Medicine (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

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    Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of the creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation in people with diabetes: A systematic review
    Zafari, N ; Churilov, L ; Wong, LY-L ; Lotfaliany, M ; Hachem, M ; Kiburg, KV ; Kong, L ; Torkamani, N ; Baxter, H ; MacIsaac, RJ ; Ekinci, EI (WILEY, 2020-09-29)
    AIMS: GFR estimated with the creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPICr ) equation is used to screen for diabetic kidney disease and assess its severity. We systematically reviewed the process and outcome of evaluating CKD-EPICr in estimating point GFR or GFR decline over time in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this systematic review, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to August 2019. Observational studies comparing CKD-EPICr with measured GFR (mGFR) in adults with diabetes were included. Studies on people with kidney transplant, non-diabetes related kidney disease, pregnancy, potential kidney donors, and those with critical or other systematic illnesses were excluded. Two independent reviewers extracted data from published papers and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Risk-of-bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018108776). RESULTS: From the 2820 records identified, 29 studies (14 704 participants) were included. All studies were at risk of bias. Bias (eight different forms) ranged from -26 to 35 ml min-1  1.73 m-2 ; precision (five different forms) ranged between 9 and 63 ml min-1  1.73 m-2 ; accuracy (five different forms) ranged between 16% and 96%; the correlation coefficient between CKD-EPICr and mGFR (four different forms) ranged between 0.38 and 0.86; and the reduced major axis regression slope ranged between 0.8 and 1.8. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative synthesis of data suggested CKD-EPICr was inaccurate in estimating point GFR or GFR decline over time. Furthermore, a lack of consistency in the methods and processes of evaluating the diagnostic performance of CKD-EPICr limits reliable quantitative assessment. The equation needs to be improved in adults with diabetes.
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    Feasibility of once weekly exenatide-LAR and enhanced diabetes care in Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes (Long-acting-Once-Weekly-Exenatide laR-SUGAR, 'Lower SUGAR' study)
    Ekinci, E ; Pyrlis, F ; Hachem, M ; Maple-Brown, LJ ; Brown, A ; Maguire, G ; Churilov, L ; Cohen, N (WILEY, 2021-09-01)
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is 3-4 times more prevalent in Indigenous Australians with blood glucose levels often above target range. Once weekly formulations of exenatide(exenatide-LAR) have demonstrated significantly greater improvements in glycaemic management with no increased risk of hypoglycaemia and with reductions in bodyweight but have not been studied in Indigenous Australians. AIMS: To assess the feasibility and metabolic effects of once weekly supervised injection of exenatide-LAR in addition to standard care in Indigenous Australians with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Two communities in Central Australia with longstanding specialist clinical outreach services were allocated by random coin toss to receive once-weekly exenatide-LAR injection with weekly nurse review and adjustment of medication for 20 weeks (community with exenatide-LAR) or to weekly nurse review in addition to standard care over 20 weeks (community without exenatide-LAR). The primary outcome was the feasibility of an intensive diabetes management model of care with and without weekly supervised exenatide-LAR. Secondary outcomes included change in HbA1c. RESULTS: Thirteen participants from the community with exenatide-LAR and nine participants from the community without exenatide-LAR were analysed. Eighty-five percent of individuals in the community with exenatide-LAR and 67% in the community without exenatide-LAR attended more than half of clinic visits. Median difference in the change in HbA1c from baseline to final visit, adjusted for baseline HbA1c, between the community with exenatide-LAR and the community without exenatide-LAR was -3.1%, 95% CI (-5.80%, -0.38%; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Weekly exenatide-LAR combined with weekly nurse review demonstrated greater improvements in HbA1c, highlighting its potential for use in remote communities.
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    Using Routine Hemoglobin A1c Testing to Determine the Glycemic Status in Psychiatric Inpatients
    Naidu, P ; Churilov, L ; Kong, A ; Kanaan, R ; Wong, H ; Van Mourik, A ; Yao, A ; Cornish, E ; Hachem, M ; Hart, GK ; Owen-Jones, E ; Robbins, R ; Lam, Q ; Samaras, K ; Zajac, JD ; Ekinci, EI (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-03-28)
    AIM: Using routine hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing to describe the prevalence, characteristics, and length of stay (LOS) of psychiatry inpatients with type 2 diabetes compared to those with pre-diabetes and those without diabetes. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, all inpatients aged greater than 30 years admitted to the Austin Health Psychiatry Unit, a major tertiary hospital, affiliated with the University of Melbourne, between February 2014 and April 2015 had routine HbA1c testing as part of the Diabetes Discovery Initiative. Patients were divided into three groups: diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, 48 mmol/mol), pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%, 39-46 mmol/mol), or no diabetes (HbA1c ≤ 5.6%, 38 mmol/mol). Baseline characteristics, co-morbidities, psychiatric illnesses, and treatment were recorded. RESULTS: There were a total of 335 psychiatry inpatients (median age 41 years). The most prevalent diagnoses were schizophrenia, depression, and substance abuse. Of the 335 psychiatric inpatients, 14% (n = 46) had diabetes and 19% (n = 63) had pre-diabetes, a prevalence threefold greater than in the aged matched general population. Compared to inpatients with pre-diabetes and no diabetes, those with diabetes were older and were at least twice as likely to have hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia (all p ≤ 0.002). In multivariable analyses, diabetes was associated with increasing age (p = 0.02), substance abuse (p = 0.04), dyslipidaemia (p = 0.03), and aripiprazole use (p = 0.01). Patients with diabetes also had a 70% longer expected LOS (95% CI: 20-130%; p = 0.001), compared to those with pre-diabetes and no diabetes. CONCLUSION: Despite relative youth, one-third of all psychiatric inpatients above the age of 30 have diabetes or pre-diabetes. Presence of diabetes in psychiatric inpatients is associated with older age, substance abuse, and longer LOS. Routine inpatient HbA1c testing provides an opportunity for early detection and optimization of diabetes care.
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    Routine use of HbA1c amongst inpatients hospitalised with decompensated heart failure and the association of dysglycaemia with outcomes
    Khoo, K ; Lew, J ; Neef, P ; Kearney, L ; Churilov, L ; Robbins, R ; Tan, A ; Hachem, M ; Owen-Jones, L ; Lam, Q ; Hart, GK ; Wilson, A ; Sumithran, P ; Johnson, D ; Srivastava, PM ; Farouque, O ; Burrell, LM ; Zajac, JD ; Ekinci, EI (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-10)
    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for development of heart failure and has been associated with poor outcomes in these patients. The prevalence of diabetes continues to rise. Using routine HbA1c measurements on inpatients at a tertiary hospital, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes amongst patients hospitalised with decompensated heart failure and the association of dysglycaemia with hospital outcomes and mortality. 1191 heart failure admissions were identified and of these, 49% had diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and 34% had pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%). Using a multivariable analysis adjusting for age, Charlson comorbidity score (excluding diabetes and age) and estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes was not associated with length of stay (LOS), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission or 28-day readmission. However, diabetes was associated with a lower risk of 6-month mortality. This finding was also supported using HbA1c as a continuous variable. The diabetes group were more likely to have diastolic dysfunction and to be on evidence-based cardiac medications. These observational data are hypothesis generating and possible explanations include that more diabetic patients were on medications that have proven mortality benefit or prevent cardiac remodelling, such as renin-angiotensin system antagonists, which may modulate the severity of heart failure and its consequences.