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ItemBreastmilk influences development and composition of the oral microbiomeButler, CA ; Adams, GG ; Blum, J ; Byrne, SJ ; Carpenter, L ; Gussy, MG ; Calache, H ; Catmull, D ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-12-31)BACKGROUND: Human microbiomes assemble in an ordered, reproducible manner yet there is limited information about early colonisation and development of bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to breastmilk on assembly of the infant oral microbiome during the first 20 months of life. METHODS: The oral microbiomes of 39 infants, 13 who were never breastfed and 26 who were breastfed for more than 10 months, from the longitudinal VicGeneration birth cohort study, were determined at four ages. In total, 519 bacterial taxa were identified and quantified in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the development of the oral microbiomes of never breastfed and breastfed infants. Bacterial diversity was significantly higher in never breastfed infants at 2 months, due largely to an increased abundance of Veillonella and species from the Bacteroidetes phylum compared with breastfed infants. CONCLUSION: These differences likely reflect breastmilk playing a prebiotic role in selection of early-colonising, health-associated oral bacteria, such as the Streptococcus mitis group. The microbiomes of both groups became more heterogenous following the introduction of solid foods.
ItemNo Preview AvailableNutrition and oral health in early childhood: associations with formal and informal childcareCarpenter, L ; Gibbs, L ; Magarey, A ; Dashper, S ; Gussy, M ; Calache, H (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2021-04-01)OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between childcare type and nutrition and oral health indicators. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data extracted from a longitudinal birth cohort. Parent-completed FFQ and questions regarding oral health and childcare use. The associations between childcare type, classified into four groups: parent care only (PCO), formal childcare only (FCO), informal childcare only (ICO) or combination of care (F&I), and nutrition and oral health indicators were examined. SETTING: Home and childcare. PARTICIPANTS: Families with children aged 3 years (n 273) and 4 years (n 249) in Victoria, Australia. RESULTS: No associations were observed between childcare type and core food/beverage consumption or oral health indicators. For discretionary beverages, compared with children receiving PCO at age 3 years, children in FCO or F&I were less likely to frequently consume fruit juice/drinks (FCO: adjusted OR (AOR) 0·41, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·96, P = 0·04; F&I: AOR 0·32, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·74, P = 0·008). At age 4 years, children receiving FCO or ICO were less likely to consume sweet beverages frequently compared with children receiving PCO: fruit juice/drink (ICO: AOR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·94, P = 0·03; FCO: AOR 0·35, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·88, P = 0·03) and soft drink (ICO: AOR 0·23, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·74, P = 0·01; FCO: AOR 0·14, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·76, P = 0·02). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between childcare type and discretionary beverage intake were observed. Investigation into knowledge, attitudes and activities in formal and informal childcare settings is required to explore different health promotion practices that may influence nutrition and oral health.