Medicine (Austin & Northern Health) - Research Publications

Permanent URI for this collection

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Effects of selective β1-adrenoceptor blockade on cardiovascular and renal function and circulating cytokines in ovine hyperdynamic sepsis
    Calzavacca, P ; Lankadeva, YR ; Bailey, SR ; Bailey, M ; Bellomo, R ; May, CN (BMC, 2014)
    INTRODUCTION: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has beneficial cardiovascular effects in sepsis, but there is also evidence that sympatholytics have beneficial actions in sepsis. We therefore determined the effect of selective β1-adrenoceptor blockade on cardiac and renal function and cytokine release in ovine hyperdynamic sepsis. METHODS: Hyperdynamic sepsis was induced by infusion of live E. coli for 24 hours in nine conscious sheep instrumented with flow probes on the pulmonary and left renal artery. Cardiovascular and renal function and levels of plasma cytokines were determined in a control group and during selective β1-adrenoceptor blockade with atenolol (10 mg intravenous bolus then 0.125 mg/kg/h) from 8 to 24 hours of sepsis. RESULTS: Hyperdynamic sepsis was characterized by hypotension with increases in cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR) and renal blood flow (RBF), and acute kidney injury. Atenolol caused sustained reductions in HR (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.001). Despite the lower CO the sepsis-induced fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similar in both groups. The sepsis-induced increase in RBF, decrease in renal function and increase in arterial lactate were unaffected by atenolol. Sepsis increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Atenolol caused a further increase in IL-10, but did not affect levels of TNF-α or IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: In sepsis, selective β1-adrenoceptor blockade reduced CO, but not MAP. During sepsis, atenolol did not alter the development of acute kidney injury or the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but enhanced the release of IL-10. Atenolol appears safe in sepsis, has no deleterious cardiovascular or renal effects, and has an anti-inflammatory effect.
  • Item
    Thumbnail Image
    Acid-base changes after fluid bolus: sodium chloride vs. sodium octanoate
    Ke, L ; Calzavacca, P ; Bailey, M ; Li, W-Q ; Bellomo, R ; May, CN (SPRINGEROPEN, 2013)
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to test the hypothesis that fluid loading with sodium chloride (150 mmol Na and 150 mmol Cl) or sodium octanoate (150 mmol Na, 100 mmol Cl, and 50 mmol octanoate) would lead to different acid-base changes. DESIGN: We performed a double-blind crossover experimental study. SETTING: The study was done at a University Physiology Laboratory. SUBJECTS: Eight Merino ewes were used as subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We randomly assigned animals to a rapid intravenous infusion (1 L over 30 min) of either normal saline (NS) or sodium octanoate solution (OS). We collected blood samples at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after the start of the infusion for blood gas analyses and biochemistry. We calculated strong ion difference apparent (SIDa), effective strong ion difference, and strong ion gap (SIG). Animals in the NS group developed metabolic acidification immediately after fluid administration (pH 7.49 to 7.42, base excess 3.0 to -1.6 mEq/L), while the OS group did not (pH 7.47 to 7.51, base excess 1.1 to 1.4 mEq/L; P < 0.001). Additionally, the OS group had higher SIDa (36.2 vs. 33.2 mEq/L) and SIG (7.4 vs. 6.2 mEq/L) at the end of the infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that acidification induced by intravenous fluid loading is dependent on fluid composition and challenges the paradigm of the so-called dilutional acidosis.