Physiology - Research Publications

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    Luminal cholera toxin alters motility in isolated guinea-pig jejunum via a pathway independent of 5-HT3 receptors
    Fung, C ; Ellis, M ; Bornstein, JC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2010-01-01)
    Cholera toxin (CT) is well established to produce diarrhea by producing hyperactivity of the enteric neural circuits that regulate water and electrolyte secretion. Its effects on intestinal motor patterns are less well understood. We examined the effects of luminal CT on motor activity of guinea-pig jejunum in vitro. Segments of jejunum were cannulated at either end and mounted horizontally. Their contractile activity was video-imaged and the recordings were used to construct spatiotemporal maps of contractile activity with CT (1.25 or 12.5 μg/ml) in the lumen. Both concentrations of CT induced propulsive motor activity in jejunal segments. The effect of 1.25 μg/ml CT was markedly enhanced by co-incubation with granisetron (5-HT(3) antagonist, 1 μM), which prevents the hypersecretion induced by CT. The increased propulsive activity was not accompanied by increased segmentation and occurred very early after exposure to CT in the presence of granisetron. Luminal CT also reduced the pressure threshold for saline distension evoked propulsive reflexes, an effect resistant to granisetron. In contrast, CT prevented the induction of segmenting contractions by luminal decanoic acid, so its effects on propulsive and segmenting contractile activity are distinctly different. Thus, in addition to producing hypersecretion, CT excites propulsive motor activity with an entirely different time course and pharmacology, but inhibits nutrient-induced segmentation. This suggests that CT excites more than one enteric neural circuit and that propulsive and segmenting motor patterns are differentially regulated.
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    Transmission to Interneurons Is via Slow Excitatory Synaptic Potentials Mediated by P2Y(1) Receptors during Descending Inhibition in Guinea-Pig Ileum
    Thornton, PDJ ; Gwynne, RM ; McMillan, DJ ; Bornstein, JC ; Weber, CR (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013-02-07)
    BACKGROUND: The nature of synaptic transmission at functionally distinct synapses in intestinal reflex pathways has not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated whether transmission between interneurons in the descending inhibitory pathway is mediated by a purine acting at P2Y receptors to produce slow excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myenteric neurons from guinea-pig ileum in vitro were impaled with intracellular microelectrodes. Responses to distension 15 mm oral to the recording site, in a separately perfused stimulation chamber and to electrical stimulation of local nerve trunks were recorded. A subset of neurons, previously identified as nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive descending interneurons, responded to both stimuli with slow EPSPs that were reversibly abolished by a high concentration of PPADS (30 μM, P2 receptor antagonist). When added to the central chamber of a three chambered organ bath, PPADS concentration-dependently depressed transmission through that chamber of descending inhibitory reflexes, measured as inhibitory junction potentials in the circular muscle of the anal chamber. Reflexes evoked by distension in the central chamber were unaffected. A similar depression of transmission was seen when the specific P2Y(1) receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) was in the central chamber. Blocking either nicotinic receptors (hexamethonium 200 μM) or 5-HT(3) receptors (granisetron 1 μM) together with P2 receptors had no greater effect than blocking P2 receptors alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Slow EPSPs mediated by P2Y(1) receptors, play a primary role in transmission between descending interneurons of the inhibitory reflexes in the guinea-pig ileum. This is the first demonstration for a primary role of excitatory metabotropic receptors in physiological transmission at a functionally identified synapse.
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    VPAC Receptor Subtypes Tune Purinergic Neuron-to-Glia Communication in the Murine Submucosal Plexus
    Fung, C ; Boesmans, W ; Cirillo, C ; Foong, JPP ; Bornstein, JC ; Vanden Berghe, P (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-04-25)
    The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood. We investigated this in the submucosal plexus of mouse jejunum using calcium (Ca2+)-imaging. Local VIP application induced Ca2+-transients primarily in neurons and these were inhibited by VPAC1- and VPAC2-antagonists (PG 99-269 and PG 99-465 respectively). These VIP-evoked neural Ca2+-transients were also inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that they were secondary to action potential generation. Surprisingly, VIP induced Ca2+-transients in glia in the presence of the VPAC2 antagonist. Further, selective VPAC1 receptor activation with the agonist ([K15, R16, L27]VIP(1-7)/GRF(8-27)) predominantly evoked glial responses. However, VPAC1-immunoreactivity did not colocalize with the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Rather, VPAC1 expression was found on cholinergic submucosal neurons and nerve fibers. This suggests that glial responses observed were secondary to neuronal activation. Trains of electrical stimuli were applied to fiber tracts to induce endogenous VIP release. Delayed glial responses were evoked when the VPAC2 antagonist was present. These findings support the presence of an intrinsic VIP/VPAC-initiated neuron-to-glia signaling pathway. VPAC1 agonist-evoked glial responses were inhibited by purinergic antagonists (PPADS and MRS2179), thus demonstrating the involvement of P2Y1 receptors. Collectively, we showed that neurally-released VIP can activate neurons expressing VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors to modulate purine-release onto glia. Selective VPAC1 activation evokes a glial response, whereas VPAC2 receptors may act to inhibit this response. Thus, we identified a component of an enteric neuron-glia circuit that is fine-tuned by endogenous VIP acting through VPAC1- and VPAC2-mediated pathways.
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    Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum
    Koussoulas, K ; Gwynne, RM ; Foong, JPP ; Bornstein, JC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-04-27)
    Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT)-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS). AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs), are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons. Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml) or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode. Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29) was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24), but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27) were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6) or in its absence (n = 5). Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist), but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist) or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih . Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the activity of the afferent limb of the enteric reflex circuitry.
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    Calcium Sensing Receptors Mediate Local Inhibitory Reflexes Evoked by L-Phenylalanine in Guinea Pig Jejunum
    Gwynne, RM ; Ly, KDKN ; Parry, LJ ; Bornstein, JC (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-12-04)
    Amino acids applied to the mucosa evoke inhibitory reflexes in guinea-pig jejunum, but the receptors involved in sensory transduction are still unclear. One promising candidate is the extracellular calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed by mucosal enteroendocrine cells and is preferentially activated by aromatic L-amino acids. We tested this by applying various amino acids to the mucosa and recording the resulting inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in nearby circular smooth muscle via intracellular recording. The CaSR is stereospecific and L-Phenylalanine evoked a significantly larger response than D-Phenylalanine when both were applied to the same site. The same pattern was seen with L- and D-Tryptophan, another aromatic amino acid. The CaSR is preferentially activated by aromatic amino acids and responses to L-Leucine and L-Lysine were significantly lower than those to L-Phenylalanine applied to the same site. Responses to L-Phenylalanine were dose-dependently suppressed by blockade of the CaSR with NPS2143, a CaSR antagonist, and mimicked by mucosal application of cinacalcet, a CaSR agonist. Responses to cinacalcet had similar pharmacology to that of responses to L-Phenylalanine, in that each requires both P2 purinoreceptors and 5-HT receptors. L-Glutamate evoked IJPs similar to those produced by L-Phenylalanine and these were depressed by blockade of P2 receptors and 5-HT3 plus 5-HT4 receptors, but NPS2143 was ineffective. The AMPA receptor antagonists DNQX (10 μM) and CNQX (10 μM) reduced IJPs evoked by L-Glutamate by 88 and 79% respectively, but neither BAY367260 (mGluR5 antagonist) nor 2APV (NMDA antagonist) affected IJPs evoked by L-Glutamate. We conclude that local inhibitory reflexes evoked by aromatic L-amino acids in guinea pig jejunum involve activation of CaSRs which triggers release of ATP and 5-HT from the mucosa. L-Glutamate also evokes inhibitory reflexes, via a pathway that does not involve CaSRs. It is likely there are multiple receptors acting as sensory transducers for different luminal amino acids.
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    Neurally Released GABA Acts via GABA(C) Receptors to Modulate Ca2+ Transients Evoked by Trains of Synaptic Inputs, but Not Responses Evoked by Single Stimuli, in Myenteric Neurons of Mouse Ileum
    Koussoulas, K ; Swaminathan, M ; Fung, C ; Bornstein, JC ; Foong, JPP (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-02-13)
    γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its receptors, GABAA,B,C, are expressed in several locations along the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, a role for GABA in enteric synaptic transmission remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the expression and function of GABA in the myenteric plexus of the mouse ileum. About 8% of all myenteric neurons were found to be GABA-immunoreactive (GABA+) including some Calretinin+ and some neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) neurons. We used Wnt1-Cre;R26R-GCaMP3 mice, which express a genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator in all enteric neurons and glia. Exogenous GABA increased the intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i of some myenteric neurons including many that did not express GABA or nNOS (the majority), some GABA+, Calretinin+ or Neurofilament-M (NFM)+ but rarely nNOS+ neurons. GABA+ terminals contacted a significantly larger proportion of the cell body surface area of Calretinin+ neurons than of nNOS+ neurons. Numbers of neurons with GABA-induced [Ca2+]i transients were reduced by GABAA,B,C and nicotinic receptor blockade. Electrical stimulation of interganglionic fiber tracts was used to examine possible effects of endogenous GABA release. [Ca2+]i transients evoked by single pulses were unaffected by specific antagonists for each of the 3 GABA receptor subtypes. [Ca2+]i transients evoked by 20 pulse trains were significantly amplified by GABAC receptor blockade. These data suggest that GABAA and GABAB receptors are not involved in synaptic transmission, but suggest a novel role for GABAC receptors in modulating slow synaptic transmission, as indicated by changes in [Ca2+]i transients, within the ENS.
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    Endogenous Glutamate Excites Myenteric Calbindin Neurons by Activating Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Mouse Colon
    Swaminathan, M ; Hill-Yardin, EL ; Bornstein, JC ; Foong, JPP (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-05-01)
    Glutamate is a classic excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), but despite several studies reporting the expression of glutamate together with its various receptors and transporters within the enteric nervous system (ENS), its role in the gut remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGluT2, and examined the function of glutamate in the myenteric plexus of the distal colon by employing calcium (Ca2+)-imaging on Wnt1-Cre; R26R-GCaMP3 mice which express a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca2+ indicator in all enteric neurons and glia. Most vGluT2 labeled varicosities contained the synaptic vesicle release protein, synaptophysin, but not vesicular acetylcholine transporter, vAChT, which labels vesicles containing acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the ENS. The somata of all calbindin (calb) immunoreactive neurons examined received close contacts from vGluT2 varicosities, which were more numerous than those contacting nitrergic neurons. Exogenous application of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) transiently increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in about 25% of myenteric neurons. Most L-Glu responsive neurons were calb immunoreactive. Blockade of NMDA receptors with APV significantly reduced the number of neurons responsive to L-Glu and NMDA, thus showing functional expression of NMDA receptors on enteric neurons. However, APV resistant responses to L-Glu and NMDA suggest that other glutamate receptors were present. APV did not affect [Ca2+]i transients evoked by electrical stimulation of interganglionic nerve fiber tracts, which suggests that NMDA receptors are not involved in synaptic transmission. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, PHCCC, significantly reduced the amplitude of [Ca2+]i transients evoked by a 20 pulse (20 Hz) train of electrical stimuli in L-Glu responsive neurons. This stimulus is known to induce slow synaptic depolarizations. Further, some neurons that had PHCCC sensitive [Ca2+]i transients were calb immunoreactive and received vGluT2 varicosities. Overall, we conclude that electrically evoked release of endogenous glutamate mediates slow synaptic transmission via activation of group I mGluRs expressed by myenteric neurons, particularly those immunoreactive for calb.
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    Neonatal Antibiotics Disrupt Motility and Enteric Neural Circuits in Mouse Colon
    Hung, LY ; Boonma, P ; Unterweger, P ; Parathan, P ; Haag, A ; Luna, RA ; Bornstein, JC ; Savidge, TC ; Foong, JPP (ELSEVIER INC, 2019-01-01)
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    Gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients and mice expressing the autism-associated R451C mutation in neuroligin-3
    Hosie, S ; Ellis, M ; Swaminathan, M ; Ramalhosa, F ; Seger, GO ; Balasuriya, GK ; Gillberg, C ; Rastam, M ; Churilov, L ; McKeown, SJ ; Yalcinkaya, N ; Urvil, P ; Savidge, T ; Bell, CA ; Bodin, O ; Wood, J ; Franks, AE ; Bornstein, JC ; Hill-Yardin, EL (WILEY, 2019-07-01)
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    Colonic dilation and altered ex vivo gastrointestinal motility in the neuroligin-3 knockout mouse
    Leembruggen, AJL ; Balasuriya, GK ; Zhang, J ; Schokman, S ; Swiderski, K ; Bornstein, JC ; Nithianantharajah, J ; Hill-Yardin, EL (WILEY, 2020-05-01)