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ItemDivalent metal cations increase the activity of the antimicrobial peptide kappacinDashper, SG ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Cross, KJ ; Paolini, RA ; Hoffmann, B ; Catmull, DV ; Malkoski, M ; Reynolds, EC (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2005-06-01)Kappacin, nonglycosylated kappa-casein(106-169), is a novel antimicrobial peptide produced from kappa-casein found in bovine milk. There are two major genetic forms of kappacin, A and B, and using synthetic peptides corresponding to the active region, kappa-casein(138-158), of these forms, we have shown that the Asp148 to Ala148 substitution is responsible for the lesser antibacterial activity of kappa-casein-B(106-169). Kappacin was shown to have membranolytic action at concentrations above 30 microM at acidic pH when tested against artificial liposomes. There was little membranolytic activity at neutral pH, which is consistent with the lack of antibacterial activity of kappacin against Streptococcus mutans at this pH. Kappacin specifically bound two zinc or calcium ions per mol, and this binding enhanced antibacterial activity at neutral pH. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that a kappa-casein-A(138-158) synthetic peptide undergoes a conformational change in the presence of the membrane solvent trifluoroethanol and excess divalent metal ions. This change in conformation is presumably responsible for the increase in antibacterial activity of kappacin detected in the presence of excess zinc or calcium ions at neutral pH. When tested against the oral bacterial pathogen S. mutans cultured as a biofilm in a constant-depth film fermentor, a preparation of 10 g/liter kappacin and 20 mM ZnCl2 reduced bacterial viability by 3 log10 and suppressed recovery of viability. In contrast 20 mM ZnCl2 alone reduced bacterial viability by approximately 1 log10 followed by rapid recovery. In conclusion, kappacin has a membranolytic, antibacterial effect that is enhanced by the presence of divalent cations.
ItemAn immune response directed to proteinase and adhesin functional epitopes protects against Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontal bone lossO'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Pathirana, RD ; Paolini, RA ; Chen, YY ; Veith, PD ; Tam, V ; Ally, N ; Pike, RN ; Reynolds, EC (AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS, 2005-09-15)Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen associated with periodontitis, bound to fibrinogen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and collagen type V with a similar profile to that of its major virulence factor, the cell surface RgpA-Kgp proteinase-adhesin complex. Using peptide-specific, purified Abs in competitive inhibition ELISAs and epitope mapping assays, we have identified potential adhesin binding motifs (ABMs) of the RgpA-Kgp complex responsible for binding to host proteins. The RgpA-Kgp complex and synthetic ABM and proteinase active site peptides conjugated to diphtheria toxoid, when used as vaccines, protected against P. gingivalis-induced periodontal bone loss in the murine periodontitis model. The most efficacious peptide and protein vaccines were found to induce a high-titer IgG1 Ab response. Furthermore, mice protected in the lesion and periodontitis models had a predominant P. gingivalis-specific IL-4 response, whereas mice with disease had a predominant IFN-gamma response. The peptide-specific Abs directed to the ABM2 sequence (EGLATATTFEEDGVA) protected against periodontal bone loss and inhibited binding of the RgpA-Kgp complex to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and collagen type V. Furthermore, the peptide-specific Abs directed to the ABM3 sequence (GTPNPNPNPNPNPNPGT) protected against periodontal bone loss and inhibited binding to hemoglobin. However, the most protective Abs were those directed to the active sites of the RgpA and Kgp proteinases. The results suggest that when the RgpA-Kgp complex, or functional binding motif or active site peptides are used as a vaccine, they induce a Th2 response that blocks function of the RgpA-Kgp complex and protects against periodontal bone loss.
ItemA novel Porphyromonas gingivalis FeoB plays a role in manganese accumulationDashper, SG ; Butler, CA ; Lissel, JP ; Paolini, RA ; Hoffmann, B ; Veith, PD ; O'Brien-Simpson, NM ; Snelgrove, SL ; Tsiros, JT ; Reynolds, EC (AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2005-07-29)FeoB is an atypical transporter that has been shown to exclusively mediate ferrous ion transport in some bacteria. Unusually the genome of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has two genes (feoB1 and feoB2) encoding FeoB homologs, both of which are expressed in bicistronic operons. Kinetic analysis of ferrous ion transport by P. gingivalis W50 revealed the presence of a single, high affinity system with a K(t) of 0.31 microM. FeoB1 was found to be solely responsible for this transport as energized cells of the isogenic FeoB1 mutant (W50FB1) did not transport radiolabeled iron, while the isogenic FeoB2 mutant (W50FB2) transported radiolabeled iron at a rate similar to wild type. This was reflected in the iron content of W50FB1 grown in iron excess conditions which was approximately half that of the wild type and W50FB2. The W50FB1 mutant had increased sensitivity to both oxygen and hydrogen peroxide and was avirulent in an animal model of infection whereas W50FB2 exhibited the same virulence as the wild type. Analysis of manganous ion uptake using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry revealed a greater than 3-fold decrease in intracellular manganese accumulation in W50FB2 which was also unable to grow in manganese-limited media. The protein co-expressed with FeoB2 appears to be a novel FeoA-MntR fusion protein that exhibits homology to a manganese-responsive, DNA-binding metalloregulatory protein. These results indicate that FeoB2 is not involved in iron transport but plays a novel role in manganese transport.