Medicine (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

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    Using Automated HbA1c Testing to Detect Diabetes Mellitus in Orthopedic Inpatients and Its Effect on Outcomes (vol 12, e0168471, 2017)
    Ekinci, EI ; Kong, A ; Churilov, L ; Nanayakkara, N ; Chiu, WL ; Sumithran, P ; Djukiadmodjo, F ; Premaratne, E ; Owen-Jones, E ; Hart, GK ; Robbins, R ; Hardidge, A ; Johnson, D ; Baker, ST ; Zajac, JD (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-02-13)
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168471.].
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    Using Routine Hemoglobin A1c Testing to Determine the Glycemic Status in Psychiatric Inpatients
    Naidu, P ; Churilov, L ; Kong, A ; Kanaan, R ; Wong, H ; Van Mourik, A ; Yao, A ; Cornish, E ; Hachem, M ; Hart, GK ; Owen-Jones, E ; Robbins, R ; Lam, Q ; Samaras, K ; Zajac, JD ; Ekinci, EI (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-03-28)
    AIM: Using routine hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing to describe the prevalence, characteristics, and length of stay (LOS) of psychiatry inpatients with type 2 diabetes compared to those with pre-diabetes and those without diabetes. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, all inpatients aged greater than 30 years admitted to the Austin Health Psychiatry Unit, a major tertiary hospital, affiliated with the University of Melbourne, between February 2014 and April 2015 had routine HbA1c testing as part of the Diabetes Discovery Initiative. Patients were divided into three groups: diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, 48 mmol/mol), pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%, 39-46 mmol/mol), or no diabetes (HbA1c ≤ 5.6%, 38 mmol/mol). Baseline characteristics, co-morbidities, psychiatric illnesses, and treatment were recorded. RESULTS: There were a total of 335 psychiatry inpatients (median age 41 years). The most prevalent diagnoses were schizophrenia, depression, and substance abuse. Of the 335 psychiatric inpatients, 14% (n = 46) had diabetes and 19% (n = 63) had pre-diabetes, a prevalence threefold greater than in the aged matched general population. Compared to inpatients with pre-diabetes and no diabetes, those with diabetes were older and were at least twice as likely to have hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia (all p ≤ 0.002). In multivariable analyses, diabetes was associated with increasing age (p = 0.02), substance abuse (p = 0.04), dyslipidaemia (p = 0.03), and aripiprazole use (p = 0.01). Patients with diabetes also had a 70% longer expected LOS (95% CI: 20-130%; p = 0.001), compared to those with pre-diabetes and no diabetes. CONCLUSION: Despite relative youth, one-third of all psychiatric inpatients above the age of 30 have diabetes or pre-diabetes. Presence of diabetes in psychiatric inpatients is associated with older age, substance abuse, and longer LOS. Routine inpatient HbA1c testing provides an opportunity for early detection and optimization of diabetes care.
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    Routine use of HbA1c amongst inpatients hospitalised with decompensated heart failure and the association of dysglycaemia with outcomes
    Khoo, K ; Lew, J ; Neef, P ; Kearney, L ; Churilov, L ; Robbins, R ; Tan, A ; Hachem, M ; Owen-Jones, L ; Lam, Q ; Hart, GK ; Wilson, A ; Sumithran, P ; Johnson, D ; Srivastava, PM ; Farouque, O ; Burrell, LM ; Zajac, JD ; Ekinci, EI (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-10)
    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for development of heart failure and has been associated with poor outcomes in these patients. The prevalence of diabetes continues to rise. Using routine HbA1c measurements on inpatients at a tertiary hospital, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes amongst patients hospitalised with decompensated heart failure and the association of dysglycaemia with hospital outcomes and mortality. 1191 heart failure admissions were identified and of these, 49% had diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and 34% had pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%). Using a multivariable analysis adjusting for age, Charlson comorbidity score (excluding diabetes and age) and estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes was not associated with length of stay (LOS), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission or 28-day readmission. However, diabetes was associated with a lower risk of 6-month mortality. This finding was also supported using HbA1c as a continuous variable. The diabetes group were more likely to have diastolic dysfunction and to be on evidence-based cardiac medications. These observational data are hypothesis generating and possible explanations include that more diabetic patients were on medications that have proven mortality benefit or prevent cardiac remodelling, such as renin-angiotensin system antagonists, which may modulate the severity of heart failure and its consequences.
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    Inpatient HbA1c testing: a prospective observational study
    Nanayakkara, N ; Nguyen, H ; Churilov, L ; Kong, A ; Pang, N ; Hart, GK ; Owen-Jones, E ; White, J ; Ross, J ; Stevenson, V ; Bellomo, R ; Lam, Q ; Crinis, N ; Robbins, R ; Johnson, D ; Baker, ST ; Zajac, JD ; Ekinci, EI (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-01-01)
    OBJECTIVE: To use admission inpatient glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) testing to help investigate the prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, the cumulative prevalence of unrecognized and known diabetes, and the prevalence of poor glycemic control in both. Moreover, we aimed to determine the 6-month outcomes for these patients. Finally, we aimed to assess the independent association of diabetes with these outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: A cohort of 5082 inpatients ≥54 years admitted between July 2013 and January 2014 underwent HbA1c measurement. A previous diagnosis of diabetes was obtained from the hospital medical record. Patient follow-up was extended to 6 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes (known and unrecognized) was 34%. In particular, we identified that unrecognized but HbA1c-confirmed diabetes in 271 (5%, 95% CI 4.7% to 6.0%) patients, previously known diabetes in 1452 (29%, 95% CI 27.3% to 29.8%) patients; no diabetes in 3359 (66%, 95% CI 64.8-67.4%) patients. Overall 17% (95% CI 15.3% to 18.9%) of patients with an HbA1c of >6.5% had an HbA1c ≥8.5%. After adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Index score, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hemoglobin levels, with admission unit treated as a random effect, patients with previously known diabetes had lower 6-month mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.87, p=0.001). However, there were no significant differences in proportions of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation or readmission within 6 months between the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of all inpatients ≥54 years of age admitted to hospital have diabetes of which about 1 in 6 was previously unrecognized. Moreover, poor glycemic control was common. Proportions of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, or readmission were similar between the groups. Finally, diabetes was independently associated with lower 6-month mortality.
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    Using Automated HbA1c Testing to Detect Diabetes Mellitus in Orthopedic Inpatients and Its Effect on Outcomes
    Ekinci, EI ; Kong, A ; Churilov, L ; Nanayakkara, N ; Chiu, WL ; Sumithran, P ; Djukiadmodjo, F ; Premaratne, E ; Owen-Jones, E ; Hart, GK ; Robbins, R ; Hardidge, A ; Johnson, D ; Baker, ST ; Zajac, JD ; Bencharit, S (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-01-06)
    AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes is rising, and people with diabetes have higher rates of musculoskeletal-related comorbidities. HbA1c testing is a superior option for diabetes diagnosis in the inpatient setting. This study aimed to (i) demonstrate the feasibility of routine HbA1c testing to detect the presence of diabetes mellitus, (ii) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in orthopedic inpatients and (iii) to assess the association between diabetes and hospital outcomes and post-operative complications in orthopedic inpatients. METHODS: All patients aged ≥54 years admitted to Austin Health between July 2013 and January 2014 had routine automated HbA1c measurements using automated clinical information systems (CERNER). Patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% were diagnosed with diabetes. Baseline demographic and clinical data were obtained from hospital records. RESULTS: Of the 416 orthopedic inpatients included in this study, 22% (n = 93) were known to have diabetes, 4% (n = 15) had previously unrecognized diabetes and 74% (n = 308) did not have diabetes. Patients with diabetes had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity scores compared to patients without diabetes (median, IQR; 1 [0,2] vs 0 [0,0], p<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity score and estimated glomerular filtration rate, no significant differences in the length of stay (IRR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.79-1.07; p = 0.280), rates of intensive care unit admission (OR = 1.04; 95%CI: 0.42-2.60, p = 0.934), 6-month mortality (OR = 0.52; 95%CI: 0.17-1.60, p = 0.252), 6-month hospital readmission (OR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.46-1.87; p = 0.828) or any post-operative complications (OR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.53-1.80; p = 0.944) were observed between patients with and without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Routine HbA1c measurement using CERNER allows for rapid identification of inpatients admitted with diabetes. More than one in four patients admitted to a tertiary hospital orthopedic ward have diabetes. No statistically significant differences in the rates of hospital outcomes and post-operative complications were identified between patients with and without diabetes.