Melbourne Dental School - Research Publications

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    Bilateral Distraction Osteogenesis of Vascularized Iliac Crest Free Flaps Used in Mandibular Reconstruction.
    Bobinskas, AM ; Subramaniam, SS ; Vujcich, NJ ; Nastri, AL (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2016-03)
    Vascularized free flaps have become the gold standard in reconstructing large segmental mandibular defects; however, even when bony union and soft-tissue coverage is achieved, insufficient bone stock and altered facial contour can create functional and cosmetic problems for the patient. There have been limited case reports on the use of secondary distraction osteogenesis to address these issues. The authors report a case of bilateral mandibular distraction of deep circumflex iliac artery free flaps, used for mandibular reconstruction after total mandibulectomy for treatment of osteosarcoma. Performed for reasons of retrognathia and facilitation of dental prosthetic rehabilitation, this is the first case of bilateral horizontal distraction osteogenesis of deep circumflex iliac artery free flaps reported in the literature.
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    Kimura's disease: an uncommon cause of head and neck masses with potentially serious sequelae
    Bobinskas, AM ; Chandu, A ; Nastri, AL (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2015-10-01)
    Kimura's disease (KD) typically presents as a mass in the head and neck region in association with eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE. Excisional biopsy is often required in order to obtain an adequate sample for histological diagnosis and exclude malignancy. If suspected, patients should also be investigated for renal involvement as this may complicate KD. Treatment options include surgical excision and medical therapies such as corticosteroids depending on the extent and severity of disease.
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    Support for the Microgenderome: Associations in a Human Clinical Population.
    Wallis, A ; Butt, H ; Ball, M ; Lewis, DP ; Bruck, D (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-01-13)
    The 'microgenderome' provides a paradigm shift that highlights the role of sex differences in the host-microbiota interaction relevant for autoimmune and neuro-immune conditions. Analysis of cross-sectional self-report and faecal microbial data from 274 patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) suggests that commensal gut microorganisms may play both protective and deleterious roles in symptom expression. Results revealed significant sex-specific interactions between Firmicutes (Clostridium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus) and ME/CFS symptoms (including neurological, immune and mood symptoms), regardless of compositional similarity in microbial levels across the sexes. Extending animal studies, we provide support for the microgenderome in a human clinical population. Applied and mechanistic research needs to consider sex-interactions when examining the composition and function of human microbiota.
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    Support for the microgenderome invites enquiry into sex differences.
    Wallis, A ; Butt, H ; Ball, M ; Lewis, DP ; Bruck, D (Informa UK Limited, 2017-01-02)
    The microgenderome defines the interaction between microbiota, sex hormones and the immune system. Our recent research inferred support for the microgenderome by showing sex differences in microbiota-symptom associations in a clinical sample of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This addendum expands upon the sex-specific pattern of associations that were observed. Interpretations are hypothesized in relation to genera versus species-level analyses and D-lactate theory. Evidence of sex-differences invites future research to consider sex comparisons in microbial function even when microbial abundance is statistically similar. Pairing assessment of clinical symptoms with microbial culture, DNA sequencing and metabolomics methods will help advance our current understandings of the role of the microbiome in health and disease.
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    Examining clinical similarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and D-lactic acidosis: a systematic review.
    Wallis, A ; Ball, M ; McKechnie, S ; Butt, H ; Lewis, DP ; Bruck, D (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-06-07)
    BACKGROUND: The pursuit for clarity in diagnostic and treatment pathways for the complex, chronic condition of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) continues. This systematic review raises a novel question to explore possible overlapping aetiology in two distinct conditions. Similar neurocognitive symptoms and evidence of D-lactate producing bacteria in ME/CFS raise questions about shared mechanisms with the acute condition of D-lactic acidosis (D-la). METHODS: D-la case reports published between 1965 and March 2016 were reviewed for episodes describing both neurological symptoms and high D-lactate levels. Fifty-nine D-la episodes were included in the qualitative synthesis comparing D-la symptoms with ME/CFS diagnostic criteria. A narrative review of D-la mechanisms and relevance for ME/CFS was provided. RESULTS: The majority of neurological disturbances reported in D-la episodes overlapped with ME/CFS symptoms. Of these, the most frequently reported D-la symptoms were motor disturbances that appear more prominent during severe presentations of ME/CFS. Both patient groups shared a history of gastrointestinal abnormalities and evidence of bacterial dysbiosis, although only preliminary evidence supported the role of lactate-producing bacteria in ME/CFS. LIMITATIONS: Interpretation of results are constrained by both the breadth of symptoms included in ME/CFS diagnostic criteria and the conservative methodology used for D-la symptom classification. Several pathophysiological mechanisms in ME/CFS were not examined. CONCLUSIONS: Shared symptomatology and underlying microbiota-gut-brain interactions raise the possibility of a continuum of acute (D-la) versus chronic (ME/CFS) presentations related to D-lactate absorption. Measurement of D-lactate in ME/CFS is needed to effectively evaluate whether subclinical D-lactate levels affect neurological symptoms in this clinical population.
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    Sleep quality and the treatment of intestinal microbiota imbalance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A pilot study.
    Jackson, ML ; Butt, H ; Ball, M ; Lewis, DP ; Bruck, D (GN1 Genesis Network, 2015-11)
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a multisystem illness, which may be associated with imbalances in gut microbiota. This study builds on recent evidence that sleep may be influenced by gut microbiota, by assessing whether changes to microbiota in a clinical population known to have both poor sleep and high rates of colonization with gram-positive faecal Streptococcus, can improve sleep. Twenty-one CFS participants completed a 22- day open label trial. Faecal microbiota analysis was performed at baseline and at the end of the trial. Participants were administered erythromycin 400 mg b.d. for 6 days. Actigraphy and questionnaires were used to monitor sleep, symptoms and mood. Changes in patients who showed a clinically significant change in faecal Streptococcus after treatment (responders; defined as post-therapy distribution<6%) were compared to participants who did not respond to treatment. In the seven responders, there was a significant increase in actigraphic total sleep time (p=0.028) from baseline to follow up, compared with non-responders. Improved vigour scores were associated with a lower Streptococcus count (ρ=-0.90, p=0.037). For both the responders and the whole group, poorer mood was associated with higher Lactobacillus. Short term antibiotic treatment appears to be insufficient to effect sustainable changes in the gut ecosystem in most CFS participants. Some improvement in objective sleep parameters and mood were found in participants with reduced levels of gram-positive gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment, which is encouraging. Further study of possible links between gut microorganisms and sleep and mood disturbances is warranted.
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    Taxonomy of Oral Bacteria
    Byrne, SJ ; Butler, CA ; Reynolds, EC ; Dashper, SG ; Gurtler, V ; Trevors, JT (ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, 2018-01-01)
    The oral cavity is a collection of diverse microenvironments, each inhabited by a community of microorganisms, the majority of which are bacteria and their phages. Given the appropriate conditions, some of these bacteria can cause destruction of the teeth or their supporting hard and soft tissues. For over 300 years microbiologists have been characterising these microbial communities, in both oral health and disease. In this chapter, we take the reader on a journey through time as we discuss the various methods that have been utilised in the characterisation of the bacteria calling the oral cavity home, and how the use of these methods has informed our understanding of oral bacterial communities and the diversity of their members.
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    Oral keratinocytes synthesize CTACK: A new insight into the pathophysiology of the oral mucosa
    Marshall, A ; Celentano, A ; Cirillo, N ; McCullough, M ; Porter, S (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    The skin-associated chemokine CTACK plays a key role in many inflammatory conditions and could be instrumental in the pathophysiology of tissue-specific immunological diseases such as oral lichen planus (OLP). In this study, we investigated, by RT-PCR, ELISA, chemotaxis assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), the production of CTACK in oral keratinocytes, its expression in tissues from normal and OLP patients, and its role in T-cell recruitment.CTACK was produced by the oral epithelium, and it affects chemotaxis of memory CLA+ cells to the oral epithelium. CTACK mRNA was expressed constitutively in primary oral epithelium and was increased during pro-inflammatory IFN-γ treatment. We found a constitutive production of CTACK at a protein level in oral primary cells that increased after IFN-γ treatment. Moreover, we confirmed that CTACK attracts memory T cells and those T cells that express CLA above the level of basal migration.
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    In vitro fracture strength and patterns in root-filled teeth restored with different base materials
    Chan, T ; Eren, SK ; Wong, R ; Parashos, P (WILEY, 2018-03-01)
    BACKGROUND: There is little research on the effects of an intermediate base on the fracture strength of root-filled teeth. This study compared the fracture strengths and patterns of root-filled teeth restored with intermediate bases of glass-ionomer cement (GIC), zinc polycarboxylate cement (ZPC), dual-cured resin composite (DCRC) and Biodentine® under resin composite. METHODS: Standardized cavities were prepared in 100 extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars, and root canal treatment was performed. The teeth were stratified and randomly allocated to five groups (n = 20): (i) GIC; (ii) ZPC; (iii) DCRC; (iv) Biodentine; and (v) prepared but unrestored (control). The teeth were subjected to an oblique, ramped load until fracture. The fracture loads, level, mode and location were recorded. RESULTS: Mean fracture strengths of all restored groups were not significantly different amongst the groups. There were significant overall effects on mean fracture strength for tooth type (P = 0.002) and buccolingual width of the crown (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The four materials were appropriate intermediate bases. The laminate restorative technique promoted fracture strengths that are likely to withstand normal and maximum masticatory function. The base material can influence failure mode, which may have implications for the clinical presentation of fractures of root-filled teeth.
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    What are the important outcomes in traumatic dental injuries? An international approach to the development of a core outcome set
    Kenny, KP ; Day, PF ; Sharif, MO ; Parashos, P ; Lauridsen, E ; Feldens, CA ; Cohenca, N ; Skapetis, T ; Levin, L ; Kenny, DJ ; Djemal, S ; Malmgren, O ; Chen, Y-J ; Tsukisboshi, M ; Andersson, L (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are numerous treatment options following traumatic dental injury (TDI). Systematic reviews of different treatments are challenging owing to the diversity of outcomes reported between clinical studies. This issue could be addressed through the development and implementation of a agreed and standardized collection of outcomes known as a core outcome set (COS). The aim of this study was to develop a COS for TDI in children and adults. The secondary aim was to establish what, how, when and by whom these outcomes should be measured. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The project was registered with Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET). A web-based survey was developed to capture the opinions of dentists globally as to which outcomes should be recorded. A list of outcomes was entered into a Delphi Survey and scored by an Expert Working Group (EWG). The scoring was repeated, followed by conference calls to discuss, refine and finalize the COS. The EWG split into small groups of subject-specific experts to determine how, when and by whom each outcome would be measured. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 1476 dentists. The EWG identified 13 core outcomes to be recorded for all TDI's. An additional 10 injury-specific outcomes were identified. A table has been produced for each outcome detailing what, when, and how each outcome should be recorded. CONCLUSIONS: A robust consensus process was used to develop an international COS for TDI in children and adults. This includes both generic and injury-specific outcomes across all identified domains.