Medicine (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 51
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Tests for genetic interactions in type 1 diabetes: linkage and stratification analyses of 4,422 affected sib-pairs.
    Morahan, G ; Mehta, M ; James, I ; Chen, W-M ; Akolkar, B ; Erlich, HA ; Hilner, JE ; Julier, C ; Nerup, J ; Nierras, C ; Pociot, F ; Todd, JA ; Rich, SS ; Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, (American Diabetes Association, 2011-03)
    OBJECTIVE: Interactions between genetic and environmental factors lead to immune dysregulation causing type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune disorders. Recently, many common genetic variants have been associated with type 1 diabetes risk, but each has modest individual effects. Familial clustering of type 1 diabetes has not been explained fully and could arise from many factors, including undetected genetic variation and gene interactions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To address this issue, the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium recruited 3,892 families, including 4,422 affected sib-pairs. After genotyping 6,090 markers, linkage analyses of these families were performed, using a novel method and taking into account factors such as genotype at known susceptibility loci. RESULTS: Evidence for linkage was robust at the HLA and INS loci, with logarithm of odds (LOD) scores of 398.6 and 5.5, respectively. There was suggestive support for five other loci. Stratification by other risk factors (including HLA and age at diagnosis) identified one convincing region on chromosome 6q14 showing linkage in male subjects (corrected LOD = 4.49; replication P = 0.0002), a locus on chromosome 19q in HLA identical siblings (replication P = 0.006), and four other suggestive loci. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest linkage study reported for any disease. Our data indicate there are no major type 1 diabetes subtypes definable by linkage analyses; susceptibility is caused by actions of HLA and an apparently random selection from a large number of modest-effect loci; and apart from HLA and INS, there is no important susceptibility factor discoverable by linkage methods.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Peripheral and Islet Interleukin-17 Pathway Activation Characterizes Human Autoimmune Diabetes and Promotes Cytokine-Mediated β-Cell Death
    Arif, S ; Moore, F ; Marks, K ; Bouckenooghe, T ; Dayan, CM ; Planas, R ; Vives-Pi, M ; Powrie, J ; Tree, T ; Marchetti, P ; Huang, GC ; Gurzov, EN ; Pujol-Borrell, R ; Eizirik, DL ; Peakman, M (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2011-08)
    OBJECTIVE: CD4 T-cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. To address the relevance of such cells, we examined IL-17 secretion in response to β-cell autoantigens, IL-17A gene expression in islets, and the potential functional consequences of IL-17 release for β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell responses to β-cell autoantigens (proinsulin, insulinoma-associated protein, and GAD65 peptides) were measured by IL-17 enzyme-linked immunospot assay in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 50). mRNA expression of IL-17A and IFNG pathway genes was studied by qRT-PCR using islets obtained from subjects who died 5 days and 10 years after diagnosis of disease, respectively, and from matched control subjects. IL-17 effects on the function of human islets, rat β-cells, and the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E were examined. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients (54%) showed IL-17 reactivity to one or more β-cell peptides versus 3 of 30 (10%) control subjects (P = 0.0001). In a single case examined close to diagnosis, islet expression of IL17A, RORC, and IL22 was detected. It is noteworthy that we show that IL-17 mediates significant and reproducible enhancement of IL-1β/interferon (IFN)-γ-induced and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/IFN-γ-induced apoptosis in human islets, rat β-cells, and INS-1E cells, in association with significant upregulation of β-cell IL17RA expression via activation of the transcription factors STAT1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating IL-17(+) β-cell-specific autoreactive CD4 T-cells are a feature of type 1 diabetes diagnosis. We disclose a novel pathway to β-cell death involving IL-17 and STAT1 and NF-κB, rendering this cytokine a novel disease biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Exposure to the Viral By-Product dsRNA or Coxsackievirus B5 Triggers Pancreatic Beta Cell Apoptosis via a Bim/Mcl-1 Imbalance
    Colli, ML ; Nogueira, TC ; Allagnat, F ; Cunha, DA ; Gurzov, EN ; Cardozo, AK ; Roivainen, M ; Op de Beeck, A ; Eizirik, DL ; Basler, CF (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2011-09)
    The rise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in recent decades is probably related to modifications in environmental factors. Viruses are among the putative environmental triggers of T1D. The mechanisms regulating beta cell responses to viruses, however, remain to be defined. We have presently clarified the signaling pathways leading to beta cell apoptosis following exposure to the viral mimetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and a diabetogenic enterovirus (Coxsackievirus B5). Internal dsRNA induces cell death via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. In this process, activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) promotes eIF2α phosphorylation and protein synthesis inhibition, leading to downregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1). Mcl-1 decrease results in the release of the BH3-only protein Bim, which activates the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Indeed, Bim knockdown prevented both dsRNA- and Coxsackievirus B5-induced beta cell death, and counteracted the proapoptotic effects of Mcl-1 silencing. These observations indicate that the balance between Mcl-1 and Bim is a key factor regulating beta cell survival during diabetogenic viral infections.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    PTPN2, a Candidate Gene for Type 1 Diabetes, Modulates Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis via Regulation of the BH3-Only Protein Bim
    Santin, I ; Moore, F ; Colli, ML ; Gurzov, EN ; Marselli, L ; Marchetti, P ; Eizirik, DL (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2011-12)
    OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies allowed the identification of several associations between specific loci and type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the mechanisms by which most candidate genes predispose to T1D remain unclear. We presently evaluated the mechanisms by which PTPN2, a candidate gene for T1D, modulates β-cell apoptosis after exposure to type I and II interferons (IFNs), cytokines that contribute to β-cell loss in early T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Small interfering RNAs were used to inhibit PTPN2, STAT1, Bim, and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) expression. Cell death was assessed by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining. BAX translocation, Bim phosphorylation, cytochrome c release, and caspases 9 and 3 activation were measured by Western blot or immunofluorescence. RESULTS: PTPN2 knockdown exacerbated type I IFN-induced apoptosis in INS-1E, primary rat, and human β-cells. PTPN2 silencing and exposure to type I and II IFNs induced BAX translocation to the mitochondria, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. There was also an increase in Bim phosphorylation that was at least in part regulated by JNK1. Of note, both Bim and JNK1 knockdown protected β-cells against IFN-induced apoptosis in PTPN2-silenced cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that local IFN production may interact with a genetic factor (PTPN2) to induce aberrant proapoptotic activity of the BH3-only protein Bim, resulting in increased β-cell apoptosis via JNK activation and the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This is the first indication of a direct interaction between a candidate gene for T1D and the activation of a specific downstream proapoptotic pathway in β-cells.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Application of in vivo micro-computed tomography in the temporal characterisation of subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis
    Mohan, G ; Perilli, E ; Kuliwaba, JS ; Humphries, JM ; Parkinson, IH ; Fazzalari, NL (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2011)
    INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex, multifactorial joint disease affecting both the cartilage and the subchondral bone. Animal models of OA aid in the understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and testing suitable drugs for OA treatment. In this study we characterized the temporal changes in the tibial subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA using in vivo micro-computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Male Wistar rats received a single intra-articular injection of low-dose MIA (0.2 mg) in the right knee joint and sterile saline in the left knee joint. The animals were scanned in vivo by micro-CT at two, six, and ten weeks post-injection, analogous to early, intermediate, and advanced stages of OA, to assess architectural changes in the tibial subchondral bone. The articular cartilage changes in the tibiae were assessed macroscopically and histologically at ten weeks post-injection. RESULTS: Interestingly, tibiae of the MIA-injected knees showed significant bone loss at two weeks, followed by increased trabecular thickness and separation at six and ten weeks. The trabecular number was decreased at all time points compared to control tibiae. The tibial subchondral plate thickness of the MIA-injected knee was increased at two and six weeks and the plate porosity was increased at all time points compared to control. At ten weeks, histology revealed loss of proteoglycans, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage fibrillation, and delamination in the MIA-injected tibiae, whereas the control tibiae showed no changes. Micro-CT images and histology showed the presence of subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophytes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the low-dose MIA rat model closely mimics the pathological features of progressive human OA. The low-dose MIA rat model is therefore suitable to study the effect of therapeutic drugs on cartilage and bone in a non-trauma model of OA. In vivo micro-CT is a non-destructive imaging technique that can track structural changes in the tibial subchondral bone in this animal model, and could also be used to track changes in bone in preclinical drug intervention studies for OA treatments.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Impact on product quality of high productive GS-CHO cell lines.
    Perani, A ; Gloria, B ; Wang, D ; Murphy, R ; Singh, HK ; Smyth, FE ; Scott, AM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Evaluation of an online biomass probe to monitor cell growth and cell death.
    Perani, A ; Gloria, B ; Wang, D ; Buffier, A-S ; Berteau, O ; Esteban, G ; Smyth, FE ; Scott, AM (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011)
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Public health campaigns and obesity - a critique
    Walls, HL ; Peeters, A ; Proietto, J ; McNeil, JJ (BMC, 2011-02-27)
    BACKGROUND: Controlling obesity has become one of the highest priorities for public health practitioners in developed countries. In the absence of safe, effective and widely accessible high-risk approaches (e.g. drugs and surgery) attention has focussed on community-based approaches and social marketing campaigns as the most appropriate form of intervention. However there is limited evidence in support of substantial effectiveness of such interventions. DISCUSSION: To date there is little evidence that community-based interventions and social marketing campaigns specifically targeting obesity provide substantial or lasting benefit. Concerns have been raised about potential negative effects created by a focus of these interventions on body shape and size, and of the associated media targeting of obesity. SUMMARY: A more appropriate strategy would be to enact high-level policy and legislative changes to alter the obesogenic environments in which we live by providing incentives for healthy eating and increased levels of physical activity. Research is also needed to improve treatments available for individuals already obese.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Stargazin and AMPA receptor membrane expression is increased in the somatosensory cortex of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg
    Kennard, JTT ; Barmanray, R ; Sampurno, S ; Ozturk, E ; Reid, CA ; Paradiso, L ; D'Abaco, GM ; Kaye, AH ; Foote, SJ ; O'Brien, TJ ; Powell, KL (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2011-04)
    Absence-like seizures in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) model are believed to arise in hyperexcitable somatosensory cortical neurons, however the cellular basis of this increased excitability remains unknown. We have previously shown that expression of the Transmembrane AMPA receptor Regulatory Protein (TARP), stargazin, is elevated in the somatosensory cortex of GAERS. TARPs are critical regulators of the trafficking and function of AMPA receptors. Here we examine the developmental expression of stargazin and the impact this may have on AMPA receptor trafficking in the GAERS model. We show that elevated stargazin in GAERS is associated with an increase in AMPA receptor proteins, GluA1 and GluA2 in the somatosensory cortex plasma membrane of adult epileptic GAERS. Elevated stargazin expression is not seen in the epileptic WAG/Rij rat, which is a genetically distinct but phenotypically similar rat model also manifesting absence seizures, indicating that the changes seen in GAERS are unlikely to be a secondary consequence of the seizures. In juvenile (6 week old) GAERS, at the age when seizures are just starting to be expressed, there is elevated stargazin mRNA, but not protein expression for stargazin or the AMPA receptor subunits. In neonatal (7 day old) pre-epileptic GAERS there was no alteration in stargazin mRNA expression in any brain region examined. These data demonstrate that stargazin and AMPA receptor membrane targeting is altered in GAERS, potentially contributing to hyperexcitability in somatosensory cortex, with a developmental time course that would suggest a pathophysiological role in the epilepsy phenotype.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    The Association Between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
    Thomas, MC ; Moran, J ; Forsblom, C ; Harjutsalo, V ; Thorn, L ; Ahola, A ; Waden, J ; Tolonen, N ; Saraheimo, M ; Gordin, D ; Groop, P-H (AMER DIABETES ASSOC, 2011-04)
    OBJECTIVE: Many guidelines recommend reduced consumption of salt in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is unclear whether dietary sodium intake is associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a nationwide multicenter study (the FinnDiane Study) between 1998 and 2002, 2,807 enrolled adults with type 1 diabetes without ESRD were prospectively followed. Baseline urinary sodium excretion was estimated on a 24-h urine collection. The predictors of all-cause mortality and ESRD were determined by Cox regression and competing risk modeling, respectively. RESULTS: The median follow-up for survival analyses was 10 years, during which 217 deaths were recorded (7.7%). Urinary sodium excretion was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality, such that individuals with the highest daily urinary sodium excretion, as well as the lowest excretion, had reduced survival. This association was independent age, sex, duration of diabetes, the presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and log albumin excretion rate), the presence of established cardiovascular disease, and systolic blood pressure. During follow-up, 126 patients developed ESRD (4.5%). Urinary sodium excretion was inversely associated with the cumulative incidence of ESRD, such that individuals with the lowest sodium excretion had the highest cumulative incidence of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, sodium was independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD. Although we have not demonstrated causality, these findings support the calls for caution before applying salt restriction universally. Clinical trials must be performed in diabetic patients to formally test the utility/risk of sodium restriction in this setting.