Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

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    A retrospective study of drugs associated with xerostomia from the Australian Database of Adverse Event Notifications.
    Choo, PJ ; Taing, M-W ; Teoh, L (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-09-01)
    OBJECTIVES: Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth associated with many medications and increases the risk of tooth decay and other oral complications. The aim of this study was to identify unreported medications associated with dry mouth from the Australian Database of Adverse Event Notifications (ADAEN) from the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study. A request was made to the TGA to provide all reports associated with dry mouth. De-identified reports were provided from the commencement of the database in 1971 until June 2020. Drugs were divided into established drugs that are associated with xerostomia in the primary literature and secondary drugs not reported in the primary literature. KEY FINDINGS: There were 1927 individual case reports for dry mouth associated with medications. Of these, there were 1379 reports of established (primary) drugs and 1481 reports of secondary drugs associated with xerostomia. Dry mouth was found to be associated with many medication classes; analgesics, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal drugs had the greatest number of secondary drugs reported. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive list of suspected medications associated with xerostomia has been established. This adds to the growing catalogue of medications associated with dry mouth, where several medications have not previously been identified in the primary literature.
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    Stability, survival, and patient satisfaction with CAD/CAM versus conventional multistranded fixed retainers in orthodontic patients: a 6-month follow-up of a two-centre randomized controlled clinical trial
    Gera, A ; Pullisaar, H ; Cattaneo, PM ; Gera, S ; Vandevska-Radunovic, V ; Cornelis, MA (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2022-08-14)
    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this two-arm parallel two-centre randomized controlled trial was to compare computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) versus conventional multistranded fixed retainers (FRs) in terms of stability over 6 months. Secondary outcomes were failure rates and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Patients were randomized to CAD/CAM or conventional FRs in both arches, in 1:1 ratio and blocks of four. Allocation concealment was secured by using sequentially numbered envelopes. Patients were blinded. Retainers were bonded at the end of orthodontic treatment (T0), and patients were recalled after 1 (T1), 3 (T3), and 6 (T6) months. First-time retainer failures were recorded and digital impressions were taken. Arch widths and lengths, as well as Little's Irregularity Index (LII), were measured. Additionally, patients answered satisfaction questionnaires. Linear mixed models were applied for measurements and patient satisfaction. Survival analyses were estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves, along with Cox-regression modelling. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-one patients were randomized (98 in Centre 1, and 83 in Centre 2): Ninety in the CAD/CAM group and 91 in the conventional group. Three subjects dropped out at baseline, as they did not attend any of the follow-up appointments.168 patients attended the T6 visit. There were no significant differences in arch dimensions between T0 and T6, whilst the LII was different only in the CAD/CAM group (mean difference: 0.2 mm; 95% confidence interval: 0.1 to 0.4; P < 0.001). Within 6 months, 39 upper retainers (19 out of 88 CAD/CAM and 20 out of 90 conventional retainers) and 52 lower retainers failed (26 out of 88 CAD/CAM and 26 out of 90 conventional retainers), with no significant difference between the survival of both types of retainers (hazard ratios conventional to CAD/CAM: upper arch: 0.99 [P =0.99], lower arch: 0.93 [P = 0.80]). There were no significant changes in patient satisfaction between the groups. No harms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There were no clinically significant differences in LII, arch widths and lengths between CAD/CAM and conventional retainers after 6 months. There was no difference in failures and in patient satisfaction between both types of FRs. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04389879.
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    Cultural Competence in the nursing, dentistry, and medicine professional curricula: a qualitative review.
    Klenner, M ; Mariño, R ; Pineda, P ; Espinoza, G ; Zaror, C (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-09-20)
    BACKGROUND: Cultural competence development in the formative process of healthcare professionals is crucial for the provision of culturally appropriate health care. This educational issue is highly relevant in the growing multicultural composition of southern Chile. The objective of this study was to examine how the healthcare professions curricula at the Universidad de La Frontera, in La Araucanía Region, prepares future professionals to respond to patients' cultural needs. METHOD: A sequential transformative mixed methods design composed of two phases was carried out. Phase 1 reviewed all printed material and documentation to explore content that developed cross-cultural skills and competencies in the curricula. In Phase 2 semi-structured interviews were conducted with academics with responsibilities for the development of the curriculum in each career, to detect how academics envisage the incorporation of cultural competence in the curricula. RESULTS: Regarding curricular contents, findings indicated that the healthcare professions curricula at The Universidad de La Frontera have similar approaches to the inclusion of CCT in subjects' syllabuses, with inclusion of the different CCT, particularly in the Dental and Medical curricula. However, this coverage showed significant variations in the undergraduate healthcare curricula. The analysis revealed that themes around the Ethics and human values for professional practice; the Psychosocial and cultural determinants of health; the Relationship health-family-community, and to a lesser extent, the Clinician-patient relationship were well covered in the courses. On the other hand, Inequalities in health was the theme with the least contact time in all three courses. Academics called for a better organisation of the inclusion of CCT in the curricula. They also highlighted the challenges of maintaining the dominant paradigm underlying healthcare models, practices, and orientations within the academic staff and health discipline. CONCLUSION: Curricula contents findings indicate that the healthcare professions curricula at Universidad de La Frontera have similar approaches to the inclusion of CCT in subjects' syllabuses. However, its depth of coverage allows for improvements. The systematization of CCT and teaching-learning methodologies in healthcare professions curricula is necessary to develop formative processes that allow future professionals to be aware of and respectful with patients' cultural characteristics and needs.
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    Economic Evaluations of Preventive Interventions for Dental Caries and Periodontitis: A Systematic Review
    Tan, MN ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Le, LK-D ; Calache, H ; Mihalopoulos, C (SPRINGER INT PUBL AG, 2022-09-12)
    OBJECTIVES: To critically examine the methods used for full economic evaluations of preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis. METHODS: Published literature post-2000 was searched to April 2021. Based on a developed intervention classification framework for dental caries and periodontitis, only universal, selective or indicated interventions were included in this review. The Drummond 10-point checklist was used for quality appraisal. RESULTS: Of 3,007 unique records screened for relevance, 73 studies were reviewed. Most model-based studies (61/73) used cost-effectiveness analysis (49%) or cost-benefit analysis (28%). Trial-based studies (16/73) commonly used cost-effectiveness analysis (59%). Four studies used both economic evaluation methods. Sixty-four papers (88%) were on dental caries, eight papers (11%) focused on periodontitis, and one paper (1%) included both oral diseases; 72% of model-based and 82% of trial-based studies were of good quality. The most frequently investigated dental caries preventive interventions were water fluoridation (universal intervention; cost-saving or cost-effective), fissure sealant and fluoride varnish (selective and indicated interventions; cost-effectiveness outcomes were inconsistent). Supportive periodontal therapy with oral health education (indicated intervention; cost-effective) was the most frequently evaluated preventive intervention for periodontitis. Thirty percent of studies with a time horizon > 1 year did not apply an appropriate discount rate and 26% did not comprehensively discuss other important considerations beyond the technical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Generic health outcome measures should be incorporated for economic evaluations on preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis, and an increased focus to prevent periodontitis using economic evaluation methods is needed to inform resource allocation and policy decision-making.
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    Patients with post-COVID-19 vaccination facial palsy: To boost or not to boost?
    Cirillo, N ; Orlandi, M ; Colella, G (DE GRUYTER POLAND SP Z O O, 2022-08-22)
    A possible association between Bell's palsy and COVID-19 vaccination has been suggested. While it is likely that COVID-19 vaccine recipients from the general population do have a slightly increased risk of developing Bell's palsy, there are little data regarding this risk in individuals with a history of disease. Gaining a better understanding of this association is particularly important for informing evidence-based recommendations regarding future booster shots in subjects who developed Bell's palsy as a side effect of vaccination, or as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We previously described the first case of COVID-19 vaccine-related Bell's palsy; here we report an 18-month clinical and electromyographic follow-up and discuss the implications of receiving further vaccine doses in patients with positive disease history.
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    Antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of dental implant placement: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
    Zhurakivska, K ; Russo, LL ; Muzio, LL ; Caponio, VCA ; Laino, L ; Arena, C ; Cirillo, N ; Troiano, G (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-22)
    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis during implant placement may improve implant short term survival. Nevertheless, use of antibiotics carries risks of adverse effects and antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present study is to compare the use of antibiotics in dental implant procedures in terms of costs and effectiveness. METHODS: A decision-tree model was developed using TreeAge Pro Healthcare software. Two strategies were compared: Antibiotics and No antibiotics in implant placement procedures. The costs were calculated considering direct costs for implant placement, antibiotic costs, and costs for implant replacement in case of failure. Effectiveness was defined in terms of General Oral Health Assessment Index. Outcomes were evaluated as Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER). One-way sensitivity analysis and Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis were performed for the most influential variables to test parameter uncertainty. Patient and healthcare perspectives were considered. RESULTS: Antibiotic prophylaxis resulted to be cost-effective compared to no use of antibiotics (ICER = 14,692,64 and ICER = 3841,18, respectively for patient's and healthcare perspective). The cost of antibiotics, cost of implant replacement in case of failure and probability of adverse effects significantly influenced the results. CONCLUSIONS: From an individual patient perspective, antibiotic strategy can be considered cost-effective, even when the cost of antibiotic therapy increases. We can conclude that the administration of antibiotics in association with implant placement is recommended in clinical practice, as it increases the success rate and makes the treatment more effective. However, attention should be placed when healthcare perspective is considered, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance that may impact public health and associated costs.
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    Developing and pilot testing an oral health screening tool for diabetes care providers
    George, A ; Poudel, P ; Kong, A ; Villarosa, A ; Calache, H ; Arora, A ; Griffiths, R ; Wong, VW ; Gussy, M ; Martin, RE ; Lau, P (BMC, 2022-08-11)
    BACKGROUND: People with poorly managed diabetes are at greater risk of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease that is not effectively managed can affect glycaemic levels. Diabetes care providers, including general practitioners and diabetes educators, are encouraged to promote oral health of their clients. However, valid and reliable oral health screening tools that assess the risk of poor oral health, that are easy to administer among non-dental professionals, currently do not exist. Existing screening tools are difficult to incorporate into routine diabetes consultations due to their length. Thus, this study aimed to develop and pilot a short oral health screening tool that would identify risk of existing oral diseases and encourage appropriate referrals to the dental service. METHODS: A three-item screening tool was developed after a comprehensive review of the literature and consensus from an expert panel. The tool was then piloted as part of a larger cross-sectional survey of 260 adults with diabetes who were accessing public diabetes clinics at two locations in Sydney, Australia. As part of the survey, participants completed the three-item screening tool and a 14-item validated tool, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which has been used previously in the preliminary validation of screening tools. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were then undertaken comparing the results of the two tools. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was found between the shorter screening tool and the OHIP-14 (rho = 0.453, p < 0.001), indicating adequate validity. The three-item tool had high sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 84.9%, 94.7%), with a specificity of 46.3% (95% CI 37.7%, 55.2%). The negative predictive value was 81.4% (95% CI 71.3, 89.3). No single item performed as well regarding sensitivity and negative predictive value when compared to the three items collectively. CONCLUSIONS: The three-item screening tool developed was found to be valid and sensitive in identifying risk of poor oral health, requiring oral health referrals, among people with diabetes in this pilot. This is a simple, accessible tool that diabetes care providers could incorporate into their routine consultations. Further validation against comprehensive dental assessments is needed to reassess the tool's specificity and sensitivity in diverse settings.
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    Preparedness for practice of newly qualified dental practitioners in the Australian context: an exploratory study
    Marino, R ; Delany, C ; Manton, DJ ; Reid, K ; Satur, J ; Crombie, F ; Wong, R ; McNally, C ; Adams, GG ; Lopez, D ; Celentano, A ; Lim, M ; Morgan, M (BMC, 2022-08-18)
    BACKGROUND: The current study explored the perspectives of preparedness for dental practice from a range of relevant stakeholders (i.e., educators, employers, final-year students, graduates, practitioners, and professional associations) using an anonymous online survey in which participants described either their preparedness for practice, or the preparedness of graduates they have encountered, across six domains. RESULTS: A total of 120 participants completed the survey. Participants were from several Australian states and territories; regional, rural, and urban locations; and working in the public and private sector. Students and new graduates generally felt prepared for activities in all the identified domains. Stakeholders reported consistently that the knowledge of dental profession graduates was at the required level to enter practice in Australia in a safe way. Activities involving the knowledge of clinical entrepreneurship and financial solvency were the dimensions where students and graduates felt least prepared (e.g., explaining fees, negotiating finances). In the domains involving clinical and technical competencies, students and new graduates self-assessed as less prepared around managing dental trauma and medical emergencies. On the other hand, activities around social and community orientation, and to a lesser extent professional attitudes and ethical judgements, were the dimensions where students and graduates felt the most prepared. CONCLUSIONS: Present findings indicate that there appear to be good standards of preparedness for practice for graduate dental professionals. This exploratory study provides insights into the nature of preparedness for Australian dental professionals and provides a basis for targeting education and professional development to address areas of need.
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    The Indigenous Adolescent Oral Health Partnership Study: A Co-Design Study Protocol.
    Calvin, Z ; Skinner, J ; Dimitropoulos, Y ; Stan, G ; Satur, J ; Cartwright, S ; Widmer, RP ; Schafer, T ; Williams, R ; Sohn, W ; Raphael, S ; Christian, B ; Parter, C ; Blatchford, L ; Rambaldini, B ; Partridge, SR ; Cain, E ; Gwynne, K (MDPI AG, 2022-07-26)
    BACKGROUND: in this protocol we outline a method of working alongside Aboriginal communities to learn about and facilitate improvement in the oral health habits in Aboriginal adolescents. By facilitating positive oral health in Aboriginal adolescents, we hope to achieve lifelong improvement in oral health and general wellbeing. METHODS: this paper outlines a co-design methodology through which researchers and Aboriginal communities will work together to create a custom oral healthcare program aimed at Aboriginal adolescents. Researchers, a youth advisory group, Aboriginal community-controlled health services and three regional NSW communities will together devise an oral health strategy focused on five components: application of topical fluoride, increasing water consumption, improving nutrition, daily toothbrushing, and enhancing social and emotional wellbeing. Capacity building is a key outcome of this program. DISCUSSION: as the gap in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people remains wide, it is clear that new approaches and attitudes are needed in Aboriginal public health research. This protocol is representative of this shifting approach; giving power to Aboriginal communities who seek to have sovereignty and self-determination over their healthcare. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TRN: ISRCTN15496753 Date of registration: 20 October 2021.
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    Study protocol for the evaluation of Fear-Less: a stepped-care program for fear of cancer recurrence in survivors with early-stage disease.
    Tran, MJ ; Jefford, M ; Smith, B ; Lynch, F ; Dhillon, HM ; Shaw, J ; McDowell, L ; White, A ; Halloran, C ; Wiesenfeld, D ; Ftanou, M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-10)
    BACKGROUND: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a significant unmet need amongst cancer survivors and is consistently associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Psychological interventions for FCR, such as ConquerFear, have demonstrated efficacy in reducing FCR and improving emotional wellbeing. Unfortunately, there are barriers to the uptake of evidence-based FCR treatments in clinical practice. A stepped-care FCR treatment model may overcome these barriers and has demonstrated potential in people with advanced melanoma. This study aims to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a stepped-care FCR treatment model (Fear-Less) in people with other cancer types, who have completed treatment with curative intent. METHODS: Sixty people with early-stage cancer (defined as individuals who have received treatment with curative intent and with no metastatic disease) will be screened for FCR using the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory-Short Form (FCRI-SF). Individuals reporting moderate FCR (FCRI-SF between 13 and 21) will be offered a clinician-guided self-management resource; those reporting high FCR (FCRI-SF ≥ 22) will be offered individual therapy according to the ConquerFear protocol. Participants will complete purpose-built evaluation surveys assessing their FCR screening and intervention experiences. Clinicians will also complete a survey regarding their experiences of the treatment model. Fear-Less will be evaluated in terms of (1) acceptability (i.e., patient and clinician experience), (2) feasibility (i.e., referral uptake, treatment adherence, and time taken to screen and deliver interventions), and (3) impact (i.e., pre- to post-intervention FCR changes). DISCUSSION: The Fear-Less stepped-care model is a novel framework for screening FCR and stratifying survivors to the appropriate level of treatment. Our study will provide an indication of whether Fear-Less is a feasible and acceptable FCR model of care amongst survivors with early-stage disease and inform further investigations of this model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR); ACTRN12622000818730 .