Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

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    Adolescent temperament dimensions as stable prospective risk and protective factors for salivary C-reactive protein
    Nelson, BW ; Byrne, ML ; Simmons, JG ; Whittle, S ; Schwartz, OS ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Walsh, KA ; Reynolds, EC ; Allen, NB (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    OBJECTIVE: Temperament has associations with later physical health outcomes, yet there is a dearth of research exploring the connection between temperament and mechanisms that have known associations with these health outcomes. Recent research has delineated a connection between personality and inflammation during adulthood, but this association has not yet been studied in adolescent samples. DESIGN: We investigated whether stable adolescent temperament (averaged over two years), specifically effortful control and negative emotionality, provided a more robust prediction of inflammation as measured by salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), than depressive symptoms. METHODS: Temperament and depressive symptoms were measured in a sample of sixty-three adolescents (37 males) when they were approximately 12 years old (mean age = 12.30, SD = 0.69) and again when they were approximately 14 years old (mean age = 14.84, SD = 0.49). Levels of sCRP were determined approximately 7 months later (mean = 6.77, SD = 2.99) when participants were approximately 15 years old (mean age = 15.49, SD = 0.49). RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that effortful control (EC) was significantly associated with lower sCRP levels, while higher negative emotionality (NE) was significantly associated with higher sCRP levels. Furthermore, these associations were larger than those for depressive symptoms and were differentially impacted by the addition of covariates. Implications for the role of stable risk and protective factors in inflammatory processes are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are the first to show associations between adolescent temperament and inflammation. Furthermore, these findings extend previous personality research to temperamental research in a younger sample of adolescents. Statement of contribution What is already known? There is a large extant literature on the association between depressive symptoms and inflammation. There is a smaller extant literature on the association between personality and inflammation. No studies have examined how adolescent temperament traits may relate to inflammation. What does this study add? Longitudinal data collection over the course of 3 years in an adolescent sample. Addresses the question of whether temperament factors relate to inflammation. Temperament provides a more robust predictor of later inflammation than depressive symptoms.
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    C-Terminal Modification and Multimerization Increase the Efficacy of a Proline-Rich Antimicrobial Peptide
    Li, W ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Yao, S ; Tailhades, J ; Reynolds, EC ; Dawson, RM ; Otvos, L ; Hossain, MA ; Separovic, F ; Wade, JD (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017-01-05)
    Two series of branched tetramers of the proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), Chex1-Arg20, were prepared to improve antibacterial selectivity and potency against a panel of Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. First, tetramerization was achieved by dithiomaleimide (DTM) conjugation of two C-terminal-cysteine bearing dimers that also incorporated C-terminal peptide chemical modification. DTM-linked tetrameric peptides containing a C-terminal hydrazide moiety on each dimer exhibited highly potent activities in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.49-2.33 μm. A second series of tetrameric analogues with C-terminal hydrazide modification was prepared by using alternative conjugation linkers including trans-1,4-dibromo-2-butene, α,α'-dibromo-p-xylene, or 6-bismaleimidohexane to determine the effect of length on activity. Each displayed potent and broadened activity against Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, particularly the butene-linked tetrameric hydrazide. Remarkably, the greatest MIC activity is against P. aeruginosa (0.77 μm/8 μg mL-1 ) where the monomer is inactive. None of these peptides showed any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells up to 25 times the MIC. A diffusion NMR study of the tetrameric hydrazides showed that the more active antibacterial analogues were those with a more compact structure having smaller hydrodynamic radii. The results show that C-terminal PrAMP hydrazidation together with its rational tetramerization is an effective means for increasing both diversity and potency of PrAMP action.
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    Candida virulence and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production in oral cancer and non-cancer subjects
    Alnuaimi, AD ; Ramdzan, AN ; Wiesenfeld, D ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Kolev, SD ; Reynolds, EC ; McCullough, MJ (WILEY, 2016-11-01)
    OBJECTIVES: To compare biofilm-forming ability, hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production of oral Candida isolated from the patients with oral cancer and matched non-oral cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fungal biofilms were grown in RPMI-1640 medium, and biofilm mass and biofilm activity were assessed using crystal violet staining and XTT salt reduction assays, respectively. Phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase production were measured using agar plate method, while fungal acetaldehyde production was assessed via gas chromatography. RESULTS: Candida isolated from patients with oral cancer demonstrated significantly higher biofilm mass (P = 0.031), biofilm metabolic activity (P < 0.001), phospholipase (P = 0.002), and proteinase (P = 0.0159) activity than isolates from patients with non-oral cancer. High ethanol-derived acetaldehyde-producing Candida were more prevalent in patients with oral cancer than non-oral cancer (P = 0.01). In univariate regression analysis, high biofilm mass (P = 0.03) and biofilm metabolic activity (P < 0.001), high phospholipase (P = 0.003), and acetaldehyde production ability (0.01) were significant risk factors for oral cancer; while in the multivariate regression analysis, high biofilm activity (0.01) and phospholipase (P = 0.01) were significantly positive influencing factors on oral cancer. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a significant positive association between the ability of Candida isolates to form biofilms, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde with their ability to promote oral cancer development.
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    Celogentin mimetics as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization
    Thombare, VJ ; Holden, JA ; Reynolds, EC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Hutton, CA (WILEY, 2019-12-17)
    Bicyclic analogues of celogentin C have been synthesized in which the side chain-side chain cross-links are replaced by thioether bonds. Several of the simplified bicyclic peptides displayed potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization.
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    Architectural Effects of Star-Shaped "Structurally Nanoengineered Antimicrobial Peptide Polymers" (SNAPPs) on Their Biological Activity
    Shirbin, SJ ; Insua, I ; Holden, JA ; Lenzo, JC ; Reynolds, EC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Qiao, GG (WILEY, 2018-11-01)
    In this work, the effect of two key structural parameters, number of arms and arm length, of star-shaped "structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers" (SNAPPs) on their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility, is investigated. A library of star-shaped SNAPPs is prepared, containing varying arm numbers and arm lengths. Antimicrobial assays are then performed to assess the capacity of the SNAPPs to disrupt the membrane, inhibit the growth, and kill pathogenic bacteria. A major finding of the study is that increasing arm number and length of SNAPPs enhanced antimicrobial activity, which can be respectively attributed to the higher local concentrations of polypeptide arms and increased α-helical content. SNAPP architecture is shown to affect the bacteria membrane state and therefore mechanism of killing. Two more potent structures with up to twice the antimicrobial activity of the previously reported SNAPP are discovered in this process. Toxicities of the SNAPPs also increase with arm number and arm length, however therapeutic index calculations identified a 16-arm SNAPP and an easier to prepare 4-arm SNAPP as the best therapeutic agents. The biocompatibility of the SNAPP with the best biological activity is also evaluated in vivo, showing no markers of systemic damage in mice.
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    Peripheral memory T-cell profile is modified in patients undergoing periodontal management
    Medara, N ; Lenzo, JC ; Walsh, KA ; Holden, JA ; Reynolds, EC ; Darby, IB ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM (WILEY, 2020-11-22)
    AIMS: T-cells are known to have a role in periodontitis, however, the effect of periodontal therapy on peripheral memory T-cells is unclear. This study evaluated variation in peripheral memory T-cells and red complex bacteria in sub-gingival plaque in patients undergoing periodontal management. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and sub-gingival plaque were collected from 54 periodontitis patients at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months post-therapy and 40 healthy controls. Periodontitis patients were divided into treatment outcome (TxO) groups based on prevalence of sites with probing depth ≥5 mm as good (<10% of sites), moderate (10-20%) or poor (>20%) at study conclusion. Naïve (TN -CCR7+ CD45RA+ ), central memory (TCM -CCR7+ CD45RA- ), effector memory (TEM -CCR7- CD45RA- ) and effector memory T-cells re-expressing CD45RA (TEMRA -CCR7- CD45RA+ ) were phenotyped using flow cytometry in CD4+ , CD8+ , CD4+ CD8+ and CD4- CD8- T-cells and red complex bacteria were quantified using qPCR. RESULTS: At baseline, periodontitis subjects had significantly greater mean probing depths and Porphyromonas gingivalis proportions, lower TN but higher CD4+ TCM , CD8+ TCM , CD4+ CD8+ TEM and CD4- CD8- TEM cell proportions compared to health. Periodontal therapy decreased mean probing depths, P. gingivalis proportions, TEM and CD4+ and CD8+ TCM cells, but increased TN and CD4+ and CD8+ TEMRA cells. The T-cell profile in the good TxO group showed therapy-related changes in CD4+ TEM , and CD8+ TN and TEM cells, whereas, no changes were observed in the poor TxO group. CONCLUSION: Management and the reduction in red complex bacteria were associated with changes in peripheral memory T-cells in periodontitis.
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    Peripheral T helper cell profiles during management of periodontitis
    Medara, N ; Lenzo, JC ; Walsh, KA ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Reynolds, EC ; Darby, IB (WILEY, 2020-11-12)
    AIM: Periodontitis has been associated with other systemic diseases with underlying inflammation responsible for the shared link. This study evaluated longitudinal variation in peripheral T helper cells in periodontitis patients undergoing management over 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodontal parameters and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 54 periodontitis patients at baseline, and 3-, 6- and 12-months post-treatment and 40 healthy controls. IFN-γ+ , IL-4+ , IL-17+ and Foxp3+ and their double-positive expression were identified in CD4+ and TCRαβ+ cells using flow cytometry. PBMCs were incubated with P. gingivalis, and IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and IL-10 in cell supernatant were measured by ELISA. Cells and cytokines were also assessed based on clinical response to treatment where good (<10% of sites), moderate (10-20%) and poor (>20%) treatment outcome (TxO) groups had probing depths of ≥5 mm at study conclusion. RESULTS: IFN-γ+ cells were lower at baseline, and 3- and 6-months compared to health, whereas Foxp3+ cells were increased at 12-months compared to all preceding timepoints and health. The good TxO group showed treatment-related variation in IFN-γ+ and Foxp3+ cells, whereas the poor TxO group did not. IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokine expression in cell supernatants was significantly lower at baseline compared to health, and IFN-γ and IL-10 showed treatment-related decrease. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFN-γ+ and Foxp3+ cells may have a role in the systemic compartment in periodontitis. Periodontal management has local and systemic effects, and thus, assessment and management of periodontitis should form an integral part of overall systemic health.
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    Peripheral neutrophil phenotypes during management of periodontitis
    Medara, N ; Lenzo, JC ; Walsh, KA ; Reynolds, EC ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Darby, IB (WILEY, 2020-08-17)
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neutrophils are emerging as a key player in periodontal pathogenesis. The surface expression of cellular markers enables functional phenotyping of neutrophils which have distinct roles in disease states. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of periodontal management on neutrophil phenotypes in peripheral blood in periodontitis patients over one year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood and the periodontal parameters, mean probing depth and percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (%BOP), were collected from 40 healthy controls and 54 periodontitis patients at baseline and 3-, 6- and 12- months post-treatment. Flow cytometry was used to identify CD11b+ , CD16b+ , CD62L- and CD66b+ expression on neutrophils, neutrophil maturation stages as promyelocytes (CD11b- CD16b- ), metamyelocytes (CD11b+ CD16b- ) and mature neutrophils (CD11b+ CD16b+ ), and suppressive neutrophil phenotype as bands (CD16dim CD62Lbright ), normal neutrophils (CD16bright CD62Lbright ) and suppressive neutrophils (CD16bright CD62Ldim ). RESULTS: CD62L- expression decreased with treatment. No differences were observed in neutrophil maturation stages in health or disease upon treatment. Suppressive and normal neutrophils showed a reciprocal relationship, where suppressive neutrophils decreased with treatment and normal neutrophils increased with treatment. In addition, %BOP was associated with suppressive neutrophils. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that management of periodontitis significantly modifies distinct neutrophil phenotypes in peripheral blood. Suppressive neutrophils may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, their exact role is unclear and requires further investigation.
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    Identification of a periodontal pathogen and bihormonal cells in pancreatic islets of humans and a mouse model of periodontitis
    Ilievski, V ; Toth, PT ; Valyi-Nagy, K ; Valyi-Nagy, T ; Green, SJ ; Marattil, RS ; Aljewari, HW ; Wicksteed, B ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Reynolds, EC ; Layden, BT ; Unterman, TG ; Watanabe, K (NATURE RESEARCH, 2020-06-19)
    Results from epidemiological and prospective studies indicate a close association between periodontitis and diabetes. However the mechanisms by which periodontal pathogens influence the development of prediabetes/diabetes are not clear. We previously reported that oral administration of a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) to WT mice results in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance and that Pg translocates to the pancreas. In the current study, we determined the specific localization of Pg in relation to mouse and human pancreatic α- and β-cells using 3-D confocal and immunofluorescence microscopy and orthogonal analyses. Pg/gingipain is intra- or peri-nuclearly localized primarily in β-cells in experimental mice and also in human post-mortem pancreatic samples. We also identified bihormonal cells in experimental mice as well as human pancreatic samples. A low percentage of bihormonal cells has intracellular Pg in both humans and experimental mice. Our data show that the number of Pg translocated to the pancreas correlates with the number of bihormonal cells in both mice and humans. Our findings suggest that Pg/gingipain translocates to pancreas, particularly β-cells in both humans and mice, and this is strongly associated with emergence of bihormonal cells.
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    Selenium nanoparticles as anti-infective implant coatings for trauma orthopedics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis: in vitro and in vivo assessment
    Atran, P ; O'Brien-Simpson, N ; Palmer, JA ; Bock, N ; Reynolds, EC ; Webster, TJ ; Deva, A ; Morrison, WA ; O'Connor, AJ (Dove Medical Press, 2019-07-01)
    Background: Bacterial infection is a common and serious complication in orthopedic implants following traumatic injury, which is often associated with extensive soft tissue damage and contaminated wounds. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have been found in these infected wounds, especially in patients who have multi trauma and prolonged stay in intensive care units.Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop a coating on orthopedic implants that is effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Methods and results: We applied nanoparticles (30-70nm) of the trace element selenium (Se) as a coating through surface-induced nucleation-deposition on titanium implants and investigated the antimicrobial activity against drug resistant bacteria including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in vitro and in an infected femur model in rats.The nanoparticles were shown in vitro to have antimicrobial activity at concentrations as low as 0.5ppm. The nanoparticle coatings strongly inhibited biofilm formation on the implants and reduced the number of viable bacteria in the surrounding tissue following inoculation of implants with biofilm forming doses of bacteria. Conclusion: This study shows a proof of concept for a selenium nanoparticle coatings as a potential anti-infective barrier for orthopedic medical devices in the setting of contamination with multi-resistant bacteria. It also represents one of the few (if only) in vivo assessment of selenium nanoparticle coatings on reducing antibiotic-resistant orthopedic implant infections.