Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

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    Economic Evaluations of Preventive Interventions for Dental Caries and Periodontitis: A Systematic Review
    Tan, MN ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Le, LK-D ; Calache, H ; Mihalopoulos, C (SPRINGER INT PUBL AG, 2022-09-12)
    OBJECTIVES: To critically examine the methods used for full economic evaluations of preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis. METHODS: Published literature post-2000 was searched to April 2021. Based on a developed intervention classification framework for dental caries and periodontitis, only universal, selective or indicated interventions were included in this review. The Drummond 10-point checklist was used for quality appraisal. RESULTS: Of 3,007 unique records screened for relevance, 73 studies were reviewed. Most model-based studies (61/73) used cost-effectiveness analysis (49%) or cost-benefit analysis (28%). Trial-based studies (16/73) commonly used cost-effectiveness analysis (59%). Four studies used both economic evaluation methods. Sixty-four papers (88%) were on dental caries, eight papers (11%) focused on periodontitis, and one paper (1%) included both oral diseases; 72% of model-based and 82% of trial-based studies were of good quality. The most frequently investigated dental caries preventive interventions were water fluoridation (universal intervention; cost-saving or cost-effective), fissure sealant and fluoride varnish (selective and indicated interventions; cost-effectiveness outcomes were inconsistent). Supportive periodontal therapy with oral health education (indicated intervention; cost-effective) was the most frequently evaluated preventive intervention for periodontitis. Thirty percent of studies with a time horizon > 1 year did not apply an appropriate discount rate and 26% did not comprehensively discuss other important considerations beyond the technical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Generic health outcome measures should be incorporated for economic evaluations on preventive interventions for dental caries and periodontitis, and an increased focus to prevent periodontitis using economic evaluation methods is needed to inform resource allocation and policy decision-making.
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    Developing and pilot testing an oral health screening tool for diabetes care providers
    George, A ; Poudel, P ; Kong, A ; Villarosa, A ; Calache, H ; Arora, A ; Griffiths, R ; Wong, VW ; Gussy, M ; Martin, RE ; Lau, P (BMC, 2022-08-11)
    BACKGROUND: People with poorly managed diabetes are at greater risk of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease that is not effectively managed can affect glycaemic levels. Diabetes care providers, including general practitioners and diabetes educators, are encouraged to promote oral health of their clients. However, valid and reliable oral health screening tools that assess the risk of poor oral health, that are easy to administer among non-dental professionals, currently do not exist. Existing screening tools are difficult to incorporate into routine diabetes consultations due to their length. Thus, this study aimed to develop and pilot a short oral health screening tool that would identify risk of existing oral diseases and encourage appropriate referrals to the dental service. METHODS: A three-item screening tool was developed after a comprehensive review of the literature and consensus from an expert panel. The tool was then piloted as part of a larger cross-sectional survey of 260 adults with diabetes who were accessing public diabetes clinics at two locations in Sydney, Australia. As part of the survey, participants completed the three-item screening tool and a 14-item validated tool, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which has been used previously in the preliminary validation of screening tools. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were then undertaken comparing the results of the two tools. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was found between the shorter screening tool and the OHIP-14 (rho = 0.453, p < 0.001), indicating adequate validity. The three-item tool had high sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 84.9%, 94.7%), with a specificity of 46.3% (95% CI 37.7%, 55.2%). The negative predictive value was 81.4% (95% CI 71.3, 89.3). No single item performed as well regarding sensitivity and negative predictive value when compared to the three items collectively. CONCLUSIONS: The three-item screening tool developed was found to be valid and sensitive in identifying risk of poor oral health, requiring oral health referrals, among people with diabetes in this pilot. This is a simple, accessible tool that diabetes care providers could incorporate into their routine consultations. Further validation against comprehensive dental assessments is needed to reassess the tool's specificity and sensitivity in diverse settings.
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    Breastmilk influences development and composition of the oral microbiome
    Butler, CA ; Adams, GG ; Blum, J ; Byrne, SJ ; Carpenter, L ; Gussy, MG ; Calache, H ; Catmull, D ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-12-31)
    Background: Human microbiomes assemble in an ordered, reproducible manner yet there is limited information about early colonisation and development of bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to breastmilk on assembly of the infant oral microbiome during the first 20 months of life. Methods: The oral microbiomes of 39 infants, 13 who were never breastfed and 26 who were breastfed for more than 10 months, from the longitudinal VicGeneration birth cohort study, were determined at four ages. In total, 519 bacterial taxa were identified and quantified in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results: There were significant differences in the development of the oral microbiomes of never breastfed and breastfed infants. Bacterial diversity was significantly higher in never breastfed infants at 2 months, due largely to an increased abundance of Veillonella and species from the Bacteroidetes phylum compared with breastfed infants. Conclusion: These differences likely reflect breastmilk playing a prebiotic role in selection of early-colonising, health-associated oral bacteria, such as the Streptococcus mitis group. The microbiomes of both groups became more heterogenous following the introduction of solid foods.
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    Diabetes and Oral Health (DiabOH): The Perspectives of Primary Healthcare Providers in the Management of Diabetes and Periodontitis in China and Comparison with Those in Australia
    Yun, A ; Luo, Y ; Calache, H ; Wang, Y ; Darby, I ; Lau, P (MDPI, 2022-06-01)
    Diabetes and periodontal disease are highly prevalent conditions around the world with a bilateral causative relationship. Research suggests that interprofessional collaboration can improve care delivery and treatment outcomes. However, there continues to be little interprofessional management of these diseases. DiabOH research aims to develop an interprofessional diabetes and oral health care model for primary health care that would be globally applicable. Community medical practitioners (CMPs), community health nurses (CNs), and dentists in Shanghai were recruited to participate in online quantitative surveys. Response data of 76 CMPs, CNs, and dentists was analysed for descriptive statistics and compared with Australian data. Health professionals in China reported that, while screening for diabetes and periodontitis, increasing patient referral and improving interprofessional collaboration would be feasible, these were not within their scope of practice. Oral health screening was rarely conducted by CMPs or CNs, while dentists were not comfortable discussing diabetes with patients. Most participants believed that better collaboration would benefit patients. Chinese professionals concurred that interprofessional collaboration is vital for the improved management of diabetes and periodontitis. These views were similar in Melbourne, except that Shanghai health professionals held increased confidence in managing patients with diabetes and were more welcoming to increased oral health training.
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    Social practice theory: An innovative approach to considering preschool children's poor oral health
    Durey, A ; Gibson, BJ ; Ward, PR ; Calache, H ; Slack-Smith, L (WILEY, 2021-05-13)
    Oral disease in early childhood is highly prevalent and costly and impacts on the child and family with significant societal costs. Current approaches have largely failed to improve young children's oral health. This paper proposes a different approach to conceptualize poor oral health in preschool children (0-5 years) using social practices. Social practice theory offers an innovative perspective to understanding oral health by shifting emphasis away from the individual and onto how practical, social and material arrangements around the oral health of preschool children exist, change or become embedded in the social structures they inhabit. This novel approach contributes to the growing theoretical understanding in this area and has the potential to offer insights into the problem and ways it might be addressed.
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    Collaborative Oral Health Care
    Mamerto, ML ; Calache, H ; Ivanovic, A ; Bettega, A ; Martin, RE ; McKee, S (UBIQUITY PRESS LTD, 2021-01-01)
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    Evaluation of an intervention to promote minimally invasive dentistry (MID) in an Australian community dental agency-A pilot study
    Nguyen, TM ; Tonmukayakul, U ; Calache, H (WILEY, 2021-06-02)
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an intervention consisting of a 1-day continuing professional development (CPD) education programme on the International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™ ), and monthly performance feedback, and to promote minimally invasive dentistry (MID) for children aged under 12 years in an Australian community dental agency. The a priori hypotheses assumed the intervention would increase preventive services, and treatment demand was met. METHODS: A quasi non-randomized controlled trial with convenience sampling method was adopted. Fourteen dental practitioners received the intervention. The prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis in Australian children was used to determine the treatment demand and used as the performance benchmark. Ten types of preventive and non-preventive dental services were examined. A Difference-in-Differences (DiD) of 12-month pre- (baseline) and post-intervention analysis was performed. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated increases in topical fluoride application and dietary analysis and advice services. The standard care group had increases in oral prophylaxis or scale and clean, topical fluoride application and oral hygiene instructions (p-value <0.05). The DiD analysis confirmed the above findings in the intervention group, while other preventive services declined. In the intervention group, the performance benchmark for oral prophylaxis or scale and clean and oral hygiene instructions was met at baseline and post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few preventive services had already met the performance benchmark. The intervention was associated with varied changes to preventive and non-preventive dental services. More robust study design addressing the study limitations and validating the performance benchmark is required.
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    Association between craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder: Western Australian population-based study.
    Junaid, M ; Slack-Smith, L ; Wong, K ; Bourke, J ; Baynam, G ; Calache, H ; Leonard, H (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-03-29)
    BACKGROUND: Accurate knowledge of the relationship between craniofacial anomalies (CFA), intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is essential to improve services and outcomes. The aim is to describe the association between CFA, ID and ASD using linked population data. METHODS: All births (1983-2005; n = 566,225) including CFA births (comprising orofacial clefts, craniosynostosis, craniofacial microsomia and mandibulofacial dysostosis) surviving to 5 years were identified from the birth, death, birth defects and midwives population data sets. Linked data from these data sets were followed for a minimum of 5 years from birth until 2010 in the intellectual disability database to identify ID and ASD. These associations were examined using a modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Prevalence of ID and ASD was higher among CFA (especially with additional anomalies) than those without [prevalence ratio 5.27, 95% CI 4.44, 6.25]. It was higher among CFA than those with other gastrointestinal and urogenital anomalies but lower than nervous system and chromosomal anomalies. Children with CFA and severe ID had a higher proportion of nervous system anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate increased ID and ASD among CFA but lower than nervous system and chromosomal anomalies. This population evidence can improve early identification of ID/ASD among CFA and support service planning. IMPACT: Our study found about one in ten children born with craniofacial anomalies (CFA) are later identified with intellectual disability (ID). Prevalence of ID among CFA was higher than those with other gastrointestinal, urogenital, and musculoskeletal birth defects but lower than those with the nervous system and chromosomal abnormalities. Most children with craniofacial anomalies have a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability with an unknown aetiology. On average, intellectual disability is identified 2 years later for children born with non-syndromic craniofacial anomalies than those with syndromic conditions. Our findings can improve the early identification of ID/ASD among CFA and support service planning.
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    An overview of methodological approaches in systematic reviews.
    Veginadu, P ; Calache, H ; Gussy, M ; Pandian, A ; Masood, M (Wiley, 2022-03)
    AIM: The aim of this overview is to identify and collate evidence from existing published systematic review (SR) articles evaluating various methodological approaches used at each stage of an SR. METHODS: The search was conducted in five electronic databases from inception to November 2020 and updated in February 2022: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and APA PsycINFO. Title and abstract screening were performed in two stages by one reviewer, supported by a second reviewer. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were performed by two reviewers independently. The quality of the included SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 checklist. RESULTS: The search retrieved 41,556 unique citations, of which 9 SRs were deemed eligible for inclusion in final synthesis. Included SRs evaluated 24 unique methodological approaches used for defining the review scope and eligibility, literature search, screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal in the SR process. Limited evidence supports the following (a) searching multiple resources (electronic databases, handsearching, and reference lists) to identify relevant literature; (b) excluding non-English, gray, and unpublished literature, and (c) use of text-mining approaches during title and abstract screening. CONCLUSION: The overview identified limited SR-level evidence on various methodological approaches currently employed during five of the seven fundamental steps in the SR process, as well as some methodological modifications currently used in expedited SRs. Overall, findings of this overview highlight the dearth of published SRs focused on SR methodologies and this warrants future work in this area.