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ItemMetabolic remodeling of dystrophic skeletal muscle reveals biological roles for dystrophin and utrophin in adaptation and plasticityHardee, JP ; Martins, KJB ; Miotto, PM ; Ryall, JG ; Gehrig, SM ; Reljic, B ; Naim, T ; Chung, JD ; Trieu, J ; Swiderski, K ; Philp, AM ; Philp, A ; Watt, MJ ; Stroud, DA ; Koopman, R ; Steinberg, GR ; Lynch, GS (ELSEVIER, 2021-01-12)OBJECTIVES: Preferential damage to fast, glycolytic myofibers is common in many muscle-wasting diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Promoting an oxidative phenotype could protect muscles from damage and ameliorate the dystrophic pathology with therapeutic relevance, but developing efficacious strategies requires understanding currently unknown biological roles for dystrophin and utrophin in dystrophic muscle adaptation and plasticity. METHODS: Combining whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and mitochondrial proteomics with assessments of metabolic and contractile function, we investigated the roles of dystrophin and utrophin in fast-to-slow muscle remodeling with low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFS, 10 Hz, 12 h/d, 7 d/wk, 28 d) in mdx (dystrophin null) and dko (dystrophin/utrophin null) mice, two established preclinical models of DMD. RESULTS: Novel biological roles in adaptation were demonstrated by impaired transcriptional activation of estrogen-related receptor alpha-responsive genes supporting oxidative phosphorylation in dystrophic muscles. Further, utrophin expression in dystrophic muscles was required for LFS-induced remodeling of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, enhanced fiber respiration, and conferred protection from eccentric contraction-mediated damage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal novel roles for dystrophin and utrophin during LFS-induced metabolic remodeling of dystrophic muscle and highlight the therapeutic potential of LFS to ameliorate the dystrophic pathology and protect from contraction-induced injury with important implications for DMD and related muscle disorders.
ItemHSP70 drives myoblast fusion during C2C12 myogenic differentiationThakur, SS ; Swiderski, K ; Chhen, VL ; James, JL ; Cranna, NJ ; Islam, AMT ; Ryall, JG ; Lynch, GS (COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD, 2020-07-01)In response to injury, skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs) undergo myogenesis where they become activated, proliferate rapidly, differentiate and undergo fusion to form multinucleated myotubes. Dramatic changes in cell size, shape, metabolism and motility occur during myogenesis, which cause cellular stress and alter proteostasis. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) maintains proteostasis by regulating protein biosynthesis and folding, facilitating transport of polypeptides across intracellular membranes and preventing stress-induced protein unfolding/aggregation. Although HSP70 overexpression can exert beneficial effects in skeletal muscle diseases and enhance skeletal muscle repair after injury, its effect on myogenesis has not been investigated. Plasmid-mediated overexpression of HSP70 did not affect the rate of C2C12 proliferation or differentiation, but the median number of myonuclei per myotube and median myotube width in differentiated C2C12 myotubes were increased with HSP70 overexpression. These findings reveal that increased HSP70 expression can promote myoblast fusion, identifying a mechanism for its therapeutic potential to enhance muscle repair after injury.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.