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ItemSeptic Acute Kidney Injury: The Glomerular ArteriolesBellomo, R ; Wan, L ; Langenberg, C ; Ishikawa, K ; May, CN ; Kellum, JA ; Ronco, C ; Vincent, JL (KARGER, 2011-01-01)Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious condition that affects many intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The most common causes of AKI in the ICU are severe sepsis and septic shock. The mortality of AKI in septic critically ill patients remains high despite our increasing ability to support vital organs. This is partly due to our poor understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced renal dysfunction. However, new concepts are emerging to explain the pathogenesis of septic AKI, which challenge previously held dogma. Throughout the past half century, septic AKI has essentially been considered secondary to tubular injury, which, in turn, has been considered secondary to renal ischemia. This belief is curious because the hallmark of septic AKI and AKI in general is the loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). It would seem logical, therefore, to focus on the glomerulus in trying to understand why such loss of GFR occurs. Recent experimental observations suggest that, at least in the initial phases of septic AKI, profound changes occur which involve glomerular hemodynamics and lead to loss of GFR. These observations imply that changes in the vasoconstrictor tone of both the afferent and efferent arterioles are an important component of the pathogenesis of septic AKI.
ItemImaging renal cell carcinoma with ultrasonography, CT and MRILeveridge, MJ ; Bostrom, PJ ; Koulouris, G ; Finelli, A ; Lawrentschuk, N (NATURE PORTFOLIO, 2010-06-01)The increased use of abdominal imaging techniques for a variety of indications has contributed to more-frequent detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Ultrasonography has been used to characterize the solid versus cystic nature of renal masses. This modality has limitations, however, in further characterization of solid tumors and in staging of malignancy, although contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has shown promise. Cross-sectional imaging with multiplanar reconstruction capability via CT or MRI has become the standard-bearer in the diagnosis, staging and surveillance of renal cancers. The use of specific protocols and the exploitation of different imaging characteristics of RCC subtypes, including variations in contrast agent timing, MRI weighting and digital subtraction, have contributed to this diagnostic capability. Cystic renal masses are a special case, evaluation of which can require multiple imaging modalities. Rigorous evaluation of these lesions can provide information that is crucial to prediction of the likelihood of malignancy. Such imaging is not without risk, however, as radiation from frequent CT imaging has been implicated in the development of secondary malignancies, and contrast agents for CT and MRI can pose risks, particularly in patients with compromised renal function.