Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications
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ItemTaxonomy of Oral BacteriaByrne, SJ ; Butler, CA ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG ; Gurtler, V ; Trevors, JT (ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 2018-01-01)The oral cavity is a collection of diverse microenvironments, each inhabited by a community of microorganisms, the majority of which are bacteria and their phages. Given the appropriate conditions, some of these bacteria can cause destruction of the teeth or their supporting hard and soft tissues. For over 300 years microbiologists have been characterising these microbial communities, in both oral health and disease. In this chapter, we take the reader on a journey through time as we discuss the various methods that have been utilised in the characterisation of the bacteria calling the oral cavity home, and how the use of these methods has informed our understanding of oral bacterial communities and the diversity of their members.
ItemThe prebiotic effect of CPP-ACP sugar-free chewing gumFernando, JR ; Butler, CA ; Adams, GG ; Mitchell, HL ; Dashper, SG ; Escobar, K ; Hoffmann, B ; Shen, P ; Walker, GD ; Yuan, Y ; Reynolds, C ; Reynolds, EC (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019-12-01)OBJECTIVES: To determine if chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) promoted an increase in the abundance of Streptococcus sanguinis and other species associated with dental health in supragingival plaque in a clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen participants were recruited for a three-leg cross-over, randomised, controlled clinical trial. Participants chewed a sugar-free gum with or without CPP-ACP six times daily for 20 min over two weeks. The study also involved no gum chewing (no gum) for the same two week period. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the test gums or no gum for each intervention period. Participants abstained from oral hygiene and had washout periods of two weeks between intervention periods. After each intervention period, supragingival plaque was collected and analysed for bacterial composition by sequencing the V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model. RESULTS: The CPP-ACP gum intervention produced a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the proportions of S. sanguinis (112%), as well as the commensal species Rothia dentocariosa (127%), Corynebacterium durum (80%) and Streptococcus mitis (55%) when compared with the no gum intervention. All the species that were promoted by the CPP-ACP gum are known to possess one or both of the alkali-producing enzymes arginine deiminase and nitrate reductase. CONCLUSION: This clinical study demonstrated that chewing a sugar-free gum containing CPP-ACP promoted prebiosis by significantly increasing the proportion of S. sanguinis and other health-associated bacterial species in supragingival plaque. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Regular chewing of CPP-ACP sugar-free gum increases the proportions of health-associated commensal species in supragingival plaque to promote prebiosis and oral homeostasis.
ItemPolymicrobial interactions of Candida albicans and its role in oral carcinogenesisArzmi, MH ; Dashper, S ; McCullough, M (WILEY, 2019-08-01)The oral microbiome is composed of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity, which are critical components of health and disease. Disruption of the oral microbiome has been proven to influence the course of oral diseases, especially among immunocompromised patients. Oral microbiome is comprised of inter-kingdom microorganisms, including yeasts such as Candida albicans, bacteria, archaea and viruses. These microorganisms can interact synergistically, mutualistically and antagonistically, wherein the sum of these interactions dictates the composition of the oral microbiome. For instance, polymicrobial interactions can improve the ability of C albicans to form biofilm, which subsequently increases the colonisation of oral mucosa by the yeast. Polymicrobial interactions of C albicans with other members of the oral microbiome have been reported to enhance the malignant phenotype of oral cancer cells, such as the attachment to extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Polymicrobial interactions may also exacerbate an inflammatory response in oral epithelial cells, which may play a role in carcinogenesis. This review focuses on the role of polymicrobial interactions between C albicans and other oral microorganisms, including its role in promoting oral carcinogenesis.
ItemFeasibility and development of a cariogenic diet scale for epidemiological researchAmezdroz, E ; Carpenter, L ; Johnson, S ; Flood, V ; Dashper, SG ; Calache, H ; Gussy, M ; Waters, E (WILEY, 2019-05-01)BACKGROUND: Diet cariogenicity plays a major role as both a protective and risk factor in the development of early childhood caries (ECC). AIM: Develop a scale measuring the cariogenicity of foods and beverages and employ it to describe the cariogenicity of young children's diets and predict dental caries outcomes. DESIGN: Scores of cariogenicity and consumption frequency were applied to food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) collected from an Australian children's cohort study with three time-points of data. One-way ANOVA, with post hoc Tukey test compared mean cariogenic scale measured at 18 months between the subsample of children with caries classification at age 5 years. RESULTS: At 6 months, children's mean cariogenic score was 10.05, increasing to 34.18 at 12 and 50.00 at 18 months. Mean cariogenic scale score at 18 months was significantly higher in children with advanced disease at 5 years (mean scale score: 59.0 ± 15.9) compared to those that were healthy (mean score 47.7 ± 17.5, P = 0.007) or had mild-moderate disease (mean score 48.2 ± 17.3, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The cariogenic diet scale provides a useful indication of the increasing cariogenicity of children's diets with age and highlights the incorporation of discretionary choice foods and beverages into the diets of young children much earlier than nutritionally recommended.
ItemIncorporation of the microencapsulated antimicrobial agent phytoncide into denture base resinAn, S ; Judge, RB ; Wong, RH ; Arzmi, MH ; Palamara, JE ; Dashper, SG (WILEY, 2018-09-01)BACKGROUND: This study aimed to fabricate a denture base resin (DBR) containing phytoncide microcapsules (PTMCs) and determine the mechanical properties of the resin and antifungal activity. METHODS: Fifty-four heat-cured rectangular DBR specimens (64 × 10 × 3.3 ± 0.2 mm) containing nine concentrations of PTMC between 0 and 5% (wt/wt) were fabricated and subjected to a three-point bending test. A phytoncide release bioassay was developed using DBR containing 0% and 2.5% PTMCs (wt/wt) in a 24 well-plate assay with incubation of Porphyromonas gingivalis at 37 °C for 74 h. The antifungal activity of PTMCs against Candida albicans, in a pH 5.5 acidic environment was determined in a plate assay. RESULTS: Flexural strength decreased with increasing PTMC concentration from 97.58 ± 4.79 MPa for the DBR alone to 53.66 ± 2.46 MPa for DBR containing 5.0% PTMC. No release of phytoncide from the PTMCs in the DBR was detected at pH 7.4. The PTMCs had a minimal inhibitory concentration of 2.6% (wt/vol) against C. albicans at pH 5.5. CONCLUSIONS: PTMCs can be added to DBR 2.5% (wt/wt) without adversely affecting flexural strength. PTMCs released the antimicrobial agent at pH 5.5 at concentrations sufficient to inhibit the growth of the C. albicans.
ItemNatural history of dental caries in very young Australian childrenGussy, M ; Ashbolt, R ; Carpenter, L ; Virgo-Milton, M ; Calache, H ; Dashper, S ; Leong, P ; de Silva, A ; de Livera, A ; Simpson, J ; Waters, E (WILEY, 2016-05-01)BACKGROUND: Whilst the global burden of caries is increasing, the trajectory of decay in young children and the point at which prevention should occur has not been well established. AIM: To identify the 'natural history' of dental caries in early childhood. DESIGN: A birth cohort study was established with 467 mother/child dyads followed at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 36 months of age. Parent-completed surveys captured demographic, social, and behavioural data, and oral examinations provided clinical and data. RESULTS: Eight per cent of children (95% confidence interval (CI): 5-12%) at 18 months and 23% (95% CI: 18-28%) at 36 months experienced decay. Interesting lesion behaviour was found between 18 and 36 months, with rapid development of new lesions on sound teeth (70% of teeth, 95% CI: 63-76%) and regression of many lesions from non-cavitated lesions to sound (23% of teeth, 95% CI: 17-30%). Significant associations were found between soft drink consumption and lesion progression. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest optimal time periods for screening and prevention of a disease which significantly impacts multiple health and well-being outcomes across the life course.
ItemTemporal development of the oral microbiome and prediction of early childhood cariesDashper, SG ; Mitchell, HL ; Le Cao, K-A ; Carpenter, L ; Gussy, MG ; Calache, H ; Gladman, SL ; Bulach, DM ; Hoffmann, B ; Catmull, D ; Pruilh, S ; Johnson, S ; Gibbs, L ; Amezdroz, E ; Bhatnagar, U ; Seemann, T ; Mnatzaganian, G ; Manton, DJ ; Reynolds, EC (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-12-24)Human microbiomes are predicted to assemble in a reproducible and ordered manner yet there is limited knowledge on the development of the complex bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome plays major roles in many oral diseases including early childhood caries (ECC), which afflicts up to 70% of children in some countries. Saliva contains oral bacteria that are indicative of the whole oral microbiome and may have the ability to reflect the dysbiosis in supragingival plaque communities that initiates the clinical manifestations of ECC. The aim of this study was to determine the assembly of the oral microbiome during the first four years of life and compare it with the clinical development of ECC. The oral microbiomes of 134 children enrolled in a birth cohort study were determined at six ages between two months and four years-of-age and their mother's oral microbiome was determined at a single time point. We identified and quantified 356 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S RNA genes. Bacterial alpha diversity increased from a mean of 31 OTUs in the saliva of infants at 1.9 months-of-age to 84 OTUs at 39 months-of-age. The oral microbiome showed a distinct shift in composition as the children matured. The microbiome data were compared with the clinical development of ECC in the cohort at 39, 48, and 60 months-of-age as determined by ICDAS-II assessment. Streptococcus mutans was the most discriminatory oral bacterial species between health and current disease, with an increased abundance in disease. Overall our study demonstrates an ordered temporal development of the oral microbiome, describes a limited core oral microbiome and indicates that saliva testing of infants may help predict ECC risk.
ItemThe Role of Treponema denticola Motility in Synergistic Biofilm Formation With Porphyromonas gingivalisNg, HM ; Slakeski, N ; Butler, CA ; Veith, PD ; Chen, Y-Y ; Liu, SW ; Hoffmann, B ; Dashper, SG ; Reynolds, EC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-12-18)Chronic periodontitis has a polymicrobial biofilm etiology and interactions between key oral bacterial species, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola contribute to disease progression. P. gingivalis and T. denticola are co-localized in subgingival plaque and have been previously shown to exhibit strong synergy in growth, biofilm formation and virulence in an animal model of disease. The motility of T. denticola, although not considered as a classic virulence factor, may be involved in synergistic biofilm development between P. gingivalis and T. denticola. We determined the role of T. denticola motility in polymicrobial biofilm development using an optimized transformation protocol to produce two T. denticola mutants targeting the motility machinery. These deletion mutants were non-motile and lacked the gene encoding the flagellar hook protein of the periplasmic flagella (ΔflgE) or a component of the stator motor that drives the flagella (ΔmotB). The specificity of these gene deletions was determined by whole genome sequencing. Quantitative proteomic analyses of mutant strains revealed that the specific inactivation of the motility-associated gene, motB, had effects beyond motility. There were 64 and 326 proteins that changed in abundance in the ΔflgE and ΔmotB mutants, respectively. In the ΔflgE mutant, motility-associated proteins showed the most significant change in abundance confirming the phenotype change for the mutant was related to motility. However, the inactivation of motB as well as stopping motility also upregulated cellular stress responses in the mutant indicating pleiotropic effects of the mutation. T. denticola wild-type and P. gingivalis displayed synergistic biofilm development with a 2-fold higher biomass of the dual-species biofilms than the sum of the monospecies biofilms. Inactivation of T. denticola flgE and motB reduced this synergy. A 5-fold reduction in dual-species biofilm biomass was found with the motility-specific ΔflgE mutant suggesting that T. denticola periplasmic flagella are essential in synergistic biofilm formation with P. gingivalis.
ItemGenomic, morphological and functional characterisation of novel bacteriophage FNU1 capable of disrupting Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilmsKabwe, M ; Brown, TL ; Dashper, S ; Speirs, L ; Ku, H ; Petrovski, S ; Chan, HT ; Lock, P ; Tucci, J (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-06-24)Fusobacterium nucleatum is an important oral bacterium that has been linked to the development of chronic diseases such as periodontitis and colorectal cancer. In periodontal disease, F. nucleatum forms the backbone of the polymicrobial biofilm and in colorectal cancer is implicated in aetiology, metastasis and chemotherapy resistance. The control of this bacteria may be important in assisting treatment of these diseases. With increased rates of antibiotic resistance globally, there is need for development of alternatives such as bacteriophages, which may complement existing therapies. Here we describe the morphology, genomics and functional characteristics of FNU1, a novel bacteriophage lytic against F. nucleatum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed FNU1 to be a large Siphoviridae virus with capsid diameter of 88 nm and tail of approximately 310 nm in length. Its genome was 130914 bp, with six tRNAs, and 8% of its ORFs encoding putative defence genes. FNU1 was able to kill cells within and significantly reduce F. nucleatum biofilm mass. The identification and characterisation of this bacteriophage will enable new possibilities for the treatment and prevention of F. nucleatum associated diseases to be explored.
ItemBacterial membrane vesicles transport their DNA cargo into host cellsBitto, NJ ; Chapman, R ; Pidot, S ; Costin, A ; Lo, C ; Choi, J ; D'Cruze, T ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG ; Turnbull, L ; Whitchurch, CB ; Stinear, TP ; Stacey, KJ ; Ferrero, RL (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-08-01)Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellular sacs containing biologically active products, such as proteins, cell wall components and toxins. OMVs are reported to contain DNA, however, little is known about the nature of this DNA, nor whether it can be transported into host cells. Our work demonstrates that chromosomal DNA is packaged into OMVs shed by bacteria during exponential phase. Most of this DNA was present on the external surfaces of OMVs, with smaller amounts located internally. The DNA within the internal compartments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa OMVs were consistently enriched in specific regions of the bacterial chromosome, encoding proteins involved in virulence, stress response, antibiotic resistance and metabolism. Furthermore, we demonstrated that OMVs carry DNA into eukaryotic cells, and this DNA was detectable by PCR in the nuclear fraction of cells. These findings suggest a role for OMV-associated DNA in bacterial-host cell interactions and have implications for OMV-based vaccines.
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