Physiology - Research Publications

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    Response of 1,5-anhydroglucitol level to intensive glucose- and blood-pressure lowering interventions, and its associations with clinical outcomes in the ADVANCE trial
    Selvin, E ; Wang, D ; McEvoy, JW ; Juraschek, SP ; Lazo, M ; Hamet, P ; Cooper, ME ; Marre, M ; Williams, B ; Harrap, S ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M (WILEY, 2019-08-01)
    AIMS: To evaluate 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) according to clinical outcomes and assess the effects of glucose- and blood pressure-lowering interventions on change in 1,5-AG levels in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We measured 1,5-AG in 6826 stored samples at baseline and in a random subsample of 684 participants at the 1-year follow-up visit in the ADVANCE trial. We examined baseline 1,5-AG [< 39.7, 39.7-66.2, ≥ 66.2 μmol/L (<6, 6-10, ≥10 μg/mL)] and microvascular and macrovascular events and mortality using Cox regression models during 5 years of follow-up. Using an intention-to-treat approach, we examined 1-year change in 1,5-AG (mean and percent) in response to the glucose- and blood pressure-lowering interventions in the subsample. RESULTS: Low 1,5-AG level [<39.7 μmol/L vs ≥ 66.2 μmol/L (<6 μg/mL vs ≥10 μg/mL)] was associated with microvascular events (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.60) after adjustment for risk factors and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); however, the associations for macrovascular events and mortality were not independent of HbA1c. The glucose-lowering intervention was associated with a significant 1-year increase in 1,5-AG (vs standard control) of 6.69 μmol/L (SE 2.52) [1.01 μg/mL (SE 0.38)], corresponding to an 8.26% (SE 0.10%) increase from baseline. We also observed an increase in 1,5-AG of similar magnitude in response to the blood pressure intervention independent of the glucose-lowering effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 1,5-AG is a marker of risk in adults with type 2 diabetes, but only for microvascular events independently of HbA1c. We found that 1,5-AG was improved (increased) in response to an intensive glucose-lowering intervention, although the independent effect of the blood pressure-lowering intervention on 1,5-AG suggests potential non-glycaemic influences.
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    Use of the waist-to-height ratio to predict cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE-ON study
    Radholm, K ; Chalmers, J ; Ohkuma, T ; Peters, S ; Poulter, N ; Hamet, P ; Harrap, S ; Woodward, M (WILEY, 2018-08-01)
    AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central obesity has been particularly associated with this risk relationship. We aimed to evaluate waist to height ratio (WHtR) as a predictor of risk in such patients. METHODS: WHtR was evaluated as a predictor of the risk of CVD and mortality amongst 11 125 participants with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE and ADVANCE-ON studies, and was compared with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). Primary outcome was a composite of death from CVD, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death and death from any cause. Cox models were used, with bootstrapping to compare associations between anthropometric measures for the primary outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 9.0 years. There was a positive association between WHtR and adverse outcomes. The hazard ratio (HR) (confidence interval), per SD higher WHtR, was 1.16 (1.11-1.22) for the primary endpoint, with no heterogeneity by sex or region, but a stronger effect in individuals aged 66 years or older. The other 3 anthropometric measurements showed similar associations, although there was evidence that WHtR marginally outperformed BMI and WHR. Based on commonly used BMI cut-points, the equivalent WHtR cut-points were estimated to be 0.55 and 0.6, with no evidence of a difference across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes, WHtR is a useful indicator of future adverse risk, with similar effects in different population subgroups.
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    Sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes: TheADVANCE-ONstudy
    Ohkuma, T ; Peters, SAE ; Jun, M ; Harrap, S ; Cooper, M ; Hamet, P ; Poulter, N ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M (WILEY, 2020-07-01)
    AIM: To examine possible sex differences in the excess risk of myocardial infarction (MI) consequent to a range of conventional risk factors in a large-scale international cohort of patients with diabetes, and to quantify these potential differences both on the relative and absolute scales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven thousand and sixty-five participants (42% women) with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE trial and its post-trial follow-up study, ADVANCE-ON, were included. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between risk factors and MI (fatal and non-fatal) by sex, and the women-to-men ratio of HRs (RHR). RESULTS: Over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, 719 patients experienced MI. Smoking status, smoking intensity, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), HbA1c, total and LDL cholesterol, duration of diabetes, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI) and lower HDL cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of MI in both sexes. Furthermore, some variables were associated with a greater relative risk of MI in women than men: RHRs were 1.75 (95% CI: 1.05-2.91) for current smoking, 1.53 (1.00-2.32) for former smoking, 1.18 (1.02-1.37) for SBP, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.003-1.26) for duration of diabetes. Although incidence rates of MI were higher in men (9.3 per 1000 person-years) compared with women (5.8 per 1000 person-years), rate differences associated with risk factors were greater in women than men, except for HDL cholesterol and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, smoking, higher SBP and longer duration of diabetes had a greater relative and absolute effect in women than men, highlighting the importance of routine sex-specific approaches and early interventions in women with diabetes.
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    Genetic Loci for Retinal Arteriolar Microcirculation
    Sim, X ; Jensen, RA ; Ikram, MK ; Cotch, MF ; Li, X ; MacGregor, S ; Xie, J ; Smith, AV ; Boerwinkle, E ; Mitchell, P ; Klein, R ; Klein, BEK ; Glazer, NL ; Lumley, T ; McKnight, B ; Psaty, BM ; de Jong, PTVM ; Hofman, A ; Rivadeneira, F ; Uitterlinden, AG ; van Duijn, CM ; Aspelund, T ; Eiriksdottir, G ; Harris, TB ; Jonasson, F ; Launer, LJ ; Attia, J ; Baird, PN ; Harrap, S ; Holliday, EG ; Inouye, M ; Rochtchina, E ; Scott, RJ ; Viswanathan, A ; Li, G ; Smith, NL ; Wiggins, KL ; Kuo, JZ ; Taylor, KD ; Hewitt, AW ; Martin, NG ; Montgomery, GW ; Sun, C ; Young, TL ; Mackey, DA ; van Zuydam, NR ; Doney, ASF ; Palmer, CNA ; Morris, AD ; Rotter, JI ; Tai, ES ; Gudnason, V ; Vingerling, JR ; Siscovick, DS ; Wang, JJ ; Wong, TY ; Wallace, GR (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-06-12)
    Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in 18,722 unrelated individuals of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium and the Blue Mountain Eye Study, to identify genetic determinants associated with variations in retinal arteriolar caliber. Retinal vascular calibers were measured on digitized retinal photographs using a standardized protocol. One variant (rs2194025 on chromosome 5q14 near the myocyte enhancer factor 2C MEF2C gene) was associated with retinal arteriolar caliber in the meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts at genome-wide significance of P-value <5×10(-8). This variant was replicated in an additional 3,939 individuals of European ancestry from the Australian Twins Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (rs2194025, P-value = 2.11×10(-12) in combined meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts). In independent studies of modest sample sizes, no significant association was found between this variant and clinical outcomes including coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction or hypertension. In conclusion, we found one novel loci which underlie genetic variation in microvasculature which may be relevant to vascular disease. The relevance of these findings to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
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    Genetics of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease
    Katsuya, T ; Harrap, SB ; Ogihara, T (HINDAWI LTD, 2010-01-01)
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    Evidence from single nucleotide polymorphism analyses of ADVANCE study demonstrates EFNB3 as a hypertension risk gene
    Tremblay, J ; Wang, Y ; Raelson, J ; Marois-Blanchet, F-C ; Wu, Z ; Luo, H ; Bradley, E ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M ; Harrap, S ; Hamet, P ; Wu, J (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-03-08)
    EPH kinases and their ligands, ephrins (EFNs), have vital and diverse biological functions. We recently reported that Efnb3 gene deletion results in hypertension in female but not male mice. These data suggest that EFNB3 regulates blood pressure in a sex- and sex hormone-dependent way. In the present study, we conducted a human genetic study to assess the association of EFNB3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with human hypertension risks, using 3,448 patients with type 2 diabetes from the ADVANCE study (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Peterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation). We have observed significant association between 2 SNPs in the 3' untranslated region or within the adjacent region just 3' of the EFNB3 gene with hypertension, corroborating our findings from the mouse model. Thus, our investigation has shown that EFNB3 is a hypertension risk gene in certain individuals.
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    PROX1 gene CC genotype as a major determinant of early onset of type 2 diabetes in slavic study participants from Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation study
    Hamet, P ; Haloui, M ; Harvey, F ; Marois-Blanchet, F-C ; Sylvestre, M-P ; Tahir, M-R ; Simon, PHG ; Kanzki, BS ; Raelson, J ; Long, C ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M ; Marre, M ; Harrap, S ; Tremblay, J (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017-05-01)
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies according to ethnicity. Environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to the heterogeneity in the presentation of diabetic nephropathy. Our objective was to evaluate this heterogeneity within the Caucasian population. METHODS: The geo-ethnic origin of the 3409 genotyped Caucasian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation was determined using principal component analysis. Genome-wide association studies analyses of age of onset of T2D were performed for geo-ethnic groups separately and combined. RESULTS: The first principal component separated the Caucasian study participants into Slavic and Celtic ethnic origins. Age of onset of diabetes was significantly lower in Slavic patients (P = 7.3 × 10), whereas the prevalence of hypertension (P = 4.9 × 10) and albuminuria (5.1 × 10) were significantly higher. Age of onset of T2D and albuminuria appear to have an important genetic component as the values of these traits were also different between Slavic and Celtic individuals living in the same countries. Common and geo-ethnic-specific loci were found to be associated to age of onset of diabetes. Among the latter, the PROX1/PROX1-AS1 genes (rs340841) had the highest impact. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs340841 CC genotype was associated with a 4.4 year earlier onset of T2D in Slavic patients living or not in countries with predominant Slavic populations. CONCLUSION: These results reveal the presence of distinct genetic architectures between Caucasian ethnic groups that likely have clinical relevance, among them PROX1 gene is a strong candidate of early onset of diabetes with variations depending on ethnicity.
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    Comparative effects of microvascular and macrovascular disease on the risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Mohammedi, K ; Woodward, M ; Marre, M ; Colagiuri, S ; Cooper, M ; Harrap, S ; Mancia, G ; Poulter, N ; Williams, B ; Zoungas, S ; Chalmers, J (BMC, 2017-07-27)
    BACKGROUND: Microvascular disease is associated with a high risk of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the impact of macrovascular disease on the risk of microvascular events remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the respective effects of prior microvascular and macrovascular disease on the risk of major outcomes, including microvascular events, in these patients. METHODS: Participants in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial (n = 11,140) and the ADVANCE-ON post-trial study (n = 8494) were categorized into 4 groups at baseline: dual absence of microvascular or macrovascular disease (n = 6789), presence of microvascular disease alone (n = 761), macrovascular disease alone (n = 3196), and both (n = 394). Outcomes were all-cause mortality, major macrovascular events (MACE), and major clinical microvascular events. RESULTS: All-cause mortality, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events occurred in 2265 (20%), 2166 (19%), and 807 (7%) participants respectively, during a median follow-up of 9.9 (inter-quartile interval 5.6-10.9) years. The adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] of death, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events were each greater in patients with baseline microvascular disease (1.43 [1.20-1.71], 1.64 [1.37-1.97], and 4.74 [3.86-5.82], respectively), macrovascular disease (1.43 [1.30-1.57], 2.04 [1.86-2.25], and 1.26 [1.06-1.51]) or both (2.01 [1.65-2.45], 2.92 [2.40-3.55], and 6.30 [4.93-8.06]) compared with those without these conditions. No interaction was observed between baseline microvascular and macrovascular disease for these events. The addition of microvascular disease (change in c-statistic [95% CI] 0.005 [0.002-0.008], p = 0.02) or macrovascular disease (0.005 [0.002-0.007], p < 0.0001) considered separately or together (0.011 [0.007-0.014], p < 0.0001) improved the discrimination and the classification (integrated discrimination improvement (IDI): 0.013 [0.010-0.016], p < 0.001; net reclassification improvement (NRI): 0.021 [0.011-0.032], p < 0.001) of the risk of all-cause mortality. Microvascular disease improved discrimination (0.009 [0.003-0.014]) and classification (IDI: 0.008 [0.006-0.010]; NRI: 0.011 [0.001-0.020]) of MACE. Baseline macrovascular disease modestly enhanced IDI (0.002 [0.001-0.002]) and NRI (0.041 [0.002-0.087]), but not discrimination, of major clinical microvascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular and macrovascular disease are independently associated with the 10-year risk of death, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The coexistence of these conditions was associated with the highest risks.
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    Cardiomyocyte Functional Etiology in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Is Distinctive-A New Preclinical Model
    Curl, CL ; Danes, VR ; Bell, JR ; Raaijmakers, AJA ; Ip, WTK ; Chandramouli, C ; Harding, TW ; Porrello, ER ; Erickson, JR ; Charchar, FJ ; Kompa, AR ; Edgley, AJ ; Crossman, DJ ; Soeller, C ; Mellor, KM ; Kalman, JM ; Harrap, S ; Delbridge, LMD (WILEY, 2018-06-05)
    BACKGROUND: Among the growing numbers of patients with heart failure, up to one half have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The lack of effective treatments for HFpEF is a substantial and escalating unmet clinical need-and the lack of HFpEF-specific animal models represents a major preclinical barrier in advancing understanding of HFpEF. As established treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have proven ineffective for HFpEF, the contention that the intrinsic cardiomyocyte phenotype is distinct in these 2 conditions requires consideration. Our goal was to validate and characterize a new rodent model of HFpEF, undertaking longitudinal investigations to delineate the associated cardiac and cardiomyocyte pathophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: The selectively inbred Hypertrophic Heart Rat (HHR) strain exhibits adult cardiac enlargement (without hypertension) and premature death (40% mortality at 50 weeks) compared to its control strain, the normal heart rat. Hypertrophy was characterized in vivo by maintained systolic parameters (ejection fraction at 85%-90% control) with marked diastolic dysfunction (increased E/E'). Surprisingly, HHR cardiomyocytes were hypercontractile, exhibiting high Ca2+ operational levels and markedly increased L-type Ca2+ channel current. In HHR, prominent regions of reparative fibrosis in the left ventricle free wall adjacent to the interventricular septum were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the cardiomyocyte remodeling process in the etiology of this HFpEF model contrasts dramatically with the suppressed Ca2+ cycling state that typifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. These findings may explain clinical observations, that treatments considered appropriate for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are of little benefit for HFpEF-and suggest a basis for new therapeutic strategies.
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    Hypertension and renin-angiotensin system blockers are not associated with expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the kidney
    Jiang, X ; Eales, JM ; Scannali, D ; Nazgiewicz, A ; Prestes, P ; Maier, M ; Denniff, M ; Xu, X ; Saluja, S ; Cano-Gamez, E ; Wystrychowski, W ; Szulinska, M ; Antczak, A ; Byars, S ; Skrypnik, D ; Glyda, M ; Krol, R ; Zywiec, J ; Zukowska-Szczechowska, E ; Burrell, LM ; Woolf, AS ; Greenstein, A ; Bogdanski, P ; Keavney, B ; Morris, AP ; Heagerty, A ; Williams, B ; Harrap, SB ; Trynka, G ; Samani, NJ ; Guzik, TJ ; Charchar, FJ ; Tomaszewski, M (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-12-21)
    AIMS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular entry point for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the effect of renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-inhibition on ACE2 expression in human tissues of key relevance to blood pressure regulation and COVID-19 infection has not previously been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined how hypertension, its major metabolic co-phenotypes, and antihypertensive medications relate to ACE2 renal expression using information from up to 436 patients whose kidney transcriptomes were characterized by RNA-sequencing. We further validated some of the key observations in other human tissues and/or a controlled experimental model. Our data reveal increasing expression of ACE2 with age in both human lungs and the kidney. We show no association between renal expression of ACE2 and either hypertension or common types of RAS inhibiting drugs. We demonstrate that renal abundance of ACE2 is positively associated with a biochemical index of kidney function and show a strong enrichment for genes responsible for kidney health and disease in ACE2 co-expression analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that neither hypertension nor antihypertensive treatment is likely to alter the expression of the key entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in the human kidney. Our data further suggest that in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, kidney ACE2 is most likely nephro-protective but the age-related increase in its expression within lungs and kidneys may be relevant to the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.