Medicine (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

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    Non-negative matrix factorisation improves Centiloid robustness in longitudinal studies
    Bourgeat, P ; Dore, V ; Doecke, J ; Ames, D ; Masters, CL ; Rowe, CC ; Fripp, J ; Villemagne, VL (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2021-02-01)
    BACKGROUND: Centiloid was introduced to harmonise β-Amyloid (Aβ) PET quantification across different tracers, scanners and analysis techniques. Unfortunately, Centiloid still suffers from some quantification disparities in longitudinal analysis when normalising data from different tracers or scanners. In this work, we aim to reduce this variability using a different analysis technique applied to the existing calibration data. METHOD: All PET images from the Centiloid calibration dataset, along with 3762 PET images from the AIBL study were analysed using the recommended SPM pipeline. The PET images were SUVR normalised using the whole cerebellum. All SUVR normalised PiB images from the calibration dataset were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF). The NMF coefficients related to the first component were strongly correlated with global SUVR and were subsequently used as a surrogate for Aβ retention. For each tracer of the calibration dataset, the components of the NMF were computed in a way such that the coefficients of the first component would match those of the corresponding PiB. Given the strong correlations between the SUVR and the NMF coefficients on the calibration dataset, all PET images from AIBL were subsequently decomposed using the computed NMF, and their coefficients transformed into Centiloids. RESULTS: Using the AIBL data, the correlation between the standard Centiloid and the novel NMF-based Centiloid was high in each tracer. The NMF-based Centiloids showed a reduction of outliers, and improved longitudinal consistency. Furthermore, it removed the effects of switching tracers from the longitudinal variance of the Centiloid measure, when assessed using a linear mixed effects model. CONCLUSION: We here propose a novel image driven method to perform the Centiloid quantification. The methods is highly correlated with standard Centiloids while improving the longitudinal reliability when switching tracers. Implementation of this method across multiple studies may lend to more robust and comparable data for future research.
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    Trajectories of depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults: a 6-year prospective cohort study
    Holmes, SE ; Esterlis, I ; Mazure, CM ; Lim, YY ; Ames, D ; Rainey-Smith, S ; Fowler, C ; Ellis, K ; Martins, RN ; Salvado, O ; Dore, V ; Villemagne, VL ; Rowe, CC ; Laws, SM ; Masters, CL ; Pietrzak, RH ; Maruff, P (WILEY, 2018-02-01)
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    Cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease biomarkers and longitudinal cognitive decline
    Yates, PA ; Villemagne, VL ; Ames, D ; Masters, CL ; Martins, RN ; Desmond, P ; Burnham, S ; Maruff, P ; Ellis, KA ; Rowe, CC (WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016-06-01)
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    Amyloid burden and incident depressive symptoms in cognitively normal older adults
    Harrington, KD ; Gould, E ; Lim, YY ; Ames, D ; Pietrzak, RH ; Rembach, A ; Rainey-Smith, S ; Martins, RN ; Salvado, O ; Villemagne, VL ; Rowe, CC ; Masters, CL ; Maruff, P (WILEY, 2017-04-01)
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    Increased cerebral blood flow with increased amyloid burden in the preclinical phase of alzheimer's disease
    Fazlollahi, A ; Calamante, F ; Liang, X ; Bourgeat, P ; Raniga, P ; Dore, V ; Fripp, J ; Ames, D ; Masters, CL ; Rowe, CC ; Connelly, A ; Villemagne, VL ; Salvado, O (WILEY, 2020-02-01)
    BACKGROUND: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging MRI technique for noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that has been used to show hemodynamic changes in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). CBF changes have been measured using positron emission tomography (PET) across the AD spectrum, but ASL showed limited success in measuring CBF variations in the preclinical phase of AD, where amyloid β (Aβ) plaques accumulate in the decades prior to symptom onset. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between CBF measured by multiphase-pseudocontinuous-ASL (MP-PCASL) and Aβ burden as measured by 11 C-PiB PET imaging in a study of cognitively normal (CN) subjects age over 65. STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional. POPULATION: Forty-six CN subjects including 33 with low levels of Aβ burden and 13 with high levels of Aβ. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T/3D MP-PCASL. ASSESSMENT: The MP-PCASL method was chosen because it has a high signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using an efficient processing pipeline consisting of motion correction, ASL motion correction imprecision removal, temporal and spatial filtering, and partial volume effect correction. STATISTICAL TESTS: General Linear Model. RESULTS: In CN subjects positive for Aβ burden (n = 13), we observed a positive correlation between CBF and Aβ burden in the hippocampus, amygdala, caudate (P < 0.01), frontal, temporal, and insula (P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MP-PCASL in the study of AD, and the results suggest a potential compensatory hemodynamic mechanism that protects against pathology in the early stages of AD. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:505-513.
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    Fifteen Years of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study: Progress and Observations from 2,359 Older Adults Spanning the Spectrum from Cognitive Normality to Alzheimer's Disease
    Fowler, C ; Rainey-Smith, SR ; Bird, S ; Bomke, J ; Bourgeat, P ; Brown, BM ; Burnham, SC ; Bush, A ; Chadunow, C ; Collins, S ; Doecke, J ; Dore, V ; Ellis, KA ; Evered, L ; Fazlollahi, A ; Fripp, J ; Gardener, SL ; Gibson, S ; Grenfell, R ; Harrison, E ; Head, R ; Jin, L ; Kamer, A ; Lamb, F ; Lautenschlager, NT ; Laws, SM ; Li, Q-X ; Lim, L ; Lim, YY ; Louey, A ; Macaulay, SL ; Mackintosh, L ; Martins, RN ; Maruff, P ; Masters, CL ; McBride, S ; Milicic, L ; Peretti, M ; Pertile, K ; Porter, T ; Radler, M ; Rembach, A ; Robertson, J ; Rodrigues, M ; Rowe, CC ; Rumble, R ; Salvado, O ; Savage, G ; Silbert, B ; Soh, M ; Sohrabi, HR ; Taddei, K ; Taddei, T ; Thai, C ; Trounson, B ; Tyrrell, R ; Vacher, M ; Varghese, S ; Villemagne, VL ; Weinborn, M ; Woodward, M ; Xia, Y ; Ames, D (IOS PRESS, 2021-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study commenced in 2006 as a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (768 cognitively normal (CN), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 211 with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD)) as an 'Inception cohort' who underwent detailed ssessments every 18 months. Over the past decade, an additional 1247 subjects have been added as an 'Enrichment cohort' (as of 10 April 2019). OBJECTIVE: Here we provide an overview of these Inception and Enrichment cohorts of more than 8,500 person-years of investigation. METHODS: Participants underwent reassessment every 18 months including comprehensive cognitive testing, neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI; positron emission tomography, PET), biofluid biomarkers and lifestyle evaluations. RESULTS: AIBL has made major contributions to the understanding of the natural history of AD, with cognitive and biological definitions of its three major stages: preclinical, prodromal and clinical. Early deployment of Aβ-amyloid and tau molecular PET imaging and the development of more sensitive and specific blood tests have facilitated the assessment of genetic and environmental factors which affect age at onset and rates of progression. CONCLUSION: This fifteen-year study provides a large database of highly characterized individuals with longitudinal cognitive, imaging and lifestyle data and biofluid collections, to aid in the development of interventions to delay onset, prevent or treat AD. Harmonization with similar large longitudinal cohort studies is underway to further these aims.
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    Association of beta-Amyloid Level, Clinical Progression, and Longitudinal Cognitive Change in Normal Older Individuals
    Van der Kall, LM ; Thanh, T ; Burnham, SC ; Dore, V ; Mulligan, RS ; Bozinovski, S ; Lamb, F ; Bourgeat, P ; Fripp, J ; Schultz, S ; Lim, YY ; Laws, SM ; Ames, D ; Fowler, C ; Rainey-Smith, SR ; Martins, RN ; Salvado, O ; Robertson, J ; Maruff, P ; Masters, CL ; Villemagne, VL ; Rowe, CC (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2021-02-02)
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of β-amyloid (Aβ) level on progression risk to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and longitudinal cognitive change in cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. METHODS: All CN from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle study with Aβ PET and ≥3 years follow-up were included (n = 534; age 72 ± 6 years; 27% Aβ positive; follow-up 5.3 ± 1.7 years). Aβ level was divided using the standardized 0-100 Centiloid scale: <15 CL negative, 15-25 CL uncertain, 26-50 CL moderate, 51-100 CL high, >100 CL very high, noting >25 CL approximates a positive scan. Cox proportional hazards analysis and linear mixed effect models were used to assess risk of progression and cognitive decline. RESULTS: Aβ levels in 63% were negative, 10% uncertain, 10% moderate, 14% high, and 3% very high. Fifty-seven (11%) progressed to MCI or dementia. Compared to negative Aβ, the hazard ratio for progression for moderate Aβ was 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-7.6; p < 0.05), for high was 7.0 (95% CI 3.7-13.3; p < 0.001), and for very high was 11.4 (95% CI 5.1-25.8; p < 0.001). Decline in cognitive composite score was minimal in the moderate group (-0.02 SD/year, p = 0.05), while the high and very high declined substantially (high -0.08 SD/year, p < 0.001; very high -0.35 SD/year, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk of MCI or dementia over 5 years in older CN is related to Aβ level on PET, 5% if negative vs 25% if positive but ranging from 12% if 26-50 CL to 28% if 51-100 CL and 50% if >100 CL. This information may be useful for dementia risk counseling and aid design of preclinical AD trials.
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    Comparing cortical signatures of atrophy between late-onset and autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease
    Dincer, A ; Gordon, BA ; Hari-Raj, A ; Keefe, SJ ; Flores, S ; McKay, NS ; Paulick, AM ; Lewis, KES ; Feldman, RL ; Hornbeck, RC ; Allegri, R ; Ances, BM ; Berman, SB ; Brickman, AM ; Brooks, WS ; Cash, DM ; Chhatwal, JP ; Farlow, MR ; la Fougere, C ; Fox, NC ; Fulham, MJ ; Jack, CR ; Joseph-Mathurin, N ; Karch, CM ; Lee, A ; Levin, J ; Masters, CL ; McDade, EM ; Oh, H ; Perrin, RJ ; Raji, C ; Salloway, SP ; Schofield, PR ; Su, Y ; Villemagne, VL ; Wang, Q ; Weiner, MW ; Xiong, C ; Yakushev, I ; Morris, JC ; Bateman, RJ ; Benzinger, TLS (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-01-01)
    Defining a signature of cortical regions of interest preferentially affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology may offer improved sensitivity to early AD compared to hippocampal volume or mesial temporal lobe alone. Since late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) participants tend to have age-related comorbidities, the younger-onset age in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) may provide a more idealized model of cortical thinning in AD. To test this, the goals of this study were to compare the degree of overlap between the ADAD and LOAD cortical thinning maps and to evaluate the ability of the ADAD cortical signature regions to predict early pathological changes in cognitively normal individuals. We defined and analyzed the LOAD cortical maps of cortical thickness in 588 participants from the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (Knight ADRC) and the ADAD cortical maps in 269 participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) observational study. Both cohorts were divided into three groups: cognitively normal controls (nADRC = 381; nDIAN = 145), preclinical (nADRC = 153; nDIAN = 76), and cognitively impaired (nADRC = 54; nDIAN = 48). Both cohorts underwent clinical assessments, 3T MRI, and amyloid PET imaging with either 11C-Pittsburgh compound B or 18F-florbetapir. To generate cortical signature maps of cortical thickness, we performed a vertex-wise analysis between the cognitively normal controls and impaired groups within each cohort using six increasingly conservative statistical thresholds to determine significance. The optimal cortical map among the six statistical thresholds was determined from a receiver operating characteristic analysis testing the performance of each map in discriminating between the cognitively normal controls and preclinical groups. We then performed within-cohort and cross-cohort (e.g. ADAD maps evaluated in the Knight ADRC cohort) analyses to examine the sensitivity of the optimal cortical signature maps to the amyloid levels using only the cognitively normal individuals (cognitively normal controls and preclinical groups) in comparison to hippocampal volume. We found the optimal cortical signature maps were sensitive to early increases in amyloid for the asymptomatic individuals within their respective cohorts and were significant beyond the inclusion of hippocampus volume, but the cortical signature maps performed poorly when analyzing across cohorts. These results suggest the cortical signature maps are a useful MRI biomarker of early AD-related neurodegeneration in preclinical individuals and the pattern of decline differs between LOAD and ADAD.
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    Longitudinal evaluation of the natural history of amyloid-beta in plasma and brain
    Burnham, SC ; Fandos, N ; Fowler, C ; Perez-Grijalba, V ; Dore, V ; Doecke, JD ; Shishegar, R ; Cox, T ; Fripp, J ; Rowe, C ; Sarasa, M ; Masters, CL ; Pesini, P ; Villemagne, VL (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-04-14)
    Plasma amyloid-β peptide concentration has recently been shown to have high accuracy to predict amyloid-β plaque burden in the brain. These amyloid-β plasma markers will allow wider screening of the population and simplify and reduce screening costs for therapeutic trials in Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this study was to determine how longitudinal changes in blood amyloid-β track with changes in brain amyloid-β. Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle study participants with a minimum of two assessments were evaluated (111 cognitively normal, 7 mild cognitively impaired, 15 participants with Alzheimer’s disease). Amyloid-β burden in the brain was evaluated through PET and was expressed in Centiloids. Total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios were determined using ABtest® assays. We applied our method for obtaining natural history trajectories from short term data to measures of total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios and PET amyloid-β. The natural history trajectory of total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios appears to approximately mirror that of PET amyloid-β, with both spanning decades. Rates of change of 7.9% and 8.8%, were observed for total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios and PET amyloid-β, respectively. The trajectory of plasma amyloid-β preceded that of brain amyloid-β by a median value of 6 years (significant at 88% confidence interval). These findings, showing the tight association between changes in plasma and brain amyloid-β, support the use of plasma total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios as a surrogate marker of brain amyloid-β. Also, that plasma total protein amyloid-β 42/40 plasma ratios has potential utility in monitoring trial participants, and as an outcome measure.
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    A beta Imaging: feasible, pertinent, and vital to progress in Alzheimer's disease
    Villemagne, VL ; Klunk, WE ; Mathis, CA ; Rowe, CC ; Brooks, DJ ; Hyman, BT ; Ikonomovic, MD ; Ishii, K ; Jack, CR ; Jagust, WJ ; Johnson, KA ; Koeppe, RA ; Lowe, VJ ; Masters, CL ; Montine, TJ ; Morris, JC ; Nordberg, A ; Petersen, RC ; Reiman, EM ; Selkoe, DJ ; Sperling, RA ; Van Laere, K ; Weiner, MW ; Drzezga, A (SPRINGER, 2012-02-01)