lim, MAWT ; Liberali, SAC ; Calache, H ; Parashos, P ; Borromeo, GL ; Lalloo, R (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2022)
    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with special health care needs continue to experience difficulties with accessing regular dental care. This has largely been due to clinicians feeling they lack the training and experience to manage their needs. The aim of this study was to determine whether working closely with specialists in special need dentistry influenced the willingness of clinicians to treat patients with special needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists and clinicians involved in these mentoring initiatives. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to determine perspectives towards how this additional support influenced their willingness to treat individuals with special needs. RESULTS: The views of all participants towards these supports were positive with clinicians feeling it not only offered them opportunities to learn from the specialists, but also increased their willingness to treat individuals with special needs and the timeliness and quality of care they were able to provide. Likewise, despite some concerns about the inappropriate use of specialist support, the specialists felt these mentoring relationships offered many benefits including improving timely access to care and ensuring individuals were able to receive appropriate care. CONCLUSIONS: Mentoring provided by specialists in special needs dentistry improved the willingness of clinicians to provide care for individuals with special health care needs. Supports such as these are likely to be crucial to overcoming concerns of clinicians about their ability to manage the needs of these individuals and begin to address a significant barrier to access of care for individuals with special health care needs.
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    A Cost Analysis of an Outreach School-Based Dental Program: Teeth on Wheels
    Nguyen, TM ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Calache, H (MDPI, 2021-02-01)
    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated an outreach mobile dental service called Teeth on Wheels (TOW). The dental program targeted Australian children from low household income, who are eligible for the Child Dental Benefits Scheme (CDBS) in Victoria, Australia. The program is complemented with a school-based oral health promotion element. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed with a convenience sample. Children must have had at least three dental examinations during the 2016-2019 calendar years to be included in the study. Comparisons were made between the 2016-17 and 2018-19 calendar years. It was hypothesised that the program would result in reduced costs and the number of restorations and extractions in the latter period. RESULTS: A total of 414 children were included in the analysis. The total mean costs of the program per child reduced from AU$605.3 in 2016-17 to AU$531.1 in 2018-19. The results showed an overall mean reduction in all restorations and extractions performed, but only statistical significance was noted for reductions of restored deciduous teeth. CONCLUSIONS: This outreach program, which is focused on prevention and minimally invasive dentistry, can be a promising alternative model of delivery for dental services in young children.