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    Peri-implant diseases and conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 4 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.
    Berglundh, T ; Armitage, G ; Araujo, MG ; Avila-Ortiz, G ; Blanco, J ; Camargo, PM ; Chen, S ; Cochran, D ; Derks, J ; Figuero, E ; Hämmerle, CHF ; Heitz-Mayfield, LJA ; Huynh-Ba, G ; Iacono, V ; Koo, K-T ; Lambert, F ; McCauley, L ; Quirynen, M ; Renvert, S ; Salvi, GE ; Schwarz, F ; Tarnow, D ; Tomasi, C ; Wang, H-L ; Zitzmann, N (Wiley, 2018-06)
    A classification for peri-implant diseases and conditions was presented. Focused questions on the characteristics of peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis, and soft- and hard-tissue deficiencies were addressed. Peri-implant health is characterized by the absence of erythema, bleeding on probing, swelling, and suppuration. It is not possible to define a range of probing depths compatible with health; Peri-implant health can exist around implants with reduced bone support. The main clinical characteristic of peri-implant mucositis is bleeding on gentle probing. Erythema, swelling, and/or suppuration may also be present. An increase in probing depth is often observed in the presence of peri-implant mucositis due to swelling or decrease in probing resistance. There is strong evidence from animal and human experimental studies that plaque is the etiological factor for peri-implant mucositis. Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants, characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone. Peri-implantitis sites exhibit clinical signs of inflammation, bleeding on probing, and/or suppuration, increased probing depths and/or recession of the mucosal margin in addition to radiographic bone loss. The evidence is equivocal regarding the effect of keratinized mucosa on the long-term health of the peri-implant tissue. It appears, however, that keratinized mucosa may have advantages regarding patient comfort and ease of plaque removal. Case definitions in day-to-day clinical practice and in epidemiological or disease-surveillance studies for peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis were introduced. The proposed case definitions should be viewed within the context that there is no generic implant and that there are numerous implant designs with different surface characteristics, surgical and loading protocols. It is recommended that the clinician obtain baseline radiographic and probing measurements following the completion of the implant-supported prosthesis.
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    Rajan, S ; Wong, SWY ; Wong, XQ ; Vaithilingam, RD (Wiley, 2015-07)
    Background: Self-assessment based on benchmarked professional standards is an excellent tool to assist in improving the dental curriculum. Areas of strength and weaknesses can be identified. It can also act as a baseline standard when significant changes are introduced to the dental curriculum. Aim: The aims of this prospective cross-sectional study were two- folds: (i) to investigate self-assessed confidence of final year dental undergraduates in paediatric dentistry at University of Malaya, (ii) to gather baseline level of self-confidence for the old dental curriculum. Design: 65 undergraduates completed anonymised questionnaires which was formulated based on expected professional competen- cies in three domains namely clinical skills, patient management, and professional development and clinical governance. Visual analogue score (VAS) represented by a 10 cm line with score ‘0’ no confidence at all and ‘10’ complete confidence was used to mea- sure the level of confidence. Results: The overall analysis of self-assessed confidence was very positive with median VAS ≥5 cm in; clinical skills, 7.66 ` 1.31 cm (range = 2.41–9.97 cm: n = 62; 95.4%), patient management 7.73 ` 1.27 cm (range = 5.09–9.95 cm: n = 64; 100.0%) and professional development and clinical governance, 8.13 ` 1.21 cm (range = 5.22–10.00 cm: n = 64; 100.0%). High confidence was reported for routine dental care (fillings and pre- ventive care) while lower confidence reported for basic life sup- port (median VAS = 5.65 cm) and pulp therapy for immature permanent teeth (median VAS = 5.95 cm). Conclusions: The final year dental undergraduate students of Uni- versity of Malaya appear to have good overall self-assessed confi- dence in core areas in paediatric dentistry and similar areas of low confidence was reported by undergraduates at other dental schools.