Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Celogentin mimetics as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization
    Thombare, VJ ; Holden, JA ; Reynolds, EC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Hutton, CA (WILEY, 2019-12-17)
    Bicyclic analogues of celogentin C have been synthesized in which the side chain-side chain cross-links are replaced by thioether bonds. Several of the simplified bicyclic peptides displayed potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Architectural Effects of Star-Shaped "Structurally Nanoengineered Antimicrobial Peptide Polymers" (SNAPPs) on Their Biological Activity
    Shirbin, SJ ; Insua, I ; Holden, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Reynolds, EC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Qiao, GG (WILEY, 2018-11-01)
    In this work, the effect of two key structural parameters, number of arms and arm length, of star-shaped "structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers" (SNAPPs) on their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, is investigated. A library of star-shaped SNAPPs is prepared, containing varying arm numbers and arm lengths. Antimicrobial assays are then performed to assess the capacity of the SNAPPs to disrupt the membrane, inhibit the growth, and kill pathogenic bacteria. A major finding of the study is that increasing arm number and length of SNAPPs enhanced antimicrobial activity, which can be respectively attributed to the higher local concentrations of polypeptide arms and increased α-helical content. SNAPP architecture is shown to affect the bacteria membrane state and therefore mechanism of killing. Two more potent structures with up to twice the antimicrobial activity of the previously reported SNAPP are discovered in this process. Toxicities of the SNAPPs also increase with arm number and arm length, however therapeutic index calculations identified a 16-arm SNAPP and an easier to prepare 4-arm SNAPP as the best therapeutic agents. The biocompatibility of the SNAPP with the best biological activity is also evaluated in vivo, showing no markers of systemic damage in mice.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Biocompatibility and Osteogenic/Calcification Potential of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Fluoride
    Dawood, AE ; Manton, DJ ; Parashos, P ; Wong, RH ; Singleton, W ; Holden, JA ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Reynolds, EC (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018-03-01)
    INTRODUCTION: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and CPP-ACP with fluoride (CPP-ACFP) have been shown to provide bioavailable ions to promote mineralization. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the materials' biocompatibility and osteogenic/calcification potential for endodontic applications. METHODS: Human and mouse osteoblast-like and fibroblast-like cell lines were incubated with 0.05%-3.0% w/v CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, and toxicity, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-6 production, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin production, and mineralization/calcification were determined. RESULTS: CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP were non-toxic and had no significant effect on proliferation or production of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1α. Alkaline phosphatase activity of the osteoblast-like cells was significantly increased (P < .05) by CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, as was the production of the osteotropic cytokine IL-6, the formation of calcium mineral deposits, and the secretion of mineralization-related proteins (collagen type I and osteocalcin). CONCLUSIONS: CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP are biocompatible and have the potential to induce osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization. Potential applications include apexification, perforation repair, vital pulp therapy, and regenerative endodontic procedures.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Outer Membrane Vesicles Prime and Activate Macrophage Inflammasomes and Cytokine Secretion In Vitro and In Vivo
    Cecil, JD ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Lenzo, JC ; Holden, JA ; Singleton, W ; Perez-Gonzalez, A ; Mansell, A ; Reynolds, EC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-08-25)
    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposomes blebbed from the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Chronic periodontitis is associated with an increase in subgingival plaque of Gram-negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. In this study, we investigated the immune-modulatory effects of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia OMVs on monocytes and differentiated macrophages. All of the bacterial OMVs were phagocytosed by monocytes, M(naïve) and M(IFNγ) macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. They also induced NF-κB activation and increased TNFα, IL-8, and IL-1β cytokine secretion. P. gingivalis OMVs were also found to induce anti-inflammatory IL-10 secretion. Although unprimed monocytes and macrophages were resistant to OMV-induced cell death, lipopolysaccharide or OMV priming resulted in a significantly reduced cell viability. P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia OMVs all activated inflammasome complexes, as monitored by IL-1β secretion and ASC speck formation. ASC was critical for OMV-induced inflammasome formation, while AIM2-/- and Caspase-1-/- cells had significantly reduced inflammasome formation and NLRP3-/- cells exhibited a slight reduction. OMVs were also found to provide both priming and activation of the inflammasome complex. High-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry showed that P. gingivalis OMVs primed and activated macrophage inflammasomes in vivo with 80% of macrophages exhibiting inflammasome complex formation. In conclusion, periodontal pathogen OMVs were found to have significant immunomodulatory effects upon monocytes and macrophages and should therefore influence pro-inflammatory host responses associated with disease.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Porphyromonas gulae Activates Unprimed and Gamma Interferon-Primed Macrophages via the Pattern Recognition Receptors Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and NOD2
    Holden, JA ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Lenzo, JC ; Orth, RKH ; Mansell, A ; Reynolds, EC ; McCormick, B (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2017-09-01)
    Porphyromonas gulae is an anaerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus that has been associated with periodontal disease in companion animals. The aims of this study were to analyze the ligation of pattern recognition receptors by P. gulae and the subsequent activation of macrophages. Exposure of HEK cells transfected with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or NOD-like receptors to P. gulae resulted in the ligation of TLR2, TLR4, and NOD2. The effects of this engagement of receptors were investigated by measuring the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), CD86 expression, and inflammatory cytokine production by wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- macrophages. The addition of P. gulae to unprimed and gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-primed (M1 phenotype) macrophages significantly increased the surface expression of CD86, but only M1 macrophages produced nitric oxide. P. gulae-induced expression of CD86 on unprimed macrophages was dependent on both TLR2 and TLR4, but CD86 expression and NO production in M1 macrophages were only TLR2 dependent. P. gulae induced an increase in secretion of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) by M1 macrophages compared to that by unprimed controls. Among these cytokines, secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α by M1 macrophages was dependent on either TLR2 or TLR4. Our data indicate that TLR2 and TLR4 are important for P. gulae activation of unprimed macrophages and that activation and effector functions induced in M1 macrophages by P. gulae are mainly dependent on TLR2. In conclusion, P. gulae induces a strong TLR2-dependent inflammatory M1 macrophage response which may be important in establishing the chronic inflammation associated with periodontal disease in companion animals.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Unprimed, M1 and M2 Macrophages Differentially Interact with Porphyromonas gingivalis
    Lam, RS ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Holden, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Fong, SB ; Reynolds, EC ; Yilmaz, Ö (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016-07-06)
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. Tissue macrophages are amongst the first immune cells to respond to bacteria and depending on the cytokine profile at the infection site, macrophages are primed to react to infection in different ways. Priming of naive macrophages with IFN-γ produces a classical pro-inflammatory, antibacterial M1 macrophage after TLR ligation, whereas priming with IL-4 induces an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair M2 phenotype. Previous work has shown that M1 are preferentially generated in gingival tissue following infection with P. gingivalis. However, few studies have investigated the interactions of macrophage subsets with P. gingivalis cells. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of naive, M1 and M2 macrophages to phagocytose P. gingivalis and investigate how this interaction affects both the bacterial cell and the macrophage. M1 and M2 macrophages were both found to have enhanced phagocytic capacity compared with that of naive macrophages, however only the naive and M1 macrophages were able to produce a respiratory burst in order to clear the bacteria from the phagosome. P. gingivalis was found to persist in naive and M2, but not M1 macrophages for 24 hours. Phagocytosis of P. gingivalis also induced high levels of TNF-α, IL-12 and iNOS in M1 macrophages, but not in naive or M2 macrophages. Furthermore, infection of macrophages with P. gingivalis at high bacteria to macrophage ratios, while inducing an inflammatory response, was also found to be deleterious to macrophage longevity, with high levels of apoptotic cell death found in macrophages after infection. The activation of M1 macrophages observed in this study may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of a pro-inflammatory state during chronic periodontitis.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    A therapeutic Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain vaccine induces neutralising IgG1 antibodies that protect against experimental periodontitis
    O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Holden, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Tan, Y ; Brammar, GC ; Walsh, KA ; Singleton, W ; Orth, RKH ; Slakeski, N ; Cross, KJ ; Darby, IB ; Becher, D ; Rowe, T ; Morelli, AB ; Hammet, A ; Nash, A ; Brown, A ; Ma, B ; Vingadassalom, D ; McCluskey, J ; Kleanthous, H ; Reynolds, EC (SPRINGERNATURE, 2016-12-01)
    Porphyromonas gingivalis infected mice with an established P. gingivalis-specific inflammatory immune response were protected from developing alveolar bone resorption by therapeutic vaccination with a chimera (KAS2-A1) immunogen targeting the major virulence factors of the bacterium, the gingipain proteinases. Protection was characterised by an antigen-specific IgG1 isotype antibody and Th2 cell response. Adoptive transfer of KAS2-A1-specific IgG1 or IgG2 expressing B cells confirmed that IgG1-mediated protection. Furthermore, parenteral or intraoral administration of KAS2-A1-specific polyclonal antibodies protected against the development of P. gingivalis-induced bone resorption. The KAS2-A1-specific antibodies neutralised the gingipains by inhibiting: proteolytic activity, binding to host cells/proteins and co-aggregation with other periodontal bacteria. Combining key gingipain sequences into a chimera vaccine produced an effective therapeutic intervention that protected against P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tannerella forsythia Outer Membrane Vesicles Are Enriched with Substrates of the Type IX Secretion System and TonB-Dependent Receptors
    Veith, PD ; Chen, Y-Y ; Chen, D ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Cecil, JD ; Holden, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Reynolds, EC (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2015-12-01)
    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative oral bacterium closely associated with chronic periodontitis, naturally produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In this study, OMVs were purified by gradient centrifugation, and the proteome was investigated together with cellular fractions using LC-MS/MS analyses of SDS-PAGE fractions, resulting in the identification of 872 proteins including 297 OMV proteins. Comparison of the OMV proteome with the subcellular proteomes led to the localization of 173 proteins to the vesicle membrane and 61 proteins to the vesicle lumen, while 27 substrates of the type IX secretion system were assigned to the vesicle surface. These substrates were generally enriched in OMVs; however, the stoichiometry of the S-layer proteins, TfsA and TfsB, was significantly altered, potentially to accommodate the higher curvature required of the S-layer around OMVs. A vast number of TonB-dependent receptors related to SusC, together with their associated SusD-like lipoproteins, were identified, and these were also relatively enriched in OMVs. In contrast, other lipoproteins were significantly depleted from the OMVs. This study identified the highest number of membrane-associated OMV proteins to date in any bacterium and conclusively demonstrates cargo sorting of particular classes of proteins, which may have significant impact on the virulence of OMVs.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Determination of Active Phagocytosis of Unopsonized Porphyromonas gingivalis by Macrophages and Neutrophils Using the pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Dye pHrodo
    Lenzo, JC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Cecil, J ; Holden, JA ; Reynolds, EC ; McCormick, BA (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2016-06-01)
    Phagocytosis of pathogens is an important component of the innate immune system that is responsible for the removal and degradation of bacteria as well as their presentation via the major histocompatibility complexes to the adaptive immune system. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis exhibits strain heterogeneity, which may affect a phagocyte's ability to recognize and phagocytose the bacterium. In addition, P. gingivalis is reported to avoid phagocytosis by antibody and complement degradation and by invading phagocytic cells. Previous studies examining phagocytosis have been confounded by both the techniques employed and the potential of the bacteria to invade the cells. In this study, we used a novel, pH-sensitive dye, pHrodo, to label live P. gingivalis strains and examine unopsonized phagocytosis by murine macrophages and neutrophils and human monocytic cells. All host cells examined were able to recognize and phagocytose unopsonized P. gingivalis strains. Macrophages had a preference to phagocytose P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 over other strains and clinical isolates in the study, whereas neutrophils favored P. gingivalis W50, ATCC 33277, and one clinical isolate over the other strains. This study revealed that all P. gingivalis strains were capable of being phagocytosed without prior opsonization with antibody or complement.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    GM-CSF and uPA are required for Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis model
    Lam, RS ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Hamilton, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Holden, JA ; Brammar, GC ; Orth, RK ; Tan, Y ; Walsh, KA ; Fleetwood, AJ ; Reynolds, EC (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-09-01)
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) can contribute to the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases with possible involvement of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of both GM-CSF and uPA in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced experimental periodontitis using GM-CSF-/- and uPA-/- mice. Intra-oral inoculation of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis resulted in establishment of the pathogen in plaque and a significant increase in alveolar bone resorption. The infected mice also exhibited a CD11b(+) CD86(+) macrophage infiltrate into the gingival tissue, as well as P. gingivalis-specific pro-inflammatory cytokine and predominantly IgG2b antibody responses. In comparison, intra-oral inoculation of P. gingivalis did not induce bone resorption and there was significantly less P. gingivalis recovered from plaque in GM-CSF-/- and uPA-/- mice. Furthermore, P. gingivalis did not induce a macrophage gingival infiltrate or activate isolated peritoneal macrophages from the gene-deficient mice. Pro-inflammatory P. gingivalis-specific T-cell cytokine responses and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in GM-CSF-/- mice. In uPA-/- mice, T-cell responses were lower but serum IFN-γ and IgG2b levels were comparable with WT mice levels. These results suggest that GM-CSF and uPA are both involved in the progression of experimental periodontitis, possibly via a macrophage-dependent mechanism(s).