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    Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum
    Koussoulas, K ; Gwynne, RM ; Foong, JPP ; Bornstein, JC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-04-27)
    Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT)-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS). AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs), are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons. Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml) or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode. Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29) was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24), but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27) were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6) or in its absence (n = 5). Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist), but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist) or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih . Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the activity of the afferent limb of the enteric reflex circuitry.
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    5-HT1A, SST1, and SST2 receptors mediate inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in the submucous plexus of the guinea pig ileum
    Foong, JPP ; Parry, LJ ; Gwynne, RM ; Bornstein, JC (AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2010-03)
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive neurons are important secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus. They are the only submucosal neurons to receive inhibitory inputs and exhibit both noradrenergic and nonadrenergic inhibitory synaptic potentials (IPSPs). The former are mediated by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, but the receptors mediating the latter have not been identified. We used standard intracellular recording, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy to test whether 5-HT(1A), SST(1), and/or SST(2) receptors mediate nonadrenergic IPSPs in VIP submucosal neurons in guinea pig ileum in vitro. The specific 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100135 (1 microM) reduced the amplitude of IPSPs, an effect that persisted in the presence of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (2 microM), suggesting that 5-HT might mediate a component of the IPSPs. Confocal microscopy revealed that there were many 5-HT-immunoreactive varicosities in close contact with VIP neurons. The specific SSTR(2) antagonist CYN 154806 (100 nM) and a specific SSTR(1) antagonist SRA 880 (3 microM) each reduced the amplitude of nonadrenergic IPSPs and hyperpolarizations evoked by somatostatin. In contrast with the other antagonists, CYN 154806 also reduced the durations of nonadrenergic IPSPs. Effects of WAY 100135 and CYN 154806 were additive. RT-PCR revealed gene transcripts for 5-HT(1A), SST(1), and SST(2) receptors in stripped submucous plexus preparations consistent with the pharmacological data. Although the involvement of other neurotransmitters or receptors cannot be excluded, we conclude that 5-HT(1A), SST(1), and SST(2) receptors mediate nonadrenergic IPSPs in the noncholinergic (VIP) secretomotor neurons. This study thus provides the tools to identify functions of enteric neural pathways that inhibit secretomotor reflexes.
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    Nitric oxide enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in guinea-pig submucous plexus
    Bornstein, JC ; Marks, KA ; Foong, JPP ; Gwynne, RM ; Wang, ZH (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2010)
    Varicosities immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) make synaptic connections with submucosal neurons in the guinea-pig small intestine, but the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on these neurons are unknown. We used intracellular recording to characterize effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) and nitro-l-arginine (NOLA, NOS inhibitor), on inhibitory synaptic potentials (IPSPs), slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and action potential firing in submucosal neurons of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Recordings were made from neurons with the characteristic IPSPs of non-cholinergic secretomotor neurons. SNP (100 muM) markedly enhanced IPSPs evoked by single stimuli applied to intermodal strands and IPSPs evoked by trains of 2-10 pulses (30 Hz). Both noradrenergic (idazoxan-sensitive) and non-adrenergic (idazoxan-insensitive) IPSPs were affected. SNP enhanced hyperpolarizations evoked by locally applied noradrenaline or somatostatin. SNP did not affect slow EPSPs evoked by single stimuli, but depressed slow EPSPs evoked by stimulus trains. NOLA (100 muM) depressed IPSPs evoked by one to three stimulus pulses and enhanced slow EPSPs evoked by trains of two to three stimuli (30 Hz). SNP also increased the number of action potentials and the duration of firing evoked by prolonged (500 or 1000 ms) depolarizing current pulses, but NOLA had no consistent effect on action potential firing. We conclude that neurally released NO acts post-synaptically to enhance IPSPs and depress slow EPSPs, but may enhance the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Thus, NOS neurons may locally regulate several secretomotor pathways ending on common neurons.