Physiology - Research Publications
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ItemUse of the waist-to-height ratio to predict cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE-ON studyRadholm, K ; Chalmers, J ; Ohkuma, T ; Peters, S ; Poulter, N ; Hamet, P ; Harrap, S ; Woodward, M (WILEY, 2018-08-01)AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central obesity has been particularly associated with this risk relationship. We aimed to evaluate waist to height ratio (WHtR) as a predictor of risk in such patients. METHODS: WHtR was evaluated as a predictor of the risk of CVD and mortality amongst 11 125 participants with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE and ADVANCE-ON studies, and was compared with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). Primary outcome was a composite of death from CVD, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death and death from any cause. Cox models were used, with bootstrapping to compare associations between anthropometric measures for the primary outcome. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 9.0 years. There was a positive association between WHtR and adverse outcomes. The hazard ratio (HR) (confidence interval), per SD higher WHtR, was 1.16 (1.11-1.22) for the primary endpoint, with no heterogeneity by sex or region, but a stronger effect in individuals aged 66 years or older. The other 3 anthropometric measurements showed similar associations, although there was evidence that WHtR marginally outperformed BMI and WHR. Based on commonly used BMI cut-points, the equivalent WHtR cut-points were estimated to be 0.55 and 0.6, with no evidence of a difference across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes, WHtR is a useful indicator of future adverse risk, with similar effects in different population subgroups.
ItemEvidence from single nucleotide polymorphism analyses of ADVANCE study demonstrates EFNB3 as a hypertension risk geneTremblay, J ; Wang, Y ; Raelson, J ; Marois-Blanchet, F-C ; Wu, Z ; Luo, H ; Bradley, E ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M ; Harrap, S ; Hamet, P ; Wu, J (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-03-08)EPH kinases and their ligands, ephrins (EFNs), have vital and diverse biological functions. We recently reported that Efnb3 gene deletion results in hypertension in female but not male mice. These data suggest that EFNB3 regulates blood pressure in a sex- and sex hormone-dependent way. In the present study, we conducted a human genetic study to assess the association of EFNB3 single nucleotide polymorphisms with human hypertension risks, using 3,448 patients with type 2 diabetes from the ADVANCE study (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Peterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation). We have observed significant association between 2 SNPs in the 3' untranslated region or within the adjacent region just 3' of the EFNB3 gene with hypertension, corroborating our findings from the mouse model. Thus, our investigation has shown that EFNB3 is a hypertension risk gene in certain individuals.
ItemPROX1 gene CC genotype as a major determinant of early onset of type 2 diabetes in slavic study participants from Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation studyHamet, P ; Haloui, M ; Harvey, F ; Marois-Blanchet, F-C ; Sylvestre, M-P ; Tahir, M-R ; Simon, PHG ; Kanzki, BS ; Raelson, J ; Long, C ; Chalmers, J ; Woodward, M ; Marre, M ; Harrap, S ; Tremblay, J (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017-05-01)BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies according to ethnicity. Environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to the heterogeneity in the presentation of diabetic nephropathy. Our objective was to evaluate this heterogeneity within the Caucasian population. METHODS: The geo-ethnic origin of the 3409 genotyped Caucasian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients of Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation was determined using principal component analysis. Genome-wide association studies analyses of age of onset of T2D were performed for geo-ethnic groups separately and combined. RESULTS: The first principal component separated the Caucasian study participants into Slavic and Celtic ethnic origins. Age of onset of diabetes was significantly lower in Slavic patients (P = 7.3 × 10), whereas the prevalence of hypertension (P = 4.9 × 10) and albuminuria (5.1 × 10) were significantly higher. Age of onset of T2D and albuminuria appear to have an important genetic component as the values of these traits were also different between Slavic and Celtic individuals living in the same countries. Common and geo-ethnic-specific loci were found to be associated to age of onset of diabetes. Among the latter, the PROX1/PROX1-AS1 genes (rs340841) had the highest impact. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs340841 CC genotype was associated with a 4.4 year earlier onset of T2D in Slavic patients living or not in countries with predominant Slavic populations. CONCLUSION: These results reveal the presence of distinct genetic architectures between Caucasian ethnic groups that likely have clinical relevance, among them PROX1 gene is a strong candidate of early onset of diabetes with variations depending on ethnicity.
ItemComparative effects of microvascular and macrovascular disease on the risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetesMohammedi, K ; Woodward, M ; Marre, M ; Colagiuri, S ; Cooper, M ; Harrap, S ; Mancia, G ; Poulter, N ; Williams, B ; Zoungas, S ; Chalmers, J (BMC, 2017-07-27)BACKGROUND: Microvascular disease is associated with a high risk of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the impact of macrovascular disease on the risk of microvascular events remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the respective effects of prior microvascular and macrovascular disease on the risk of major outcomes, including microvascular events, in these patients. METHODS: Participants in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial (n = 11,140) and the ADVANCE-ON post-trial study (n = 8494) were categorized into 4 groups at baseline: dual absence of microvascular or macrovascular disease (n = 6789), presence of microvascular disease alone (n = 761), macrovascular disease alone (n = 3196), and both (n = 394). Outcomes were all-cause mortality, major macrovascular events (MACE), and major clinical microvascular events. RESULTS: All-cause mortality, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events occurred in 2265 (20%), 2166 (19%), and 807 (7%) participants respectively, during a median follow-up of 9.9 (inter-quartile interval 5.6-10.9) years. The adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] of death, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events were each greater in patients with baseline microvascular disease (1.43 [1.20-1.71], 1.64 [1.37-1.97], and 4.74 [3.86-5.82], respectively), macrovascular disease (1.43 [1.30-1.57], 2.04 [1.86-2.25], and 1.26 [1.06-1.51]) or both (2.01 [1.65-2.45], 2.92 [2.40-3.55], and 6.30 [4.93-8.06]) compared with those without these conditions. No interaction was observed between baseline microvascular and macrovascular disease for these events. The addition of microvascular disease (change in c-statistic [95% CI] 0.005 [0.002-0.008], p = 0.02) or macrovascular disease (0.005 [0.002-0.007], p < 0.0001) considered separately or together (0.011 [0.007-0.014], p < 0.0001) improved the discrimination and the classification (integrated discrimination improvement (IDI): 0.013 [0.010-0.016], p < 0.001; net reclassification improvement (NRI): 0.021 [0.011-0.032], p < 0.001) of the risk of all-cause mortality. Microvascular disease improved discrimination (0.009 [0.003-0.014]) and classification (IDI: 0.008 [0.006-0.010]; NRI: 0.011 [0.001-0.020]) of MACE. Baseline macrovascular disease modestly enhanced IDI (0.002 [0.001-0.002]) and NRI (0.041 [0.002-0.087]), but not discrimination, of major clinical microvascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular and macrovascular disease are independently associated with the 10-year risk of death, MACE, and major clinical microvascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The coexistence of these conditions was associated with the highest risks.
ItemCardiomyocyte Functional Etiology in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Is Distinctive-A New Preclinical ModelCurl, CL ; Danes, VR ; Bell, JR ; Raaijmakers, AJA ; Ip, WTK ; Chandramouli, C ; Harding, TW ; Porrello, ER ; Erickson, JR ; Charchar, FJ ; Kompa, AR ; Edgley, AJ ; Crossman, DJ ; Soeller, C ; Mellor, KM ; Kalman, JM ; Harrap, S ; Delbridge, LMD (WILEY, 2018-06-05)BACKGROUND: Among the growing numbers of patients with heart failure, up to one half have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The lack of effective treatments for HFpEF is a substantial and escalating unmet clinical need-and the lack of HFpEF-specific animal models represents a major preclinical barrier in advancing understanding of HFpEF. As established treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have proven ineffective for HFpEF, the contention that the intrinsic cardiomyocyte phenotype is distinct in these 2 conditions requires consideration. Our goal was to validate and characterize a new rodent model of HFpEF, undertaking longitudinal investigations to delineate the associated cardiac and cardiomyocyte pathophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: The selectively inbred Hypertrophic Heart Rat (HHR) strain exhibits adult cardiac enlargement (without hypertension) and premature death (40% mortality at 50 weeks) compared to its control strain, the normal heart rat. Hypertrophy was characterized in vivo by maintained systolic parameters (ejection fraction at 85%-90% control) with marked diastolic dysfunction (increased E/E'). Surprisingly, HHR cardiomyocytes were hypercontractile, exhibiting high Ca2+ operational levels and markedly increased L-type Ca2+ channel current. In HHR, prominent regions of reparative fibrosis in the left ventricle free wall adjacent to the interventricular septum were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the cardiomyocyte remodeling process in the etiology of this HFpEF model contrasts dramatically with the suppressed Ca2+ cycling state that typifies heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. These findings may explain clinical observations, that treatments considered appropriate for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are of little benefit for HFpEF-and suggest a basis for new therapeutic strategies.
ItemGenetic Variation in Kruppel like Factor 15 Is Associated with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Discovery and Replication CohortsPatel, SK ; Wai, B ; Lang, CC ; Levin, D ; Palmer, CNA ; Parry, HM ; Velkoska, E ; Harrap, SB ; Srivastava, PM ; Burrell, LM (ELSEVIER, 2017-04-01)Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is a heritable trait that is common in type 2 diabetes and is associated with the development of heart failure. The transcriptional factor Kruppel like factor 15 (KLF15) is expressed in the heart and acts as a repressor of cardiac hypertrophy in experimental models. This study investigated if KLF15 gene variants were associated with LVH in type 2 diabetes. In stage 1 of a 2-stage approach, patients with type 2 diabetes and no known cardiac disease were prospectively recruited for a transthoracic echocardiographic assessment (Melbourne Diabetes Heart Cohort) (n=318) and genotyping of two KLF15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs9838915, rs6796325). In stage 2, the association of KLF15 SNPs with LVH was investigated in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (Go-DARTS) type 2 diabetes cohort (n=5631). The KLF15 SNP rs9838915 A allele was associated in a dominant manner with LV mass before (P=0.003) and after (P=0.001) adjustment for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension, and with adjusted septal (P<0.0001) and posterior (P=0.004) wall thickness. LVH was present in 35% of patients. Over a median follow up of 5.6years, there were 22 (7%) first heart failure hospitalizations. The adjusted risk of heart failure hospitalization was 5.5-fold greater in those with LVH and the rs9838915 A allele compared to those without LVH and the GG genotype (hazard ratio (HR) 5.5 (1.6-18.6), P=0.006). The association of rs9838915 A allele with LVH was replicated in the Go-DARTS cohort. We have identified the KLF15 SNP rs9838915 A allele as a marker of LVH in patients with type 2 diabetes, and replicated these findings in a large independent cohort. Studies are needed to characterize the functional importance of these results, and to determine if the SNP rs9838915 A allele is associated with LVH in other high risk patient cohorts.
ItemExperimental and Human Evidence for Lipocalin-2 (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin [NGAL]) in the Development of Cardiac Hypertrophy and heart failureMarques, FZ ; Prestes, PR ; Byars, SG ; Ritchie, SC ; Wurtz, P ; Patel, SK ; Booth, SA ; Rana, I ; Minoda, Y ; Berzins, SP ; Curl, CL ; Bell, JR ; Wai, B ; Srivastava, PM ; Kangas, AJ ; Soininen, P ; Ruohonen, S ; Kahonen, M ; Lehtimaki, T ; Raitoharju, E ; Havulinna, A ; Perola, M ; Raitakari, O ; Salomaa, V ; Ala-Korpela, M ; Kettunen, J ; McGlynn, M ; Kelly, J ; Wlodek, ME ; Lewandowski, PA ; Delbridge, LM ; Burrell, LM ; Inouye, M ; Harrap, SB ; Charchar, FJ (WILEY, 2017-06-01)BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular death. The neutrophil inflammatory protein, lipocalin-2 (LCN2/NGAL), is elevated in certain forms of cardiac hypertrophy and acute heart failure. However, a specific role for LCN2 in predisposition and etiology of hypertrophy and the relevant genetic determinants are unclear. Here, we defined the role of LCN2 in concentric cardiac hypertrophy in terms of pathophysiology, inflammatory expression networks, and genomic determinants. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 3 experimental models: a polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, a model of intrauterine growth restriction and Lcn2-knockout mouse; cultured cardiomyocytes; and 2 human cohorts: 114 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 2064 healthy subjects of the YFS (Young Finns Study). In hypertrophic heart rats, cardiac and circulating Lcn2 was significantly overexpressed before, during, and after development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Lcn2 expression was increased in hypertrophic hearts in a model of intrauterine growth restriction, whereas Lcn2-knockout mice had smaller hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Lcn2 activated molecular hypertrophic pathways and increased cell size, but reduced proliferation and cell numbers. Increased LCN2 was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. In the YFS, LCN2 expression was associated with body mass index and cardiac mass and with levels of inflammatory markers. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs13297295, located near LCN2 defined a significant cis-eQTL for LCN2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Direct effects of LCN2 on cardiomyocyte size and number and the consistent associations in experimental and human analyses reveal a central role for LCN2 in the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.