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ItemEvaluation of aerosol representation by ACCESS-CM2 with increased aerosol-chemistry complexity in the Southern OceanWadlow, Imogen ( 2020)This thesis identifies the inherent biases of aerosol parameters within the next-generation Global Climate Model (GCM); the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator Coupled Model (ACCESS-CM2). GCMs poorly represent clouds and aerosols over the Southern Ocean, resulting in systematic shortwave (SW) radiation biases with widespread global energy budget impacts. This research determines whether a more complex, physically-representative aerosol-chemistry scheme may reduce the Southern Ocean radiation bias, and the inherent aerosol biases established within ACCESS-CM2. Southern Ocean aerosols are dominated by sea-salt and biogenic products. This study ran a control ACCESS-CM2 simulation and three perturbation simulations, which altered either the representation of Primary Marine Organic aerosols, sea-salt, or implemented a fully interactive chemistry scheme respectively. A suite of ground-based and satellite observations was collected and compared against each simulation to establish model bias respective to key aerosol metrics including Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Con- densation Nuclei (CCN) and SW radiation. Simulation biases were explained through model-observation comparisons of aerosol chemistry, size and number parameters. Overall, ACCESS-CM2 exhibited a substantial positive bias in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and SW radiation, and underestimated Cloud Condensation Nuclei concentration. This research suggests that increasing the complexity of aerosol schemes was able to provide a closer model agreement with observed aerosol metrics of AOD and CCN. Fully interactive chemistry provided the best reduction in both AOD and CCN bias. However, modified aerosol schemes have negligible effects upon the inherent SW radiation bias in ACCESS-CM2, suggesting further research into cloud schemes is necessary.
ItemAcid mine drainage at Rosebery Pb-Zn mine, TasmaniaHale, Cindy Therese ( 2001)Rosebery underground base metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ag, Au) sulphide mine in Tasmania, Australia has been in production for over 100 years. It is a massive sulphide deposit hosted in a fractured rock aquifer. It produces an average of 60L/sec of acidic waste water contaminated with Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg and sulphate. The study objectives were to firstly determine the water sources and flow pathways within the mine. Secondly, by chemical analysis and extensive pH and electrical conductivity testing, to determine the deterioration of water quality over time, within acid generating areas. Time was measured from the closing down of a production area (or the end of work) to sampling time. The oldest area measured ceased production thirty years ago. Testing of the objectives involved chemical sampling, stable isotope analysis, water flow measurements, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and extensive mapping of underground levels. The results confirmed the sources of water recharge, which included rainfall, a fault - bound creek, and high pressure sealed water bearing faults intersected by underground workings and drilling. Water flow pathways within the mine include extensive secondary permeability as a result of workings, fallen abandoned zones acting as water conduits; an extensive fault in the south linking the creek to underground workings, and fractures and surface workings channelling rainfall. Results also indicated a strong seasonal pattern to groundwater recharge at the southern end of the mine, due to an extensive, and previously undocumented fault system. The seasonal variation in rainfall correlated with discharge underground and to the total mine dewatering rates. Water quality was assessed as a function of pH and electrical conductivity. There was a strong correlation found between water quality deterioration and time. In sulphide zones, AMD generation occurred within two years. This relationship is an easily applied tool for the prediction of water quality deterioration in any other producing base metal mine.